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Listed  100 (total found 162)  sub titles with search on: Information about the place
for wider area of: "FTHIOTIDA , Prefecture , GREECE " .
Information about the place (159)
   Ancient cities non located (7)
   Boundaries (4)
   Commercial WebPages (4)
   Commercial WebSites (1)
   Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith) (49)
   Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (30)
   Individuals' pages (1)
   Links (1)
   Local government Web-Sites (5)
   Local government WebPages (7)
   Maps (1)
   Ministry of Culture WebPages (1)
   Names of the place (1)
   Orevatein WebPages (1)
   Perseus Encyclopedia Site Text (1)
   Perseus Project (6)
   Perseus Project index (15)
   Present location (3)
   The Catholic Encyclopedia (3)
   The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (18)

Information about the place (162)

 Ancient cities non located

ANTHILI (Ancient city) LAMIA

Anthele
Perhaps, it is situated near Thermopylai.

EGOSTIS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Egostis
The city is mentioned by Stephanos Byzantios and it hasn't been identified yet.

ENIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Enia
The ancient city is mentioned by Stephanos Byzantios. Enia hasn't been identified yet but it is suggested that it is located near the ancient city of Hypata.

HELLAS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIS

Hellas
It was located between the rivers Enipeus and Asopus and was the seat of Achilles, who, afterwards, named Hellas the whole country.

SPERCHIES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Sperchies
Livius places the city near the sources of the Spercheios river (Liv. XXXII, 13).

TARFI (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Pharygae
Ragavis suggests that Pharygae was probably the ancient city of Naryx. Tarphe was near the Mt. Cnede.

XYNIA (Ancient city) YPATI

Xynia
It was located to the E of the homonymous lake.
 Boundaries

GOULINAS (Mountain) FTHIOTIDA

KALLIDROMO (Mountain) FTHIOTIDA

The Asopos river flows to the W of the Mt. Kallidromon.

OITI (Mountain) FTHIOTIDA

OTHRYS (Mountain chain) STEREA HELLAS

 Commercial WebPages

AMFIKLIA (Small town) LOKRIDA

(Following URL information in Greek only)
http://www.karyatis.gr/amfikleia/page1/page_rig_am...

DIKASTRON (Village) FTHIOTIDA

http://dikastro-f8iwtidas.8m.com/

MAKRAKOMI (Small town) FTHIOTIDA

http://www.softlab.ntua.gr/~nkir/Makrakomi/

OPOUS (Municipality) FTHIOTIDA

http://www.martino.8m.com
 Commercial WebSites

LAMIA (Town) FTHIOTIDA

http://www.e-lamia.gr
 Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

ALES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Halae
A town situated upon the Opuntian gulf, but belonging to Boeotia in the time of Strabo and Pausanias. It is described by Pausanias as situated to the right of the river Platanius, and as the last town of Boeotia. It probably derived its name from some salt springs which are still found in its neighbourhood. Leake places it on the cape which projects to the northward beyond Malesina and Proskyna, where some ruins are said to exist at a church of St. John Theologus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

ALOPI (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Alope
Eth. Alopites, Alopeus. A town of the Opuntian Locrians on the coast between Daphnus and Cynus. Its ruins have been discovered by Gell on an insulated hill near the shore.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

ALOPI (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Alope
Eth. Alopites, Alopeus. A town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, placed by Stephanus between Larissa Cremaste and Echinus. There was a dispute among the ancient critics whether this town was the same as the Alope in Homer.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

ALPINI (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Alpeni
Alpeni (Alpenoi, Herod. vii. 176; Alpenos polis, Herod. vii. 216: Eth. Alpenos), a town of the Epicnemidii Locri at the E. entrance of the pass of Thermopylae.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

AMFIKLIA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Amphicaea, Amphicleia
  Amphicaea or Amphicleia (Amphikaia, Herod., Steph. B.; Amphikleia, Paus.: Eth. Amphikaieus, Amphikleieus, a town in the N. of Phocis, distant 60 stadia from Lilaea, and 15 stadia from Tithronium. It was destroyed by the army of Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. Although Herodotus calls it Amphicaea, following the most ancient traditions, the Amphictyons gave it the name of Amphicleia in their decree respecting rebuilding the town. It also bore for some time the name of Ophiteia (Ophiteia), in consequence of a legend, which Pausanias relates. The place was celebrated in the time of Pausanias for the worship of Dionysus, to which an inscription refers, found at Dhadhi, the site of the ancient town. (Herod. viii. 33; Paus. x. 3. § 2, x. 33. § 9, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 75, 86.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

ANTRON (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Antron
Antron (Hom. Strab.), Antrones (Dem.): Eth. Antronios. A town of Thessaly in the district Phthiotis, at the entrance of the Maliac gulf, and opposite Oreus in Euboea. It is mentioned in the Iliad (ii. 697) as one of the cities of Protesilaus, and also in the Homeric hymn to Demeter (489) as under the protection of that goddess. It was purchased by Philip of Macedon, and was taken by the Romans in their war with Perseus. (Dem. Phil. iv. p. 133, Reiske; Liv. xlii. 42, 67.) It probably owed its long existence to the composition of its rocks, which furnished some of the best millstones in Greece; hence the epithet of petreeis given to it in the hymn to Demeter. Off Antron was a sunken rock (herma nphalon) called the Onos Antronos, or mill-stone of Antron. (Strab. p. 435; Steph. B. s. v.; Hesych. s. v. Mnle; Eustath. in Il. l. c.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 349.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

ATALANTI (Island) FTHIOTIDA

Atalanta
  Atalanta (Atalante: Eth. Atalantaios.) (Talandonisi), a small island off Locris, in the Opuntian gulf, said to have been torn asunder from the mainland by an earthquake. In the first year of the Peloponnesian war it was fortified by the Athenians for the purpose of checking the Locrians in their attacks upon Euboea. In the sixth year of the war a part of the Athenian works was destroyed by a great inundation of the sea. (Strab. i. p. 61, ix. pp. 395, 425; Thuc. ii. 32, iii. 89; Diod. xii. 44, 59; Paus. x. 20. § 3; Liv. xxxv. 37; Plin. ii. 88, iv. 12; Sen. Q. N. vi. 24; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 172.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Abae
  Abae (Abai. Eth. Abaios: near Exarkho, Ru.), an ancient town of Phocis, near the frontiers of the Opuntian Locrians, said to have been built by the Argive Abas, son of Lynceus and. Hypermnestra, and grandson of Danaus. Near the town and on the road towards Hyampolis was an ancient temple and oracle of Apollo, who hence derived the surname of Abaeus. So celebrated was this oracle, that it was consulted both by Croesus and by Mardonius. Before the Persian invasion the temple was richly adorned with treasuries and votive offerings. It was twice destroyed by fire; the first time by the Persians in their march through Phocis (B.C. 480), and a second time by the Boeotians in the Sacred or Phocian war (B.C. 346). Hadrian caused a smaller temple to be built near the ruins of the former one. In the new temple there were three ancient statues in brass of Apollo, Leto, and Artemis, which had been dedicated by the Abaei, and had perhaps been saved from the former temple. The ancient agora and the ancient theatre still existed in the town in the time of Pausanias. According to the statement; of Aristotle, as preserved by Strabo, Thracians from the Phocian town of Abae emigrated to Euboea, and gave to the inhabitants the name of Abantes. The ruins of Abae are on a peaked hill to the W. of Exarkho. There are now no remains on the summit of the peak; but the walls and some of the gates may still be traced on the SW. side. There are also remains of the walls, which formed the inclosure of the temple. (Paus. x. 35; Herod. i. 46, viii. 134, 33; Diod. xvi. 530; Strab. pp. 423, 445; Steph. Byz. s. v.; Gell, Itinerary, p. 226; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 163, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

AVGIES (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Augeiae
Augeiae (Augeiai: Etth. Augeates). A town of Locris Epicnemidia, near Scarpheia, mentioned by Homer, but which had disappeared in the time of Strabo. (Hom. Il. ii. 532; Strab. ix. p. 426; Steph. B. s. v.)
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

CHIN (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Chen
  Chen (Steph. B. s. v.), Chenai (Paus., Diod.): Eth. Cheneus, Chenieus. The birthplace of Myson, whom Plato and others mention as one of the Seven Sages of Greece. (Plat. Protag. p. 343, a.) There was a dispute among the ancients respecting this place, some placing it in Thessaly at the foot of Mt. Oeta, and others in Laconia (Diog. Laert. i. 106); but the balance of authorities is in favour of the former of these two situations. Pausanias (x. 24. § 1) calls it a village on Mt. Oeta; and Diodorus (Excerpt. de Virt. et Vit. p. 235) describes Myson as a Malian, who dwelt in the village of Chenae. Stephanus B., on the other hand, places Chen in Laconia. It has been conjectured that this confusion may have arisen from the colony which the Lacedaemonians founded in the district of Oeta. (Thuc. iii. 92.)

This text is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

DAFNOUS (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Daphnus
Daphnous: Eth. Daphnountios, Daphnousios. A city on the Euboean sea, originally belonging to Phocis, which thus extended from the Corinthian gulf to the Euboean sea. Its narrow territory separated the Locri Epicnemidii from the Locri Opuntii; but it was afterwards assigned to the Opuntii. The town was in ruins in the time of Strabo, who fixes its site by describing it as distant 20 stadia from Cynus and 120 from Elateia, and as having a harbour.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

DRYMEA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Drymaea
  Drumaia, (Paus), Drumos (Herod.), Drumia (Steph. B. (Drymiae, Liv.). A frontier town of Phocis, on the side of Doris, whence it is included in the limits of Doris by Livy. It was one of the Phocian towns destroyed by the army of Xerxes. Pausanias describes it as 80 stadia from Amphicleia: but this number appears to be an error of the copyists, since in the same passage he says that Amphicleia was only 15 stadia from Tithronium, and Tithronium 15 stadia from Drymaea, which would make Drymaea only 35 stadia from Amphicleia. He also speaks of an ancient temple of Demeter at Drymaea, containing an upright statue of the goddess in stone, in whose honour the annual festival of the Thesmophoria was celebrated. Its more ancient name is said to have been Nauboleis, which was derived from Naubolus, an ancient Phocian hero, father of Iphitus. (Hom. Il. ii. 518.) According to Leake the site of Drymaea is indicated by some ruins, situated midway between Kamares and Glunista, and occupying a rocky point of the mountain on the edge of the plain. Some of the towers remain nearly entire. The masonry is generally of the third order, but contains some pieces of the polygonal kind; the space enclosed is a triangle, of which none of the sides is more than 250 yards. At the summit is a circular acropolis of about two acres, preserving the remains of an opening into the town.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

DRYOPIS (Ancient country) FTHIOTIDA

Dryopes
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

ECHINOUS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Echinus
  Echinos: Eth. Echinaieus (Polyb. ix. 41). A town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, situated upon the Maliac gulf, between Lamia and Larissa Cremaste, in a fertile district. (Strab. ix.; Polyb. ix. 41; comp. Aristoph. Lysist. 1169.) It was said to derive its name from Echion, who sprang from the dragon's teeth. (Scymn. Ch. 602; comp. Steph. B. s. v.) Demosthenes says that Echinus was taken by Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, from the Thebans (Dem. Phil. iii. p. 120); but whether he means the Thessalian town, or the one in Acarnania of the same name, is uncertain. At a later time we find the Thessalian Echinus in the hands of the Aetolians, from whom it was taken by the last Philip, after a siege of some length. (Polyb. ix. 41, seq., xvii. 3, xviii. 21; Liv. xxxii. 33, xxxiv. 23.) Strabo mentions it as one of the Grecian cities which had been destroyed by an earthquake. (Strab. i.) Its site is marked by the modern village of Akhino, which is only a slight, corruption of the ancient name. The modern village stands upon the side of a hill, the summit of which was occupied by the ancient Acropolis. Dodwell remarks that it appears as well from its situation as its works, to have been a place of great strength, Opposite the Acropolis, at the distance of a few hundred paces, is a hill, where there are some ruins, and foundations of large blocks, probably a temple.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

ELATIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Elateia
  Eth. Elateus. A city of Phocis, and the most important place in the country after Delphi, was situated about the middle of the great fertile basin which extends near 20 miles from the narrows of the Cephissus below Amphicleia to those which are at the entrance into Boeotia. (Leake). Hence it was admirably placed for commanding the passes into Southern Greece from Mt. Oeta, and became a post of great military importance. (Strab. ix. p. 424.) Pausanias describes it as situated over against Amphicleia, at the distance of 180 stadia from the latter town, on a gently rising slope in the plain of the Cephissus (x. 34. § 1.) Elateia is not mentioned by Homer. Its inhabitants claimed to be Arcadians, derivingu their name from Elatus, the son of Areas. (Paus. l. c.) It was burnt, along with the other Phocian towns, by the army of Xerxes. (Herod. viii. 33.) When Philip entered Phocis in B.C. 338, with the professed object of conducting the war against Amphissa, he seized Elateia and began to restore its fortifications. The alarm occasioned at Athens by the news of this event shows that this place was then regarded as the key of Southern Greece. (Dem. de Cor. p. 284: Aeschin. in Ctes. p. 73; Diod. xvi. 84.) The subsequent history of Elateia is given in some detail by Pausanias (l. c.). It successfully resisted Cassander, but it was taken by Philip, the son of Demetrius. It remained faithful to Philip when the Romans invaded Greece, and was taken by assault by the Romans in B.C. 198. (Liv. xxxii. 24.) At a later time the Romans declared the town to be free, because the inhabitants had repulsed an attack which Taxiles, the general of Mithridates, had made upon the place.
  Among the objects worthy of notice in Elateia, Pausanias mentions the agora, a temple of Asclepius containing a beardless statue of the god, a theatre, and an ancient brazen statue of Athena. He also mentions a temple of Athena Cranaea, situated at the distance of 20 stadia from Elateia: the road to it was a very gentle ascent, but the temple stood upon a steep hill of small size.
  Elateia is represented by the modern village of Lefta, where are some Hellenic remains, and where the ancient name was found in an inscription extant in the time of Meletius. Some remains of the temple of Athena Cranaea have also been discovered in the situation described by Pausanias.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Per... English

EPIKNIMIDIA LOKRIS (Ancient area) FTHIOTIDA

Epiknemidioi Locroi
Locris (Lokris: Eth. Lokroi; in Latin also Locri, but sometimes Locrenses). The Locri were an ancient people in Greece, and were said to have been descended from the Leleges. This was the opinion of Aristotle; and other writers supposed the name of the Locrians to be derived from Locrus, an ancient king of the Leleges. (Aristot.; Hes. ap. Strab. vii.; Scymnus Ch. 590; Dicaearch. 71; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12.) The Locrians, however, must at a very early period have become intermingled with the Hellenes. In the Homeric poems they always appear as Hellenes; and, according to some traditions even Deucalion, the founder of the Hellenic race, is said to have lived in the Locrian town of Opus or Cynus. (Pind. Ol. ix. 63, seq.; Strab. ix.) In historical times the Locrians were divided into two distinct tribes, differing from one another in customs, habits, and civilisation. Of these the eastern Locrians, called the Opuntii and Epicnemidii, dwelt upon the eastern coast of Greece, opposite the island of Euboea; while the western Locrians dwelt upon the Corinthian gulf, and were separated from the former by Mount Parnassus and the whole of Doris and Phocis. (Strab. ix.) The eastern Locrians are alone mentioned by Homer; they were the more ancient and the more civilised: the western Locrians, who are said to have been a colony of the former, are not mentioned in history till the time of the Peloponnesian War, and are even then represented as a semi-barbarous people. (Thuc. i. 5.) We may conjecture that the Locrians at one time extended from sea to sea, and were torn asunder by the immigration of the Phocians and Dorians.
1. Locri Epicnemidii and Opuntii (Epiknemidioi, Opountioi), inhabited a narrow slip upon the eastern coast of Greece, from the pass of Thermopylae to the mouth of the river Cephissus. Their northern frontier town was Alpeni, which bordered upon the Malians, and their southern frontier town was Larymna, which at a later time belonged to Boeotia. The Locrians, however, did not inhabit this coast continuously, but were separated by a narrow slip of Phocis, which extended to the Euboean sea, and contained the Phocian seaport town of Daphnus. The Locrians north of Daphnus were called Epicnemidii, from Mount Cnemis; and those south of this town were named Opuntii, from Opus, their principal city. On the west the Locrians were separated from Phocis and Boeotia by a range of mountains, extending from Mount Oeta and running parallel to the coast. The northern part of this range, called Mount Cnemis (Strab. ix.), now Talanda, rises to a considerable height, and separated the Epicnemidii Locri from the Phocians of the upper valley of the Cephissus; the southern portion, which bore no specific name, is not so lofty as Mount Cnemis, and separated the Opuntian Locrians from the north-eastern parts of Boeotia. Lateral branches extended from these mountains to the coast, of which one terminated in the promontory Cnemides, opposite the islands called Lichades; but there were several fruitful valleys, and the fertility of the whole of the Locrian coast is praised both by ancient and modern observers. (Strab. ix.; Forchhammer, Hellenika, pp. 11--12; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 381.) In consequence of the proximity of the mountains to the coast there was no room for any considerable rivers. The largest, which, however, is only a mountain torrent, is the Boagrius (Boagrios), called also Manes by Strabo, rising in Mount Cnemis, and flowing into the sea between Scarpheia and Thronium. (Hom. Il.. ii. 533; Strab. ix; Ptol. iii. 15. § 11; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Leake, Northern. Greece, vol. ii. p. 67.) The only other river mentioned by name is the Platanius (Platanios, Paus. ix. 24. § 5), a small stream, which flows into the Opuntian gulf near the Boeotian frontier: it is the river which flows from the modern village of Prosklyna. (Leake, vol. ii. p. 174.) The Opuntian gulf (ho Opountios kolpos, Strab. ix.), at the head of which stood the town of Opus, is a considerable bay, shallow at its inner extremity. In this bay, close to the coast, is the small island of Atalanta.
  There are three important passes across the Locrian mountains into Phocis. One leads from the territory of the Epicnemidii, between the summits of Mount Callidromus and Mount Cnemis, to Tithronum, in the upper valley of the Cephissus; a second across Mount Cnemis to the Phocian town of Elateia; and a third from Opus to Hyampolis, also a Phocian town, whence the road ran to Abae and Orchomenos.
  The eastern Locrians, as we have already said, are mentioned by Homer, who describes them as following Ajax, the son of Oileus, to the Trojan War in forty ships, and as inhabiting the towns of Cynus, Opus, Calliarus, Besa, Scarphe, Augeiae, Tarphe, and Thronium. (Il. ii. 527-535.) Neither Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, nor Polybius, make any distinction between the Opuntii and Epicnemidii; and, during the flourishing period of Grecian history, Opus was regarded as the chief town of the eastern Locrians. Even Strabo, from whom the distinction is chiefly derived, in one place describes Opus as the metropolis of the Epicnemidii; and the same is confirmed by Pliny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Stephanus (s. v. Opoeis; from Leake vol. ii. p. 181). In the Persian War the Opuntian Locrians fought with Leonidas at Thermopylae, and also sent seven ships to the Grecian fleet. (Herod. vii. 203, viii. 1.) The Locrians fought on the side of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. (Thuc. ii. 9.)
The following is a list of the Locrian towns:-
  Of the Epicnemidii: along the coast from N. to S., Alpenus; Nicaea; Scarphe or Scarpheia; Thronium; Cnemis or Cnemides; more inland, Tarphe afterwards Pharygae; Augeiae.
  Of the Opuntii: along the coast from N. to S., Alope; Cynus; Opus; Haleae; Larymna which at a later time belonged to Boeotia; more inland, Calliarus; Naryx; Corseia.
2. Locri Ozolae (Ozolai), inhabited a district upon the Corinthian gulf, bounded on the north by Doris and Aetolia, on the east by Phocis, and on the west by Aetolia. This district is mountainous, and for the most part unproductive. The declivities of Mount Parnassus from Phocis, and of Mount Corax from Aetolia, occupy the greater part of it. The only river, of which the name is mentioned, is the Hylaethus now the Morno, which runs in a south-westerly direction, and falls into the Corinthian gulf near Naupactus. The frontier of the Locri Ozolae on the west was close to the promontory Antirrhium, opposite the promontory Rhium on the coast of Achaia. Antirrhium, was in the territory of the Locri . The eastern frontier of Locris, on the coast, was close to the Phocian town of Crissa; and the Crissaean gulf washed on its western side the Locrian, and on its eastern the Phocian coast. The origin of the name of Ozolae is uncertain. Various etymologies were proposed by the ancients. (Paus. x. 38. § 1, seq.) Some derived it from the verb ozein, to smell, either from the stench arising from a spring at the foot of Mount Taphiassus, beneath which the centaur Nessus is said to have been buried, and which still retains this property (cf. Strab. ix.), or from the abundance of asphodel which scented the air. (Cf. Archytas, ap. Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15.) Others derived it from the undressed skins which were worn by the ancient inhabitants; and the Locrians themselves from the branches (ozoi) of a vine which was produced in their country in a marvellous manner. The Locri Ozolae are said to have been a colony from the Opuntian Locrians. They first appear in history in the time of the Peloponnesian War, as has been mentioned above, when they are mentioned by Thucydides as a semi-barbarous nation, along with the Aetolians and Acarnanians, whom they resembled in their armour and mode of fighting. (Thuc. i. 5, iii. 94.) In B.C. 426 the Locrians promised to assist Demosthenes, the Athenian commander, in his invasion of Aetolia; but, after the defeat of Demosthenes, most of the Locrian tribes submitted without opposition to the Spartan Eurylochus, who marched through their territory from Delphi to Naupactus. (Thuc. iii. 95, seq.) They belonged at a later period to the Aetolian League. (Polyb. xviii. 30.)
  The chief and only important town of the Ozolae was Amphissa, situated on the borders of Phocis. The other towns, in the direction of W. to E., were: Molycreia; Naupactus; Oeneon; Anticyra; Eupalium; Erythrae; Tolophon; Hessus; Oeantheia or Oeanthe; Ipnus; Chalaeum; more inland, Aegitium; Potidania; Crocyleium; Teichium; Olpae; Messapia; Hyle; Tritaea; Myonia.

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FTHIOTIS (Ancient country) FTHIOTIDA

Phthiotis
  Phthiotis (Phthiotis), inhabited by the Achaean Phthiotae (Achaioi Phthiotai), under which name they are usually mentioned as members of the Amphictyonic league. This district, according to Strabo, included the southern part of Thessaly, extending from the Maliac gulf on the E. to Dolopia and Mount Pindus on the W., and stretching as far N. as Pharsalus and the Thessalian plains. (Strab. ix. p. 430.) Phthiotis derived its name from the Homeric Phthia (Phthie, Il. i. 155, ii. 683), which appears to have included in the heroic times not only Hellas and Dolopia, which is expressly called the furthest part of Phthia (Il. ix. 484), but also the southern portion of the Thessalian plain, since it is probable that Phthia was also the ancient name of Pharsalus. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 484, seq.)

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KALLIAROS (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Calliarus
Calliarus (Kalliaros: Eih. Kalliarus), a town in eastern Locris mentioned by Homer, was un-inhabited in Strabo's time, but its name was still attached to a tract of ground on account of the fertility of the latter. (Hom. Il. ii. 531; Strab. ix.; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii.)
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KNIMIDA (Mountain) LOKRIDA

Cnemis
  Cnemis (Knemis), a range of mountains forming the boundary between Phocis and the Epicnemidii Locri, who received their distinguishing name from this mountain. Mount Cnemis was a continuation of Callidromus, with which it was connected by a ridge, at the foot of which is the modern town of Pundonitza. (Strab. ix. pp. 416, 425; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 66, 180.) A spur of this mountain, running out into the sea, formed the promontory Cnemides (Knemides), opposite the islands called Lichades and the Euboean promontory Cenaeum. Upon this promontory stood a fortress, also called Cnemides, distant 20 stadia from Thronium. It was near the modern Nikoraki. (Strab. ix. p. 426; Ptol. iii. 15. § 10; Mela, ii. 3. § 67 called Cnemis by Scylax, p. 23, and Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; comp. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 177.)
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KORSIA (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Corseia
Corseia (Korseia), 1. A town of Boeotia, sometimes included in Opuntian Locris, was the first place which the traveller reached after crossing Mt. Khlomo from Cyrtones. In the Sacred War it was taken by the Phocians, along with Orchomenus and Coroneia. In the plain below, the river Platanius joined the sea. Its site is probably represented by the village Proskyna, on the heights above which are the remains of an ancient acropolis. (Paus. ix. 24. § 5; Diod. xvi. 58; Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 385; called Chorsia by Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 184; Forchhammer, Hellenika, p. 179.)
2. Scylax mentions Korsiai as aport of Boeotia on the Corinthian gulf. It appears from Pliny that there was a second town of this name in the western part of Boeotia, and that it was distinguished from the other by the name of Thebae Corsicae. ( Thebis quae Corsicae cognominatae sunt juxta Heliconem, Plin. iv. 3. s. 4.) It is probably represented by the modern Khosia. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. P. 521.)

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KYNOS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Cynus
  Kunos: Eth. Kunios, Kunaios. The principal sea-port of the Locri Opuntii, was situated on a cape at the northern extremity of the Opuntian gulf, opposite Aedepsus in Euboea, and at the distance of 60 stadia from Opus. (Strab. ix.; Paus. x. 1. § 2.) Livy gives an incorrect idea of the position of Cynus, when he describes it as situated on the coast, at the distance of a mile from Opus. (Liv. xxviii. 6.) Cynus was an ancient town, being mentioned in the Homeric catalogue (Il. ii. 531), and reported to have been the residence of Deucalion and Pyrrha; the tomb of the latter was shown there. (Strab. l.c) Its site is marked by a tower, called Paleopyrgo, and some Hellenic remains, about a mile to the south of the village of Livanates.

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KYRTONES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Cyrtones
  Kurtones: Eth. Kurtonios. Anciently called Cyrtone (Kurtone), a city of Boeotia, east of the lake Copais, and 20 stadia from Hyettus, situated upon a lofty mountain, after crossing which the traveller arrived at Corsia. Cyrtones contained a grove and temple of Apollo, in which were statues of Apollo and Artemis, and a fountain of cold water, at the source of which was a chapel of the nymphs. Forchhammer places Cyrtones on the hill of the church of St. Athanasius between the villages of Paula and Luki, and the Metokhi of Dendra. Here is celebrated every spring a great festival, which Forchhammer regards as the remains of the ancient festival of Apollo and Artemis.

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LAMIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Lamia
  Eth. Lamieus: Zituini. A town of the Malienses, though afterwards separated from them, situated in the district Phthiotis in Thessaly. Strabo describes Lamia as situated above the plain which lies at the foot of the Maliac gulf, at the distance of 30 stadia from the Spercheius, and 50 stadia from the sea (ix.). Livy says that it was placed on a height distant seven miles from Heracleia, of which it commnanded the prospect (xxxvi. 25), and on the route which led from Thermopylae through the passes of Phthiotis to Thaumaci (xxxii. 4). Strabo further relates that it was subject to earthquakes (i.). Lamia is celebrated in history on account of the war which the Athenians and the confederate Greeks carried on against Antipater in B.C. 323. Antipater was at first unsuccessful, and took refuge in Lamia, where he was besieged for some time by the allies. From this circumstance this contest is usually called the Lamian war. Having afterwards received suecours from Graterus, Antipater retreated northwards, and defeated the allies at the battle of Crannon in the following year. (Diod. xviii. 9, seq.; Polyb. ix. 29.) In B.C. 208 Philip, son of Demetrius, defeated the Aetolians near Lamia. (Liv. xxvii. 30.) In 192 Lamia opened its gates to Antiochus (Liv. xxxv. 43), and was in consequence besieged in the following year by Philip, who was then acting in conjunction with the Romans. (Liv. xxxvi. 25.) On this occasion Livy mentions the difficulty which the Macedonians experienced in mining the rock, which was siliceous ( in asperis locis silex saepe impenetrabilis ferro occurrebat ). In 190 the town was taken by the Romans. (Liv. xxxvii. 4,5.) Lamia is mentioned by Pliny (iv. 7. s. 14), and was also in existence in the sixth century. (Hierocl. p. 642, ed. Wesseling.) The site of Lamia is fixed at Zituni, both by the description of the ancient writers of the position of Lamia, and by an inscription which Paul Lucas copied at this place. Zituni is situated on a hill, and is by nature a strongly fortified position. The only remains of the ancient city which Leake discovered were some pieces of the walls of the Acropolis, forming a part of those of the modern castle, and some small remains of the town walls at the foot of the hill, beyond the extreme modern houses to the eastward. On the opposite side of the town Leake noticed a small river, which, we learn from Strabo (ix.), was called Achelous. The port of Malia was named Phalara (ta Phalara, Strab. ix. ; Polyb. xx. 11; Liv. xxvii. 30, xxxv. 43; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12), now Stylidha. Zituni has been compared to Athens, with its old castle, or acropolis, above, and its Peiraeeus at Stylidha, on the shore below. There is a fine view from the castle, commanding the whole country adjacent to the head of the Maliac gulf.

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LARYMNA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Larymna
  Larumna. The name of two towns in Boeotia, on the river Cephissus, distinguished as Upper and Lower Larymna. (Strab. ix.) Strabo relates that the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel at the Upper Larymna, and joined the sea at the Lower Larymna; and that Upper Larymna had belonged to Phocis until it was annexed to the Lower or Boeotian Larymna by the Romans. Upper Larymna belonged originally to the Opuntian Locris, and Lycophron mentions it as one of the towns of Ajax Oileus. (Lycophr. 1146.) Pausanias also states, that it was originally Locrian; and he adds, that it voluntarily joined the Boeotians on the increase of the power of the Thebans. (Paus. ix. 23. § 7.) This, however, probably did not take place in the time of Epaminondas, as Scylax, who lived subsequently, still calls it a Locrian town. Ulrichs conjectures that it joined the Boeotian league after Thebes had been rebuilt by Cassander. In B.C. 230, Larymna is described as a Boeotian town (Polyb. xx. 5, where Larumnan should be read instead of Labrunan); and in the time of Sulla it is again spoken of as a Boeotian town.
  We may conclude from the preceding statements that the more ancient town was the Locrian Larymna, situated at a spot, called Anchoe by Strabo, where the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel. At the distance of a mile and a half Larymna had a port upon the coast, which gradually rose into importance, especially from the time when Larymna joined the Boeotian League, as its port then became the most convenient communication with the eastern sea for Lebadeia, Chaeroneia, Orchomenos, Copae, and other Boeotian towns. The port-town was called, from its position, Lower Larymna, to distinguish it from the Upper city. The former may also have been called more especially the Boeotian Larymna, as it became the seaport of so many Boeotian towns. Upper Larymna, though it had joined the Boeotian League, continued to be frequently called the Locrian, on account of its ancient connection with Locris. When the Romans united Upper Larymna to Lower Larymna, the inhabitants of the fomer place were probably transferred to the latter; and Upper Larymna was henceforth abandoned. This accounts for Pausanias mentioning only one Larymna, which must have been the Lower city; for if he had visited Upper Larymna, he could hardly have failed to mention the emissary of the Cephissus at this spot. Moreover, the ruins at Lower Larymna show that it became a place of much more importance than Upper Larymna. These ruins, which are called Kastri, like those of Delphi, are situated on the shore of the Bay of Larmes, on a level covered with bushes, ten minutes to the left of the mouth of the Cephissus. The circuit of the walls is less than a mile. The annexed plan of the remains is taken from Leake.
  Leake adds, that the walls, which in one place are extant to nearly half their height, are of a red soft stone, very much corroded by the sea air, and in some places are constructed of rough masses. The sorus is high, with comparison to its length and breadth, and stands in its original place upon the rocks: there was an inscription upon it, and some ornaments of sculpture, which are now quite defaced. The Glyfonero is a small deep pool of water, impregnated with salt, and is considered by the peasants as sacred water, because it is cathartic. The sea in the bay south of the ruins is very deep; and hence we ought probably to read in Pausanias (ix. 23. § 7), limen de sphisin estin athnchibathes, instead of limWe, since there is no land-lake at this place. The ruins of Upper Larymna lie at Bazaraki, on the right bank of the Cephissus, at the place where it issues from its subterranean channel.

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LOKRIS (Ancient country) FTHIOTIDA

Locris
Locris (Lokris: Eth. Lokroi; in Latin also Locri, but sometimes Locrenses). The Locri were an ancient people in Greece, and were said to have been descended from the Leleges. This was the opinion of Aristotle; and other writers supposed the name of the Locrians to be derived from Locrus, an ancient king of the Leleges. (Aristot.; Hes. ap. Strab. vii.; Scymnus Ch. 590; Dicaearch. 71; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12.) The Locrians, however, must at a very early period have become intermingled with the Hellenes. In the Homeric poems they always appear as Hellenes; and, according to some traditions even Deucalion, the founder of the Hellenic race, is said to have lived in the Locrian town of Opus or Cynus. (Pind. Ol. ix. 63, seq.; Strab. ix.) In historical times the Locrians were divided into two distinct tribes, differing from one another in customs, habits, and civilisation. Of these the eastern Locrians, called the Opuntii and Epicnemidii, dwelt upon the eastern coast of Greece, opposite the island of Euboea; while the western Locrians dwelt upon the Corinthian gulf, and were separated from the former by Mount Parnassus and the whole of Doris and Phocis. (Strab. ix.) The eastern Locrians are alone mentioned by Homer; they were the more ancient and the more civilised: the western Locrians, who are said to have been a colony of the former, are not mentioned in history till the time of the Peloponnesian War, and are even then represented as a semi-barbarous people. (Thuc. i. 5.) We may conjecture that the Locrians at one time extended from sea to sea, and were torn asunder by the immigration of the Phocians and Dorians.
1. Locri Epicnemidii and Opuntii (Epiknemidioi, Opountioi), inhabited a narrow slip upon the eastern coast of Greece, from the pass of Thermopylae to the mouth of the river Cephissus. Their northern frontier town was Alpeni, which bordered upon the Malians, and their southern frontier town was Larymna, which at a later time belonged to Boeotia. The Locrians, however, did not inhabit this coast continuously, but were separated by a narrow slip of Phocis, which extended to the Euboean sea, and contained the Phocian seaport town of Daphnus. The Locrians north of Daphnus were called Epicnemidii, from Mount Cnemis; and those south of this town were named Opuntii, from Opus, their principal city. On the west the Locrians were separated from Phocis and Boeotia by a range of mountains, extending from Mount Oeta and running parallel to the coast. The northern part of this range, called Mount Cnemis (Strab. ix.), now Talanda, rises to a considerable height, and separated the Epicnemidii Locri from the Phocians of the upper valley of the Cephissus; the southern portion, which bore no specific name, is not so lofty as Mount Cnemis, and separated the Opuntian Locrians from the north-eastern parts of Boeotia. Lateral branches extended from these mountains to the coast, of which one terminated in the promontory Cnemides, opposite the islands called Lichades; but there were several fruitful valleys, and the fertility of the whole of the Locrian coast is praised both by ancient and modern observers. (Strab. ix.; Forchhammer, Hellenika, pp. 11--12; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 381.) In consequence of the proximity of the mountains to the coast there was no room for any considerable rivers. The largest, which, however, is only a mountain torrent, is the Boagrius (Boagrios), called also Manes by Strabo, rising in Mount Cnemis, and flowing into the sea between Scarpheia and Thronium. (Hom. Il.. ii. 533; Strab. ix; Ptol. iii. 15. § 11; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Leake, Northern. Greece, vol. ii. p. 67.) The only other river mentioned by name is the Platanius (Platanios, Paus. ix. 24. § 5), a small stream, which flows into the Opuntian gulf near the Boeotian frontier: it is the river which flows from the modern village of Prosklyna. (Leake, vol. ii. p. 174.) The Opuntian gulf (ho Opountios kolpos, Strab. ix.), at the head of which stood the town of Opus, is a considerable bay, shallow at its inner extremity. In this bay, close to the coast, is the small island of Atalanta.
  There are three important passes across the Locrian mountains into Phocis. One leads from the territory of the Epicnemidii, between the summits of Mount Callidromus and Mount Cnemis, to Tithronum, in the upper valley of the Cephissus; a second across Mount Cnemis to the Phocian town of Elateia; and a third from Opus to Hyampolis, also a Phocian town, whence the road ran to Abae and Orchomenos.
  The eastern Locrians, as we have already said, are mentioned by Homer, who describes them as following Ajax, the son of Oileus, to the Trojan War in forty ships, and as inhabiting the towns of Cynus, Opus, Calliarus, Besa, Scarphe, Augeiae, Tarphe, and Thronium. (Il. ii. 527-535.) Neither Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, nor Polybius, make any distinction between the Opuntii and Epicnemidii; and, during the flourishing period of Grecian history, Opus was regarded as the chief town of the eastern Locrians. Even Strabo, from whom the distinction is chiefly derived, in one place describes Opus as the metropolis of the Epicnemidii; and the same is confirmed by Pliny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Stephanus (s. v. Opoeis; from Leake vol. ii. p. 181). In the Persian War the Opuntian Locrians fought with Leonidas at Thermopylae, and also sent seven ships to the Grecian fleet. (Herod. vii. 203, viii. 1.) The Locrians fought on the side of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. (Thuc. ii. 9.)
The following is a list of the Locrian towns:-
  Of the Epicnemidii: along the coast from N. to S., Alpenus; Nicaea; Scarphe or Scarpheia; Thronium; Cnemis or Cnemides; more inland, Tarphe afterwards Pharygae; Augeiae.
  Of the Opuntii: along the coast from N. to S., Alope; Cynus; Opus; Haleae; Larymna which at a later time belonged to Boeotia; more inland, Calliarus; Naryx; Corseia.
2. Locri Ozolae (Ozolai), inhabited a district upon the Corinthian gulf, bounded on the north by Doris and Aetolia, on the east by Phocis, and on the west by Aetolia. This district is mountainous, and for the most part unproductive. The declivities of Mount Parnassus from Phocis, and of Mount Corax from Aetolia, occupy the greater part of it. The only river, of which the name is mentioned, is the Hylaethus now the Morno, which runs in a south-westerly direction, and falls into the Corinthian gulf near Naupactus. The frontier of the Locri Ozolae on the west was close to the promontory Antirrhium, opposite the promontory Rhium on the coast of Achaia. Antirrhium, was in the territory of the Locri . The eastern frontier of Locris, on the coast, was close to the Phocian town of Crissa; and the Crissaean gulf washed on its western side the Locrian, and on its eastern the Phocian coast. The origin of the name of Ozolae is uncertain. Various etymologies were proposed by the ancients. (Paus. x. 38. § 1, seq.) Some derived it from the verb ozein, to smell, either from the stench arising from a spring at the foot of Mount Taphiassus, beneath which the centaur Nessus is said to have been buried, and which still retains this property (cf. Strab. ix.), or from the abundance of asphodel which scented the air. (Cf. Archytas, ap. Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15.) Others derived it from the undressed skins which were worn by the ancient inhabitants; and the Locrians themselves from the branches (ozoi) of a vine which was produced in their country in a marvellous manner. The Locri Ozolae are said to have been a colony from the Opuntian Locrians. They first appear in history in the time of the Peloponnesian War, as has been mentioned above, when they are mentioned by Thucydides as a semi-barbarous nation, along with the Aetolians and Acarnanians, whom they resembled in their armour and mode of fighting. (Thuc. i. 5, iii. 94.) In B.C. 426 the Locrians promised to assist Demosthenes, the Athenian commander, in his invasion of Aetolia; but, after the defeat of Demosthenes, most of the Locrian tribes submitted without opposition to the Spartan Eurylochus, who marched through their territory from Delphi to Naupactus. (Thuc. iii. 95, seq.) They belonged at a later period to the Aetolian League. (Polyb. xviii. 30.)
  The chief and only important town of the Ozolae was Amphissa, situated on the borders of Phocis. The other towns, in the direction of W. to E., were: Molycreia; Naupactus; Oeneon; Anticyra; Eupalium; Erythrae; Tolophon; Hessus; Oeantheia or Oeanthe; Ipnus; Chalaeum; more inland, Aegitium; Potidania; Crocyleium; Teichium; Olpae; Messapia; Hyle; Tritaea; Myonia.

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MAKRAKOMI (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Macracome
A place mentioned by Livy (xxxii. 13) along with Sperchiae. Its position is uncertain, but it was perhaps a town of the Aenianes.
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MALIAKOS GULF (Gulf) FTHIOTIDA

Maliacus Sinus
  Maliacus Sinus (o Maliakos kolpos; Meliakos Thuc. iii. 96; Strab. ix. p. 403; o Melieus kolpos, Herod. iv. 33; Polyb. ix. 41: Gulf of Zituni), a long gulf of the sea, lying between the southern coast of Thessaly and the northern coast of the Locri Epicnemidii, and which derived its name from the country of the Malians, situated at its head. At the entrance of the gulf is the northwestern promontory of Euboea, and the islands Lichades, and into its furthest extremity the river Spercheius flows. The gulf is called Lamiacus Sinus (d Damiakos kolpos) by Pausanias (i. 4. § 3, vii. 15. § 2, x. 1. § 2), from the important town of Lamia; and in the same way the gulf is now called Zituni, which is the modern name of Lamia. Livy, who usually terms it Maliacus Sinus, gives it in one place the name of Aenianum Sinus (xxviii. 5), which is borrowed from Polybius (x. 42). (Comp. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 4.)

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Lamiacus Sinus
Lamiacus Sinus (ho Lamiakos kolpos), a name given by Pausanias to the Maliac gulf, from the important town of Lamia. (Paus. i. 4. § 3, vii. 15. § 2, x. 1. § 2.) In the same way the gulf is now called Zituni, which is the modern name of Lamia.
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MALIIS (Ancient area) FTHIOTIS

Malis
  Malis (he Malis ge; Melis Herod. vii. 198: Eth. Malieus Melieus), a small district of Greece, at the head of the Maliac gulf, surrounded on all sides by mountains, and open only in the direction of the sea. The river Spercheius flowed through it. The limits of Malis are fixed by the description of Herodotus. It extended a little north of the valley of the Spercheius to the narrowest part of the straits of Thermopylae. Anticyra was the northernmost town of the Malians (Herod. vii. 198); the boundary passed between Lamia and Anticyra. Anthela was their southern-most town (vii. 176, 200). Inland, the Anopaea, the path over Mount Oeta, by which the Persians turned the army of Leonidas, in part divided the territory of the Trachinian Malians from that of the Oetaeans (vii. 217). According to Stephanus B. (s. v. Malieus), the Malians derived their name from a town Malieus, not mentioned by any other ancient author, said to have been founded by Malus, the son of Amphictyon. The Malians were reckoned among the Thessalians; but although tributary to the latter, they were genuine Hellenes, and were from the earliest times members of the Amphicytonic council. They were probably Dorians, and were always in close connection with the acknowledged Doric states. Hercules, the great Doric hero, is represented as the friend of Ceyx of Trachis, and Mount Oeta was the scene of the hero's death. Diodorus (xii. 59) even speaks of Trachis as the mother-town of Lacedaemon. When the Trachinians were hard pressed by their Oetaean neighbours, about the commencement of the Peloponnesian War, they applied for assistance to the Spartans, who founded in consequence the colony of Heracleia near Trachis. (Thuc. iii. 92.)
  Scylax (p. 24), who is followed by Diodorus (xviii. 11), distinguishes between the Melieis and Malieis, the former extending along the northern coast of the Maliac gulf from Lamia to Echinus; but, as no other writer mentions these towns as belonging to the Lamians, we ought probably to read Damieis, as K. O. Muller observes. Thucydides mentions three divisions (mere) of the Malians, called Paralii (Paralioi), Priests (Hieres), and Trachinii (Trachinioi). Who the Priests were is a matter only of conjecture: Grote supposes that they may have been possessors of the sacred spot on which the Amphictyonic meetings were held; while Leake imagines that they were the inhabitants of the Sacred City (hieron hastu), to which, according to Callimachus (Hymn. in Del. 287), the Hyperborean offerings were sent from Dodona on their way to Delus, and that this Sacred City was the city Oeta mentioned by Stephanus B. The names of the Paralii and Trachinii sufficiently indicate their position. The Malians admitted every man to a share in the government, who either had served or was serving as a Hoplite (Aristot. Polit. iv. 10. § 10). In war they were chiefly famous as slingers and darters. (Thuc. iv. 100.)
  Trachis was the principal town of the Malians. There were also Anticyra and Anthela on the coast; and others, of which the names only are preserved, such as Colaceia (Theopom. ap. Athen. vi. p. 254, f.), Aegoneia (Lycophr. 903; Steph. B. s. v.), and Irus (Schol. in Lycophr. l. c.; Steph. B. s. v.). (Muller, Dorians, vol. i. p. 50; Grote, Greece, vol. ii. p. 378; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 20.)

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MELITEA (Ancient city) DOMOKOS

Melitaea
  Meliteia. Melitaia, Meliteia, Melitia, Eth. Melitaieus, Meliteus. An ancient town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, situated near the river Enipeus, at the distance of 10 stadia from the town Hellas. (Strab. ix. p. 432.) The inhabitants of Melitaea affirmed that their town was anciently called Pyrrha, and they showed in the market-place the tomb of Hellen, the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, (Strab. l. c.) When Brasidas was marching through Thessaly to Macedonia, his Thessalian friends met him at Melitaea in order to escort him (Thuc. iv. 78); and we learn from this narrative that the town was one day's march from Pharsalus, whither Brasidas proceeded on leaving the former place. In the Lamiac war the allies left their baggage at Melitaea, when they proceeded to attack Leonnatus. (Diod. xviii. 15.) Subsequently Melitaea was in the hands of the Aetolians. Philip attempted to take it, but he did not succeed, in consequence of his scaling-ladders being too short. (Polyb. v. 97, ix. 18.) Melitaea is also mentioned by Scylax, p. 24; Ephor. ap Steph. B. s. v.; Dicaearch. p. 21; Plin. iv. 9. s. 16; Ptol. iii. 13. § 46, who erroneously calls it Melitara. Leake identifies it with the ruins of an ancient fortress situated upon a lofty hill on the left bank of the Enipeus, at the foot of which stands the small village of Keuzlar. (Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 469, seq.)

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NARTHAKION (Ancient city) LAMIA

Narthacium
  Narthakion: Eth. Narthakieus. The name of a city and mountain of Phthiotis in Thessaly, in the neighbourhood of which Agesilaus, on his return from Asia in B.C. 394, gained a victory over the Thessalian cavalry. The Thessalians, after their defeat, took refuge on Mount Narthacium, between which and a place named Pras, Agesilaus set up a trophy. On the following day he crossed the mountains of the Achaean Phthiotis. (Xen. Hell. iv. 3. 3 - 9 ; Ages. 2. §§ 3 - 5 ; Plut. Apophth. p. 211; Diod. xiv. 82.) Narthacium is accordingly placed by Leake and Kiepert south of Pharsalus in the valley of the Enipeus; and the mountain of this name is probably the one which rises immediately to the southward of Fersala. Leake supposes the town of Narthacium to have been on the mountain not far from upper Tjaterli, and Pras near lower Tjaterli. (Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 471, seq.) The town Narthacium is mentioned by Ptolemy (iii. 13. § 46), and should probably be restored in a passage of Strabo (ix. p. 434), where in the MS. there is only the termination.

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NARYX (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Narycus
  Narycium (Narukos, Naruch, Narycium, Eth. Narukios). A town of the Opuntian Locrians, the reputed birthplace of Ajax, son of Oileus (Strab. ix. p. 425, Steph. B. s.v.), who is hence called by Ovid (Met. xiv. 468) Narycius heros. In B.C. 395, Ismenias, a Boeotian commander, undertook an expedition against Phocis, and defeated the Phocians near Naryx of Locris, whence we may conclude with Leake that Naryx was near the frontier of Phocis. (Diod. xiv. 82.) In 352 Naryx was taken by Phayllus, the Phocian commander. (Diod. xvi. 38.) It is placed by some at Talanda, but by Leake at the small village of Kalapodhi, where there are a few ancient remains. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 187.) As Locri in Bruttium in Italy was, according to some of the ancients, a colony of Naryx (Virg. Aen. iii. 399), the epithet of Narycian is frequently given to the Bruttian pitch. (Virg. Georg. ii. 438; Colum. x. 386; Plin. xiv. 20. s. 25.)

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NIKEA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Nicaea
  Nicaea (Nikaia: Eth. Nikaieus), a fortress of the Locri Epicnemidii, situated upon the sea, and close to the pass of Thermopylae. It is described by Aeschines as one of the places which commanded the pass. (De Fals. Leg. p. 45, ed. Steph.) It was the first Locrian town after Alpenos, the latter being at the very entrance of the pass. The surrender of Nicaea by Phalaecus to Philip, in B.C. 346, made the Macedonian king master of Thermopylae, and brought the Sacred War to an end. (Diod. xvi. 59.) Philip kept possession of it for some time, but subsequently gave it to the Thessalians along with Magnesia. (Dem. Phil. ii. p. 153, ed. Reiske; Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 73, ed. Steph.) But in B.C. 340 we again find Nicaea in the possession of Philip. (Dern. in Phil. Ep. p. 153.) According to Memnon (ap. Phot. p. 234, a., ed. Bekker; c. 41; ed. Orelli) Nicaea was destroyed by the Phocians, and its inhabitants founded the Bithynian Nicaea. But even if this is true, the town must have been rebuilt soon afterwards, since we find it in the hands of the Aetolians during the Roman wars in Greece. (Polyb. x. 42, xvii. 1; Liv. xxviii. 5, xxxii. 32.) Subsequently the town is only mentioned by Strabo (ix. p. 426). Leake identifies Nicaea with the castle of Pundonitza, where there are Hellenic remains. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 5, seq.)

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OITI (Mountain) FTHIOTIDA

Oeta
  Oeta (Oite: Eth. Oitaios), a mountain in the south of Thessaly, which branches off from Mt. Pindus,: runs in a south-easterly direction, and forms the northern barrier of Central Greece. The only entrance into Central Greece from the north is through the narrow opening left between Mt. Oeta and the sea, celebrated as the pass of Thermopylae. Mt. Oeta is now called Katavothra, and its highest summit is 7071 feet. (Journal of Geogr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 94.) The mountain immediately above Thermopylae is called Callidromon both by Strabo and Livy. (Strab. ix. p. 428; Liv. xxxvi. 15.) The latter writer says that Callidromon is the highest summit of Mt. Oeta; and Strabo agrees with him in describing the summit nearest to Thermopylae as the highest part of the range; but in this opinion they were both mistaken, Mt. Patriotiko, which lies more to the west, being considerably higher. Strabo describes the proper Oeta as 200 stadia in length. It is celebrated in mythology as the scene of the death of Hercules, whence the Roman poets give to this hero the epithet of Oetaeus. From this mountain the southern district of Thessaly was called Oetaea (Oitaia, Strab. ix. pp. 430, 432, 434), and its inhabitants Oetaei (Oitaioi, Herod. vii. 217; Thuc. iii. 92; Strab. ix. p. 416). There was also a city, Oeta, said to have been founded by Amphissus, son of Apollo and Dryope (Anton. Liberal. c. 32), which Stephanus B. (s. v.) describes as a city of the Malians. Leake places it at the foot of Mt. Patriotiko, and conjectures that it was the same as the sacred city mentioned by Callimachus. (Hymn. in Del. 287.) (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 4, seq.)

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OPOUNDIA LOKRIS (Ancient area) FTHIOTIDA

Locri Opountioi
Locris (Lokris: Eth. Lokroi; in Latin also Locri, but sometimes Locrenses). The Locri were an ancient people in Greece, and were said to have been descended from the Leleges. This was the opinion of Aristotle; and other writers supposed the name of the Locrians to be derived from Locrus, an ancient king of the Leleges. (Aristot.; Hes. ap. Strab. vii.; Scymnus Ch. 590; Dicaearch. 71; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12.) The Locrians, however, must at a very early period have become intermingled with the Hellenes. In the Homeric poems they always appear as Hellenes; and, according to some traditions even Deucalion, the founder of the Hellenic race, is said to have lived in the Locrian town of Opus or Cynus. (Pind. Ol. ix. 63, seq.; Strab. ix.) In historical times the Locrians were divided into two distinct tribes, differing from one another in customs, habits, and civilisation. Of these the eastern Locrians, called the Opuntii and Epicnemidii, dwelt upon the eastern coast of Greece, opposite the island of Euboea; while the western Locrians dwelt upon the Corinthian gulf, and were separated from the former by Mount Parnassus and the whole of Doris and Phocis. (Strab. ix.) The eastern Locrians are alone mentioned by Homer; they were the more ancient and the more civilised: the western Locrians, who are said to have been a colony of the former, are not mentioned in history till the time of the Peloponnesian War, and are even then represented as a semi-barbarous people. (Thuc. i. 5.) We may conjecture that the Locrians at one time extended from sea to sea, and were torn asunder by the immigration of the Phocians and Dorians.
1. Locri Epicnemidii and Opuntii (Epiknemidioi, Opountioi), inhabited a narrow slip upon the eastern coast of Greece, from the pass of Thermopylae to the mouth of the river Cephissus. Their northern frontier town was Alpeni, which bordered upon the Malians, and their southern frontier town was Larymna, which at a later time belonged to Boeotia. The Locrians, however, did not inhabit this coast continuously, but were separated by a narrow slip of Phocis, which extended to the Euboean sea, and contained the Phocian seaport town of Daphnus. The Locrians north of Daphnus were called Epicnemidii, from Mount Cnemis; and those south of this town were named Opuntii, from Opus, their principal city. On the west the Locrians were separated from Phocis and Boeotia by a range of mountains, extending from Mount Oeta and running parallel to the coast. The northern part of this range, called Mount Cnemis (Strab. ix.), now Talanda, rises to a considerable height, and separated the Epicnemidii Locri from the Phocians of the upper valley of the Cephissus; the southern portion, which bore no specific name, is not so lofty as Mount Cnemis, and separated the Opuntian Locrians from the north-eastern parts of Boeotia. Lateral branches extended from these mountains to the coast, of which one terminated in the promontory Cnemides, opposite the islands called Lichades; but there were several fruitful valleys, and the fertility of the whole of the Locrian coast is praised both by ancient and modern observers. (Strab. ix.; Forchhammer, Hellenika, pp. 11--12; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 381.) In consequence of the proximity of the mountains to the coast there was no room for any considerable rivers. The largest, which, however, is only a mountain torrent, is the Boagrius (Boagrios), called also Manes by Strabo, rising in Mount Cnemis, and flowing into the sea between Scarpheia and Thronium. (Hom. Il.. ii. 533; Strab. ix; Ptol. iii. 15. § 11; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Leake, Northern. Greece, vol. ii. p. 67.) The only other river mentioned by name is the Platanius (Platanios, Paus. ix. 24. § 5), a small stream, which flows into the Opuntian gulf near the Boeotian frontier: it is the river which flows from the modern village of Prosklyna. (Leake, vol. ii. p. 174.) The Opuntian gulf (ho Opountios kolpos, Strab. ix.), at the head of which stood the town of Opus, is a considerable bay, shallow at its inner extremity. In this bay, close to the coast, is the small island of Atalanta.
  There are three important passes across the Locrian mountains into Phocis. One leads from the territory of the Epicnemidii, between the summits of Mount Callidromus and Mount Cnemis, to Tithronum, in the upper valley of the Cephissus; a second across Mount Cnemis to the Phocian town of Elateia; and a third from Opus to Hyampolis, also a Phocian town, whence the road ran to Abae and Orchomenos.
  The eastern Locrians, as we have already said, are mentioned by Homer, who describes them as following Ajax, the son of Oileus, to the Trojan War in forty ships, and as inhabiting the towns of Cynus, Opus, Calliarus, Besa, Scarphe, Augeiae, Tarphe, and Thronium. (Il. ii. 527-535.) Neither Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, nor Polybius, make any distinction between the Opuntii and Epicnemidii; and, during the flourishing period of Grecian history, Opus was regarded as the chief town of the eastern Locrians. Even Strabo, from whom the distinction is chiefly derived, in one place describes Opus as the metropolis of the Epicnemidii; and the same is confirmed by Pliny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Stephanus (s. v. Opoeis; from Leake vol. ii. p. 181). In the Persian War the Opuntian Locrians fought with Leonidas at Thermopylae, and also sent seven ships to the Grecian fleet. (Herod. vii. 203, viii. 1.) The Locrians fought on the side of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. (Thuc. ii. 9.)
The following is a list of the Locrian towns:-
  Of the Epicnemidii: along the coast from N. to S., Alpenus; Nicaea; Scarphe or Scarpheia; Thronium; Cnemis or Cnemides; more inland, Tarphe afterwards Pharygae; Augeiae.
  Of the Opuntii: along the coast from N. to S., Alope; Cynus; Opus; Haleae; Larymna which at a later time belonged to Boeotia; more inland, Calliarus; Naryx; Corseia.
2. Locri Ozolae (Ozolai), inhabited a district upon the Corinthian gulf, bounded on the north by Doris and Aetolia, on the east by Phocis, and on the west by Aetolia. This district is mountainous, and for the most part unproductive. The declivities of Mount Parnassus from Phocis, and of Mount Corax from Aetolia, occupy the greater part of it. The only river, of which the name is mentioned, is the Hylaethus now the Morno, which runs in a south-westerly direction, and falls into the Corinthian gulf near Naupactus. The frontier of the Locri Ozolae on the west was close to the promontory Antirrhium, opposite the promontory Rhium on the coast of Achaia. Antirrhium, was in the territory of the Locri . The eastern frontier of Locris, on the coast, was close to the Phocian town of Crissa; and the Crissaean gulf washed on its western side the Locrian, and on its eastern the Phocian coast. The origin of the name of Ozolae is uncertain. Various etymologies were proposed by the ancients. (Paus. x. 38. § 1, seq.) Some derived it from the verb ozein, to smell, either from the stench arising from a spring at the foot of Mount Taphiassus, beneath which the centaur Nessus is said to have been buried, and which still retains this property (cf. Strab. ix.), or from the abundance of asphodel which scented the air. (Cf. Archytas, ap. Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15.) Others derived it from the undressed skins which were worn by the ancient inhabitants; and the Locrians themselves from the branches (ozoi) of a vine which was produced in their country in a marvellous manner. The Locri Ozolae are said to have been a colony from the Opuntian Locrians. They first appear in history in the time of the Peloponnesian War, as has been mentioned above, when they are mentioned by Thucydides as a semi-barbarous nation, along with the Aetolians and Acarnanians, whom they resembled in their armour and mode of fighting. (Thuc. i. 5, iii. 94.) In B.C. 426 the Locrians promised to assist Demosthenes, the Athenian commander, in his invasion of Aetolia; but, after the defeat of Demosthenes, most of the Locrian tribes submitted without opposition to the Spartan Eurylochus, who marched through their territory from Delphi to Naupactus. (Thuc. iii. 95, seq.) They belonged at a later period to the Aetolian League. (Polyb. xviii. 30.)
  The chief and only important town of the Ozolae was Amphissa, situated on the borders of Phocis. The other towns, in the direction of W. to E., were: Molycreia; Naupactus; Oeneon; Anticyra; Eupalium; Erythrae; Tolophon; Hessus; Oeantheia or Oeanthe; Ipnus; Chalaeum; more inland, Aegitium; Potidania; Crocyleium; Teichium; Olpae; Messapia; Hyle; Tritaea; Myonia.

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OPOUS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Opus
  Opous (contr. of Opoeis, Il. ii. 531), Eth. Opountios. The chief town of a tribe of the Locri, who were called from this place the Locri Opuntii. It stood at the head of the Opuntian gulf (ho Opountios kolpos, Strab. ix. p. 425; Opuntius Sinus, Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Mela, ii. 3. § 6), a little inland, being 15 stadia from the shore according to Strabo, or only a mile according to Livy (xxviii. 6). Opus was believed to be one of the most ancient towns in Greece. It was said to have been founded by Opus, a son of Locrus and Protogeneia; and in its neighbourhood Deucalion and Pyrrha were reported to have resided. (Pind. Ol. ix. 62, 87; Schol. ad loc.) It was the native city of Patroclus. (Hom. Il. xviii. 326), and it is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue as one of the Locrian towns subject to Ajax, son of Oileus (Il. ii. 531). During the flourishing period of Grecian history, it was regarded as the chief city of the eastern Locrians, for the distinction between the Opuntii and Epicnemidii is not made either by Herodotus, Thucydides, or Polybius. Even Strabo, from whom the distinction is chiefly derived, in one place describes Opus as the capital of the Epicnemidii (ix. p. 416); and the same is confirmed by Pliny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Stephanus (s. v. Opoeis; from Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 181.) The Opuntii joined Leonidas with all their forces at Thermopylae, and sent seven ships to the Grecian fleet at Artemisium. (Herod. vii. 203, viii 1.) Subsequently they belonged to the anti-Athenian party in Greece. Accordingly, after the conquest of Boeotia by the Athenians, which followed the battle of Oenophyta, B.C. 456, the Athenians carried off 100 of the richest Opuntians as hostages. (Thuc. i. 108.) In the Peloponnesian War the Opuntian privateers annoyed the Athenian trade, and it was in order to check them that the Athenians fortified the small island of Atalanta off the Opuntian coast. (Thuc. ii. 32.) In the war between Antigonus and Cassander, Opus espoused the cause of the latter, and was therefore besieged by Ptolemy, the general of Antigonus. (Diod. xix. 78.) The position of Opus is a disputed point. Meletius has fallen into the error of identifying it with Pundonitza, which is in the territory of the Epicnemidii. Many modern writers place Opus at Talanda, where are several Hellenic remains; but Leake observes that the distance of Talanda from the sea is much too great to correspond with the testimony of Strabo and Livy. Accordingly Leake places Opus at Kardhenitza, a village situated an hour to the south-eastward of Talanda, at a distance from the sea corresponding to the 15 stadia of Strabo, and where exist the remains of an ancient city. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 173, seq.)

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OTHRYS (Mountain chain) STEREA HELLAS

Othrys
  Othrys (he Othrus), a lofty chain of mountains, which shuts in the plain of Thessaly from the south. It branches off from Mount Tymphrestus, a summit in the range of Pindus, and runs nearly due east through Phthiotis to the sea coast, thus separating the waters which flow into the Peneius from those of the Spercheius. (Strab. ix. pp. 432, 433; comp. Herod. vii. 129; Plin. iv. 8. s. 15.) On its northern side, many offshoots extend into the plain of Pharsalus. It is lofty and covered with wood, whence the poets give it the epithet of nivalis (Virg. Aen. vii. 675) and nenierosus (Lucan vi.337). It is now usually called Gura, from a large village of this name upon its sides; but its highest summit, which lies to the east of this village, is named Jeracovouni, and is 5669 feet above the level of the sea. The subsoil of the whole range is a limestone of various and highly-inclined strata occasionally mixed with iron ore, amyanthe and asbestos. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 17, vol. iv. p. 330, seq.; Journal of Geogr. Society, vol. vii. p. 92.)

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PROERNA (Ancient city) DOMOKOS

Proerna
  A town of Phthiotis, in Thessaly (Strab. ix. p. 434), which Stephanus B. writes Proarna (Proarna), and calls by mistake a town of the Malians. In B.C. 191 Proerna, which had been taken by Antiochus, was recovered by the consul Acilius. (Liv. xxxvi. 14.) We learn from this passage of Livy that Proerna stood between Pharsalus and Thaumaci, and it is accordingly placed by Leake at Ghynekokastro. (Northern Greece, vol. i.p.459)
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SKARFIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Scarphe
  Scarphe or Scarpheia (Skarphe, Horn.; Skarpheia, Strab., Paus., Steph. B.: Eth. Skarpheus, Skarphaieus), a town of the Locri Epicnemidii, mentioned by Homer. (Il. ii. 532.) According to Strabo it was 10 stadia from the sea, 30 stadia from Thronium, and a little less from some other place of which the name is lost, probably Nicaea. (Strab. ix. p. 426.) It appears from Pausanias that it lay on the direct road from Elateia to Thermopylae by Thronium (viii. 15. § 3), and likewise from Livy, who states that Quintius Flamininus marched from Elateia by Thronium and Scarpheia to Heracleia (xxxiii. 3). Hence the town may be placed between the modern villages of ‘Andera and Molo. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 178.) Scarpheia is said by Strabo to have been destroyed by an inundation of the sea caused by an earthquake (i. p. 60), but it must have been afterwards rebuilt, as it is mentioned by subsequent writers down to a late period. (Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Ptol. iii. 15. § 11; Hierocl. p. 643; Geog. Rav. iv. 10; Const. Porphyr. de Them. ii. 5. p. 51, Bonn.) Scarpheia is also mentioned by Lycophr. 1147; Appian, Syr. 19; Paus. ii. 29. § 3, x. 1. § 2.

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SPERCHIES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Sperchiae
  A place in Thessaly, which, according to the description of Livy (xxxii. 13), would seem to have been situated at no great distance from the sources of the Spercheius. Ptolemy (iii. 13. § 17) mentions a place Spercheia between Echinus and Thebes in Phthiotis; and Pliny (iv. 7. s. 13) places Sperchios in Doris. It is probable that these three names indicate the same place, but that its real position was unknown.

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SPERCHIOS (River) FTHIOTIDA

Spercheius
  Spercheius (Spercheios: Elladha), a river in the S. of Thessaly, rising in Mount Tymphrestus (Strab. ix. p. 433), and flowing into the Maliac gulf. The Dryopes and Aenianes dwelt in the upper part of its course till it entered the plain of Malis, through which it flowed to the sea. In ancient times it joined the sea at Anticyra; and the rivers Dyras, Melas, and Asopus fell separately into the sea to the S. of the Spercheius. (Herod. vii. 198.) But the Spercheius has changed its course, and now falls into the sea much further south, about a mile from Thermopylae. The Dyras and Melas now unite their streams, and fall into the Spercheius, as does also the Asopus. Spercheius is celebrated in mythology as a river-god, and is mentioned in connection with Achilles. (Hom. Il. xvii. 142.) Its name also frequently occurs in the other poets. (Aesch. Pers. 486; Sophocl. Phil. 722; Virg. Georg. ii. 485; Lucan vi.366.) (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 8, 11, 15.)

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TARFI (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Tarphe
  Eth. Tarphaios. A town of the Locri Epicnemidii, mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 533). It was situated upon a height in a fertile and woody country, and was said to have derived its name from the thickets in which it stood. In the time of Strabo it had changed its name into that of Pharygae (Pharugai), and was said to have received a colony from Argos. It contained a temple of Hera Pharygaea. It is probably the modern Pundonitza.

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THAVMAKOS (Ancient city) DOMOKOS

Thaumaci
  Thaumakoi: Eth. Thaumakos. A town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, was situated on the pass called Coela, on the road from Thermopylae and the Maliac gulf passing through Lamia. At this place, says Livy, the traveller, after traversing rugged mountains and intricate valleys, comes suddenly in sight of an immense plain like a vast sea, the extremity of which is scarcely visible. From the astonishment which it excited in the traveller, the city was supposed to have derived its name. It stood upon a lofty and precipitous rock. It was besieged by Philip in B.C. 199; but a reinforcement of Aetolians having made their way into the town, the king was obliged to abandon the siege. (Liv. xxxii. 4.) Thaumaci was taken by the consul Acilius in the war with Antiochus, B.C. 191. (Liv. xxxvi. 14; comp. Strab. ix. p. 434; Steph. B. s. v. Thaumakia.) Dhomoko occupies the site of Thaumaci, and at this place inscriptions are found containing the ancient name. Its situation and prospect are in exact accordance with the description of Livy, who copied from Polybius, an eye-witness. Dodwell says that the view from this place is the most wonderful and extensive he ever beheld, and Leake observes that at the southern end of the town a rocky point, overtopping the other heights, commands a magnificent prospect of the immense plain watered by the Peneius and its branches.

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THERMOPYLES (Historic place) LAMIA

Thermopulae
  Thermopulai, or simply Pylae (Pulai). That is, the Hot Gates or the Gates, a celebrated narrow pass, leading from Thessaly into Locris, and the only road by which an enemy can penetrate from northern into southern Greece. It lay between Mount Oeta and an inaccessible morass, forming the edge of the Maliac gulf. In consequence of the change in the course of the rivers, and in the configuration of the coast, this pass is now very different from its condition in ancient times; and it is therefore necessary first to give the statement of Herodotus and other ancient writers respecting the locality, and then to compare it with its present state. In the time of Herodotus the river Spercheius flowed into the sea in an easterly direction at the town of Anticyra, considerably W. of the pass. Twenty stadia E. of the Spercheius was another river, called Dyras, and again, 20 stadia further, a third river, named Melas, 5 stadia from which was the city Trachis. Between the mountains where Trachis stands and the sea the plain is widest. Still further E. was the Asopus, issuing from a rocky gorge (diasphaz), and E. again is a small stream, named Phoenix, flowing into the Asopus. From the Phoenix to Thermopylae the distance, Herodotus says, is 15 stadia. (Herod. vii. 198 - 200.) Near the united streams of the Phoenix and the Asopus, Mt. Oeta approached so close to the morass of the gulf as to leave space for only a single carriage. In the immediate vicinity of the pass is the town of Anthela, celebrated for the temples of Amphictyon and of the Amphictyonic Demeter, containing seats for the members of the Amphicytonic council, who held here their autumnal meetings. At Anthela Mount Oeta recedes a little from the sea, leaving a plain a little more than half a mile in breadth, but again contracts near Alpeni, the first town of the Locrians, where the space is again only sufficient for a single carriage. At this pass were some hot springs, which were consecrated to Hercules (Strab. ix. p. 428), and were called by the natives Chytri or the Pans, on account of the cells here prepared for the bathers. Across this pass the Phocians had in ancient times built a wall to defend their country against the attacks of the Thessalians, and had let. loose the hot water, so as to render the pass impracticable. (Herod. vii. 200, 176.) It appears from this description that the proper Thermopylae was the narrow pass near the Locrian town of Alpeni; but the name was also applied in general to the whole passage from the mouth of the Asopus to Alpeni. Taking the term in this acceptation, Thermopylae consisted of the two narrow openings, with a plain between them rather more than a mile in length and about half a mile in breadth. That portion of Mt. Oeta, which rises immediately above Thermopylae is called Callidromon by Livy and Strabo, but both writers are mistaken in describing it as the highest part of the range. Livy says that the pass is 60 stadia in breadth. (Liv. xxxvi. 15; Strab. ix. p. 428.)
  In consequence of the accumulation of soil brought down by the Spercheius and the other rivers, three or four miles of new land have been formed, and the mountain forming the gates of Thermopylae is no longer close to the sea. Moreover, the Spercheius, instead of flowing into the sea in an easterly direction, considerably W. of Thermopylae, now continues its course parallel to the pass and at the distance of a mile from it, falling into the sea lower down, to the E. of the pass. The rivers Dyras, Melas, and Asopus, which formerly reached the sea by different mouths, now discharge their waters into the Spercheius. In addition to this there has been a copious deposit from the warm springs, and a consequent formation of new soil in the pass itself. The present condition of the pass has been described by Colonel Leake with his usual clearness and accuracy. Upon entering the western opening, Leake crossed a stream of warm mineral water, running with great rapidity towards the Spercheius, and leaving a great quantity of red deposit. This is undoubtedly the Phoenix, which probably derived its name from the colour of the sediment. After crossing a second salt-spring, which is the source of the Phoenix, and a stream of cold salt water, Leake entered upon that which Herodotus calls the plain of Anthela, which is a long triangular slope, formed of a hard gravelly soil, and covered with shrubs. There is an easy descent into this plain over the mountains, so that the western opening was of no importance in a military point of view. Upon reaching the eastern pass, situated at the end of the plain of Anthela, the traveller reaches a white elevated soil formed by the deposit of the salt-springs of the proper Thermopylae. There are two principal sources of these springs, the upper or western being immediately at the foot of the highest part of the cliffs, and the lower or eastern being 200 yards distant. From the lower source the water is conducted in an artificial canal for a distance of 400 yards to a mill. This water emits a strong sulphureous vapour, and, as it issues from the mill, it pours out a great volume of smoke. Beyond the hill are conical heights, and in their neighbourhood are two salt ponds, containing cold water; but as this water is of the same composition as the hot springs, it is probably also hot at its issue. Leake observes that the water of these pools, like that of the principal hot source, is of a dark blue colour, thus illustrating the remark of Pausanias, that the bluest water he ever saw was in one of the baths at Thermopylae. (Paus. iv. 35. § 9.) The springs at this pass are much hotter, and have left a far greater deposit than those at the other end of the plain, at the opening which may be called the false Thermopylae. Issuing from the pass are foundations of a Hellenic wall, doubtless the remains of works by which the pass was at one time fortified; and to the left is a tumulus and the foundations of a circular monument. Upwards of a mile further is a deep ravine, in which the torrents descending from Mt. Callidromon, are collected into one bed, and which afford the easiest and most direct passage to the summit of the mountain. This is probably the mountain path by which the Persians, under Hydarnes, descended in the rear of Leonidas and his companions. This path, as well as the mountain over which it leads, is called Anopaea (he Anopaia) by Herodotus, who does not use the name of Callidromon. He describes the path as beginning at the gorge of the Asopus, passing over the crest of the mountain, and terminating near Alpeni and the rock called Melampygus, and the seats of the Cercopes, where the road is narrowest. (Herod. vii. 216.) The history of the defence of Thermopylae by Leonidas is too well known to require to be related here. The wall of the Phocians, which Leonidas repaired, was probably built a little eastward of the western salt-spring. When the Spartan king learnt that Hydarnes was descending in his rear, he advanced beyond the wall into the widest part of the pass, resolved to sell his life as dearly as possible. Upon the arrival of Hydarnes, the Greeks retired behind the wall, and took up their position upon a hill in the pass (kolonos en tei eisodoi), where a stone lion was afterwards erected in honour of Leonidas. This hill Leake identifies with the western of the two small heights already described, as nearest to the position of the Phocian wall, and the narrowest part of the pass. The other height is probably the rock Melampygus.
  Thermopylae is immortalised by the heroic defence of Leonidas; but it was also the scene of some important struggles in later times. In B.C. 279 an allied army of the Greeks assembled in the pass to oppose the Gauls under Brennus, who were marching into southern Greece with the view of pillaging the temple of Delphi. The Greeks held their ground for several days against the attacks of the Gauls, till at length the Heracleotae and Aenianes conducted the invaders across Mount Callidromon by the same path which Hydarnes had followed two centuries before. The Greeks, finding their position no longer tenable, embarked on board their ships and retired without further loss. (Paus. x. 19 - 22.) In B.C. 207, when the Romans were carrying on war in Greece against Philip, king of Macedonia, the Aetolians, who were then in alliance with the Romans, fortified Thermopylae with a ditch and a rampart, but Philip shortly afterwards forced his way through the pass. (Liv. xxviii. 5, 7; Polyb. x. 41.) In B.C. 181, Antiochus, who was then at war with the Romans, took up his position at Thermopylae, which he fortified with a double rampart, a ditch, and a wall; and, in order to prevent the Romans from crossing the mountains and descending upon his rear, he garrisoned with 2000 Aetolians the three summits, named Callidromum, Teichius, and Rhoduntia. The consul Acilius sent some troops against these fortresses and at the same time attacked the army of Antiochus in the pass. While the battle was going on in the pass, the Roman detachment, which had succeeded in taking Callidromum, appeared upon the heights, threatening the king's rear, in consequence of which Antiochus immediately took to flight. (Liv. xxxvi. 15 - 19.) There are still. remains of three Hellenic fortresses upon the heights above Thermopylae, which probably represent the three places mentioned by Livy. Appian (Syr. 17) speaks only of Callidromum and Teichius, but Strabo (ix. p. 428) mentions Rhoduntia also. Procopius relates that the fortifications of Thermopylae. were restored by Justinian (de Aed. iv. 2).

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THRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Thronium
  Thronion: Eth. Thronios, Thronites, Thronieus. The chief town of the Locri Epicnemidii, situated 20 stadia from the coast and 30 stadia from Scarpheia, upon the river Boagrius, which is described by Strabo as sometimes dry, and sometimes flowing with a stream two plethra in breadth. (Strab. ix. p. 436.) It is mentioned by Homer, who speaks of it as near the river Boagrius. (Il. ii. 533.) It was at one time partly destroyed by an earthquake. (Strab. i. p. 60.) At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 431) Thronium was taken by the Athenians. (Thuc. ii. 26; Diod. xii. 44.) In the Sacred War it was taken by Onomarchus, the Phocian general, who sold its inhabitants into slavery, and hence it is called by Scylax a Phocian city. The site of Thronium was ascertained by Meletius who found above the village Romani, at a place named Paleokastro, where some remains of the city still exist, a dedicatory inscription of the council and demus of the Thronienses.

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TITHOREA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Neon
  Eth. Neonios. An ancient town of Phocis, said to have been built after the Trojan war (Strab. ix. p. 439), was situated at the foot of Mt. Tithorea, one of the peaks of Mt. Parnassus. Herodotus relates that, when the Persian army invaded Phocis, many of the Phocians took refuge in Tithorea near Neon (viii. 32), and that the latter city was destroyed by the Persians (viii. 33). It was, however, afterwards rebuilt; but was again destroyed, with the other Phocian towns, at the end of the Sacred War. (Paus. x. 3. § 2.) In its neighbourhood, Philomelus, the Phocian general, was defeated, and perished in the flight by throwing himself down from a lofty rock. (Paus. x. 2. § 4.) Neon now disappears from history, and in its place we read of a town TITHOREA, which is described by Pausanias (x. 32. § 8, seq.). This writer regards Tithorea as situated on the same site as Neon ; and relates that Tithorea was the name anciently applied to the whole district, and that when the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages were collected in the city, the name of Tithorea was substituted for that of Neon. This, however, is not in accordance with the statement of Plutarch, according to whom Tithorea, in the time of the Mithridatic war, was a fortress surrounded by precipitous rocks, where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes. He further states that it was not such a city as the one existing in his day. (Plat. Sull. 15.) If the view of Plutarch is correct, that the fortress, the site of which was afterwards occupied by the city Tithorea, was the place where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes, we may conclude that Tithorea and Neon were two different places.
  The city, which existed in the time of Plutarch and Pausanias, was a place of some importance, though it had begun to decline for a generation before the time of Pausanias. The latter writer mentions, however, a theatre, the enclosure of an ancient agora, a temple of Athena, and the tomb of Antiope and Phocus. A river flowed by Tithorea, called Cachales (Kachales), to which the inhabitants had to descend in order to obtain water. In the territory of Tithorea, but at the distance of 70 stadia from the city, was a temple of Asclepius, and also, at the distance of 40 stadia, a shrine of Isis. (Paus. x. 32. §§ 8 - 13.) The name is written Tithorea in Herodotus and Pausanias, Tithoraia in Stephanus B., Tithora in Plutarch, but Tithorra in inscriptions. The Ethnic name in Pausanias is Tithoreeus, in Stephanus Tithoraieus, but in inscriptions Tithoreus.
  The ruins of Tithorea are situated at Velitza, a village at the NE. foot of Mt. Parnassus. The site is fixed by an inscription found at Velitza, in which the name of Tithorea occurs. Two-thirds of the modern village stand within the ruined walls of the ancient city. A considerable portion of the walls, and many of the towers, still remain. The town was carefully fortified towards the W. and NW., and was sufficiently protected towards the NE. and E. by the precipitous banks of the Cachales, and towards the S. by the steep sides of Mt. Parnassus. The walls are almost 9 feet broad. The Cachales, which now bears the name of Kakoreuma, or the evil torrent, flows in a ravine below the village, and thus illustrates the statement of Pausanias, that the inhabitants descended to it in order to obtain water. Behind Velitza, ascending the Cachales, there is a cavern on the steep side of the rock, which, during the last war of independence, received a great number of fugitives. It is very spacious, is supplied with excellent water, and is quite impregnable. This is probably the place where the inhabitants of Neon and the surrounding places took refuge in the Persian invasion, as the Delphians did in the Corycian cave, more especially as the height immediately above Velitza is not adapted for such a purpose. A difficult mule path leads at present through the ravine of the Cachales across the heights of Parnassus to Delphi. In the time of Pausanias there were two roads from Tithorea across the mountain to Delphi, one direct, the other longer, but practicable for carriages. Pausanias assigns 80 stadia as the length of the shorter road; but this number cannot be correct, as Leake observes, since the direct distance is hardly less than 12 geographical miles.
  Most modern writers have followed Pausanias in identifying Tithorea and Neon; but Ulrichs, for the reasons which have been already stated, supposes them to have been different cities, and places Neon at the Hellenic ruins on the Cephissus, called Palea Fiva, distant 1 1/2 hour, or 3 1/2 English miles, from Velitza. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 77, seq.; Ulrichs, in Rheinisches Museum, 1843, p. 544, seq.)

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TITHRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Tithronium
  Tithronion: Eth. Tithronieus. A frontier town of Phocis, on the side of Doris. Livy, who calls it Tritonon, describes it as a town of Doris (xxviii. 7), but all other writers place it in Phocis. It was destroyed by the army of Xerxes together with the other Phocian towns. It is placed. by Pausanias in the plain at the distance of 15 stadia from Amphicleia. The site of Tithronium is probably indicated by some ruins at Mulki below Verzana, where a torrent unites with the Cephissus.

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TRACHIS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Trachis
  Eth. Trachinios. A city of Malis, in the district called after, it Trachinia. It stood in a plain at the foot of Mt. Oeta, a little to the N. or rather W. of Thermopylae, and derived its name from the rocks which surrounded the plain. It commanded the approach to Thermopylae from Thessaly, and was, from its position, of great military importance. (Herod. vii. 176; Strab. ix. p. 428; Steph. B. s. v.) The entrance to the Trachinian plain was only half a plethrum in breadth, but the surface of the plain was 22,000 plethra, according to Herodotus. The same writer states that the city Trachis was 5 stadia from the river Melas, and that the river Asopus issued from a gorge in the mountains, to the S. of Trachis. (Herod. vii. 198.) According to Thucydides, Trachis was 40 stadia from Thermopylae and 20 from the sea (Thuc. iii. 92.) Trachin is mentioned in Homer as one of the cities subject to Achilles (Il. ii. 682), and is celebrated in the legends of Hercules as the scene of this hero's death. (Soph. Trach. passim.) It became a place of historical importance in consequence of the colony founded here by the Lacedaemonians in the sixth year of the Peloponnesian War, B.C. 426. The Trachinians and the neighbouring Dorians, who suffered much from the predatory incursions of the Oetaean mountaineers, solicited aid from the Spartans, who eagerly availed themselves of this opportunity to plant a strong colony in this commanding situation. They issued an invitation to the other states of Greece to join in the colony; and as many as 10,000 colonists, under three Spartan oecists, built and fortified a new town, to which the name of HERACLEIA was given, from the great hero, whose name was so closely associated with the surrounding district. (Thuc. iii. 92; Diod. xii. 59.) It was usually called the Trachinian Heracleia, to distinguish it from other places of the same name, and by later writers Heracleia in Phthiotis, as this district was subsequently included in the Thessalian Phthiotis. (Herakleia he en Trachiniai, Xen. Hell. i. 2. 18: Diod. xii. 77, xv. 57; Herakleotai hoi en Trachini, Thuc. v. 51; He. He. he Trachin kaloumene proteron, Strab. ix. p. 428; Heraclea Trachin dicta, Plin. iv. 7. s. 14; H. Phthiotidos, Ptol. iii. 13. § 46.) The new colonists also built a port with docks near Thermopylae. It was generally expected that this city. under the protection of Sparta, would become a formidable power in Northern Greece, but it was attacked from the beginning by the Thessalians, who regarded its establishment as an invasion of their territory; and the Spartans, who rarely succeeded in the government of dependencies, displayed haughtiness and corruption in its administration. Hence the city rapidly dwindled down; and in B.C. 420 the Heracleots were defeated with great loss by the neighbouring Thessalian tribes, and Xenares, the Lacedaemonian governor, was slain in the battle. Sparta was unable at the time to send assistance to their colony; and in the following year the Boeotians, fearing lest the place should fall into the hands of the Athenians, took possession of it, and dismissed the Lacedaemonian governor, on the ground of misconduct. (Thuc. v. 51, 52.) The Lacedaemonians, however, regained possession of the place; and in the winter of B.C. 409 - 408, they experienced here another disaster, 700 of the Heracleots being slain in battle, together with the Lacedaemonian harmost. (Xen. Hell. i. 3. 18) But, after the Peloponnesian War, Heracleia again rose into importance, and became the head-quarters of the Spartan power in Northern Greece. In B.C. 399 Herippidas, the Lacedaemonian, was sent thither to repress some factious movements in Heracleia; and he not only put to death all the opponents of the Lacedaemonians in the town, but expelled the neighbouring Oetaeans and Trachinians. from their abodes. (Diod. xiv. 38; Polyaen. ii. 21.) In B.C. 395 the Thebans, under the command of Ismenias, wrested this important place from the Spartans, killed the Lacedaemonian garrison, and gave the city to the old Trachinian and Oetaean inhabitants. (Diod. xiv. 82.) The walls of Heracleia were destroyed by Jason, lest any state should seize this place and prevent him from marching into Greece. (Xen. Hell. vi. 4. 27) At a later time Heracleia came into the hands of the Aetolians, and was one of the main sources of their power in Northern Greece. After the defeat of Antiochus at Thermopylae, B.C. 191, Heracleia was besieged by the Roman consul Acilius Glabrio, who divided his army into four bodies, and directed his attacks upon four points at once; one body being stationed on the river Asopus, where was the gymnasium; the second near the citadel outside of the walls (extra muros), which was almost more thickly inhabited than the city itself; the third towards the Maliac gulf; and the fourth on the river Melas, opposite the temple of Diana. The country around was marshy, and abounded in lofty trees. After a siege of twenty-four days the Romans succeeded in taking the town, and the Aetolians retired to the citadel. On the following day the consul seized a rocky summit, equal to the citadel in height, and separated from it only by a chasm so narrow that the two summits were within reach, of a missile. Thereupon the Aetolians surrendered the citadel. (Liv. xxxvi. 24.) Leake remarks that it seems quite clear from this account of Livy that the city occupied the low ground between the rivers Karvunaria (Asopus) and Mavra-Neria (Melas), extending from the one to the other, as well as a considerable distance into the plain in a south-eastern direction. There are still some vestiges of the citadel upon a lofty rock above; and upon its perpendicular sides there are many catacombs excavated. The distance of the citadel above the town justifies the words extra muros, which Livy applies to it, and may explain also the assertion of Strabo, that Heracleia was six stadia distant from the ancient Trachis; for, although the town of Heracleia seems to have occupied the same position as the Trachis of Herodotus, the citadel, which, according to Livy, was better inhabited in the Aetolian War than the city, may very possibly have been the only inhabited part of Heracleia two centuries later. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 26 - 29.)

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VISSA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Bessa
Eth. Bessaios. A town in Locris, so called from its situation in a wooded glen, mentioned by Homer, but which had disappeared in the time of Strabo.
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XYNIA (Ancient city) YPATI

Xynia
  Xyniae (Xunia: Eth. Xunieus). A town near the southern confines of Thessaly, and the district of the Aenianes (Liv. xxxiii. 3), which gave its name to the lake Xynias (Xunias), which Stephanus confounds with the Boebeis (Apollon. Rhod. i. 67; Catull. lxiii. 287; Steph. B. s. v. Xunia). Xynia, having been deserted by its inhabitants, was plundered by the Aetolians in B.C. 198 (Liv. xxxii. 13). In the following year Flamininus arrived at this place in three days' march from Heraclea (Liv. xxxiii. 3; comp. Liv. xxxix. 26). The lake of Xynias is now called Taukli, and is described as 6 miles in circumference. The site of the ancient city is marked by some remains of ruined edifices upon a promontory or peninsula in the lake. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 460, vol. iv. p. 517.)

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YAMPOLIS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Hyampolis
  Huampolis: Eth. Huampolites. An ancient town of Phocis, mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 521), and said to have been founded by the Hyantes after they had been expelled from Boeotia by the Cadmeians. (Paus. ix. 35. § 5; Strab. ix. p. 424.) It was situated on the road leading from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. l c.), and, as it stood at the entrance of a valley which formed a convenient passage from Locris into Phocis and Boeotia, its name frequently occurs in history. It was at the entrance of this pass that the Phocians gained a victory over the Thessalians. (Herod. viii. 28.) Hyampolis was afterwards destroyed, along with the other Phocian towns, by the army of Xerxes. (Herod. viii. 33.) In B.C. 371 Jason, in his march through Phocis, when he was returning from Boeotia after the battle of Leuctra, is said to have taken Huampoliton to proasteion (Xen Hell. vi. 4. § 27), which is supposed by some to be the same place as Cleonae, a village belonging to Hyampolis. (Pint. de Virt. Mul. p. 244; Valcken. ad Herod. viii. 28.) In B.C. 347 a battle was fought near Hyampolis between the Boeotians and Phocians. (Diod. xvi. 56.) The city is said to have been destroyed by Philip; but, as Pausanias states that the ancient agora, senate-house, and theatre were still remaining in his time, it must have been chiefly the fortifications which were destroyed by Philip. At all events it continued to be an inhabited city, and is mentioned in the Roman wars in Greece. (Liv. xxxii. 18.) It was embellished by Hadrian with a Stoa. Pausanias mentions also a temple of Artemis, who was the deity chiefly worshipped in the city. (Paus. x. 35. § § 6, 7.) Pliny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Ptolemy (iii. 15. § 20) erroneously describe Hyampolis as a city of Boeotia.
  The ruins of Hyampolis may be seen upon a height about five minutes northward of the village of Vogdhani. The entire circuit of the fortifications is traceable, but they are most complete on the western side. The masonry is of the third order, nearly approaching to the most regular kind. The circumference is about three-quarters of a mile. The direct distance to this ruin from the summit of Abae is not more than a mile and a half in a north-west direction. Below Vogdhani, on the side of a steep bank which falls to the valley of Khubavo, a fountain issuing from the rock is discharged through two spouts into a stone reservoir of ancient construction, which stands probably in its original place. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 167, seq.)
  Strabo relates that there was another town, named Hyampolis, in Phocis, situated on Parnassus.

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YPATI (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Hypata
  he Hupate, ta Hupata: Eth. Hupataios, Hypataeus, also Hupateus. The chief town of the Aenianes, in the valley of the Spercheius, and at the foot of Mt. Oeta. In the Roman wars in Greece it belonged to the Aetolian league. (Polyb. xx. 9, 11, xxi. 2, 3; Liv. xxxvi. 14, 26.) The women of Hypata, as of many other Thessalian towns, were noted for their skill in magic; and it was here that Lucius, in the story of Lucian, was metamorphosed into an ass. (Lucian, Asin. 1, seq.;. comp. Apul. Metam. i. p. 104; Theophr. H. Plant. ix. 2.) The town is mentioned by Hierocles in the 6th century. (Hierocl. p. 642, ed. Wess.; comp. Ptol. iii. 13. § 45.) It occupied the site of the modern Neopatra, where inscriptions have been discovered containing the name of Hypata. The town appears to have been called Neae Patrae in the middle ages, and is mentioned in the 12th century as a strongly fortified place. (Niceph. Gregor. iv. 9. p. 112, ed. Bonn.) There are still considerable remains of the ancient town. Leake observed many large quadrangular blocks of stones and foundations of ancient walls on the heights of Neopatra, as well as in the buildings of the town. In the metropolitan church he noticed a handsome shaft of white marble, and on the outside of the wall an inscription in small characters of the best times. He also discovered an inscription on a broken block of white marble, lying under a plane-tree near a fountain in the Jewish burying-ground. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 14, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

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 Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

ALES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Halae, Halai
A town on the Opuntian Gulf.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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ALPINI (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Alpenus
A town of the Epicnemidian Locri, at the entrance of the Pass of Thermopylae. (Alpenoi, Herod. vii. 176; Alpenos polis, Herod. vii. 216: Eth. Alpenos)
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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AMFIKLIA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Amphiclea
A town of northern Phocis, with a shrine of Dionysus.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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ANTHILI (Ancient city) LAMIA

Anthele
   A small town of Thessaly, in the interval between the river Phoenix and the Straits of Thermopylae, and near the spot where the Asopus flows into the sea. In the immediate vicinity were the temples of Demeter Amphictyonia, that of Amphictyon, and the seats of the Amphictyons. It was one of the two places where the Amphictyonic Council used to meet, the other being Delphi. The place for holding the assembly here was the temple of Demeter.

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ANTRON (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Antron
A town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, at the entrance to the Sinus Maliacus.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Abae
   A city of Phocis, near and to the right of Elatea, towards Opus. The inhabitants had a tradition that their city was founded by Abas, son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, grandson of Danaus. It was most probably of Pelasgic origin. Abae was early celebrated for its oracle of Apollo, of greater antiquity than that at Delphi, and hence Apollo is called Abaeus. During the Persian invasion, the army of Xerxes set fire to the temple, and nearly destroyed it; soon after it again gave oracles, though in this dilapidated state, and was consulted for that purpose by an agent of Mardonius.

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DAFNOUS (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Daphnous
A town of the Locri Opuntii, situated on the seacoast, at the mouth of a river of the same name, near the frontiers of the Epicnemidian Locri. Into the river Daphnus the body of Hesiod was thrown after his murder.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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DRYMEA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Drymaea
A town in Phocis, a little south of the Cephissus.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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ECHINOUS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Echinus
A town in Thessaly on the Maliac Gulf, said to have derived its name from Echion, who sprang from the dragon's teeth.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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FALARA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Phalara
A town of Phthiotis in Thessaly; the harbour of Lamia.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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FTHIOTIS (Ancient country) FTHIOTIDA

Phthiotis
A district in the southeast of Thessaly, bounded on the south by the Maliac Gulf, and on the east by the Pagasaean Gulf, and inhabited by Achaeans. Homer calls it Phthia, and mentions a city of the same name, which was celebrated as the residence of Achilles. Hence, the poets call Achilles Phthius heros, and his father Peleus Phthius rex.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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HERAKLIA (Ancient city) LAMIA

Heraclea
   Trachinia, a town of Thessaly, founded by the Lacedaemonians, and a colony from Trachis, about B.C. 426, in the sixth year of the Peloponnesian War. It was distant about sixty stadia from Thermopylae and twenty from the sea. Iason, tyrant of Pherae, took possession of this city at one period, and caused the walls to be pulled down. Heraclea, however, again arose from its ruins, and became a flourishing city under the Aetolians, who sometimes held their general council within its walls. It was taken by the Roman consul, Acilius Glabrio, after a long and obstinate siege.

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Trachis or Trachin
Also called Heraclea Trachiniae, or Heraclea Phthiotidis, or simply Heraclea, a town of Thessaly in the district Malis, celebrated as the residence of Heracles for a time.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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KALLIDROMO (Mountain) FTHIOTIDA

Callidromus
   According to Livy, the highest summit of Mount Oeta. It was occupied by Cato with a body of troops in the battle fought at the pass of Thermopylae between the Romans, under Acilius Glabrio, and the army of Antiochus; and, owing to this manouevre, the latter was entirely routed.

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KYNOS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Cynus
The chief seaport in the territory of the Locri Opuntii. According to some ancient traditions, it had long been the residence of Deucalion and Pyrrha; the latter was even said to have been interred here.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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LAMIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Lamia
   A town in Phthiotis, in Thessaly, situated on the small river Achelous, fifty stadia inland from the Maliac Gulf. It has given its name to the war which was carried on by the confederate Greeks against Antipater after the death of Alexander, B.C. 323. When Antipater was defeated by the confederates under the command of Leosthenes, the Athenian, he took refuge in Lamia, where he was besieged for some months. During the siege Leosthenes was killed, and soon after Antipater, being joined by Craterus, defeated the confederates at Cranon, ending the war.

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MELITEA (Ancient city) DOMOKOS

Melitaea
A town in Thessaly in Phthiotis, on the northern slope of Mount Othrys, and near the river Enipeus.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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NARYX (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Naryx
   (Narux), Narycus (Narukos), or Narycium (Narukion). A town of the Locri Opuntii, on the Euboean Sea, described as the birthplace of Aias, son of Oileus, who is hence called Narycius heros. Since Locri Epizephyrii, in the south of Italy, claimed to be a colony from Naryx, in Greece, we find the town of Locri called Narycia by the poets, and the pitch of Bruttium was also named Narycia.

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OITI (Mountain) FTHIOTIDA

Oeta
   or Oete (Oite). Now Katavothra; a rugged pile of mountains in the south of Thessaly, an eastern branch of Mount Pindus, extending along the southern bank of the Sperchius to the Maliac Gulf at Thermopylae, thus forming the northern barrier of Greece proper. Respecting the pass of Mount Oeta, see Thermopylae. Oeta was celebrated in mythology as the mountain on which Heracles burned himself to death. From this range, the southern part of Thessaly was called Oetaea (Oitaia).
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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OPOUNDIA LOKRIS (Ancient area) FTHIOTIDA

Locri
   (Aokroi), sometimes called Locrenses by the Romans. The inhabitants of two districts in Greece called Locris (Aokris).
    (1) Eastern Locris, extending from Thessaly and the pass of Thermopylae along the coast to the frontiers of Boeotia, and bounded by Doris and Phocis on the west. It was a fertile and well-cultivated country The northern part was inhabited by the Locri Epicnemidii, who derived their name from Mount Cnemis. The southern part was inhabited by the Locri Opuntii, who derived their name from their principal town, Opus. The two tribes were separated by Daphnus, a small slip of land, which at one time belonged to Phocis The Epicnemidii were for a long time subject to the Phocians, and were included under the name of the latter people; whence the name of the Opuntii occurs more frequently in Greek history.

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OPOUS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Opus
A town of Locris, from which the Opuntian Locrians derived their name. It was the birthplace of Patroclus. The bay of the Euboean Sea, near Opus, was called Opuntius Sinus.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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OTHRYS (Mountain chain) STEREA HELLAS

Othrys
(Othrus). A lofty range of mountains in the south of Thessaly, extending from Mount Tymphrestus, or the most southerly part of Pindus, to the eastern coast. It shut in the great Thessalian plain on the south.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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PYRRA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Pyrrha
A town and promontory of Phthiotis, in Thessaly, on the Pagasaean Gulf, and near the frontiers of Magnesia. Off this promontory there were two small islands named Pyrrha and Deucalion.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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SKARFIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Scarphe
Scarphea (Skarpheia) or Scarphia (Skarphia). A town of the Epicnemidii Locri, at which the roads leading through Thermopylae united.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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SPERCHIOS (River) FTHIOTIDA

Spercheus
   (Spercheios). Now Elladha; a river in the south of Thessaly, which rises in Mount Tymphrestus, runs in an easterly direction through the territory of the Aenianes and through the district Malis, and falls into the innermost corner of the Sinus Maliacus. As a river-god, Spercheus is a son of Oceanus and Gaea, and the father of Menesthius by Polydora, the daughter of Peleus.

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THERMOPYLES (Historic place) LAMIA

Thermopylae
   (Thermopulai), or simply Pylae (Pulai). "The Hot Gates," or "The Gates." A celebrated pass leading from Thessaly into Locris. It lay between Mount Oeta and an inaccessible morass, forming the edge of the Malic Gulf. At one end of the pass, close to Anthela, the mountain approaches so close to the morass as to leave room for only a single carriage between; this narrow entrance formed the western gate of Thermopylae. About a mile to the east the mountain again approached close to the sea, near the Locrian town of Alpeni, thus forming the eastern gate of Thermopylae. The space between these two gates was wider and more open, and was distinguished by its abundant flow of hot springs, which were sacred to Heracles: hence the name of the place. Thermopylae was the only pass by which an enemy could penetrate from northern into southern Greece; whence its great importance in Grecian history. It is especially celebrated on account of the heroic defence of Leonidas and the 300 Spartans against the mighty host of Xerxes in B.C. 480; and they only fell through the Persians having discovered a path over the mountains, and thus being enabled to attack the Greeks in the rear. This mountain path commenced from the neighbourhood of Trachis, ascended the gorge of the river Asopus and the hill called Anopaea, then crossed the crest of Oeta, and descended in the rear of Thermopylae near the town of Alpeni.

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THRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Thronium
Now Pikraki; the chief town of the Locri Epicnemidii, on the river Boagrius, at a short distance from the sea, with a harbour upon the coast.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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TITHOREA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Neon
An ancient town in Phocis, at the eastern side of Mount Tithorea, a branch of Mount Parnassus, destroyed by the Persians under Xerxes, but rebuilt and named Tithorea (Tithorea), after the mountain on which it was situated.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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TRACHIS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Trachis
A town of Phocis, on the frontiers of Boeotia, and on the slope of Mount Helicon in the neighbourhood of Lebadea.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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YAMPOLIS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Hyampolis
A town in Phocis, east of the Cephissus, near Cleonae, founded by the Hyantes. It was first destroyed by Xerxes, and afterwards rebuilt to be destroyed again in part by Philip and the Amphictyons.
Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
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 Individuals' pages

MALESSINA (Small town) FTHIOTIDA

http://users.hol.gr/~karast1/ (4 img.) Greek
 Links

LOKRIS (Ancient country) FTHIOTIDA

Locris
  Regions of central Greece.
  Locris was made up of two regions on either sides of Mount Parnassus separated by Phocis. One northeast, along the coast of mainland Greece facing the northern part of the island of Euboea, was called Opuntian Locris (and its inhabitants Opuntes) after the name of Opus, its main city; the other southwest, along the northern shore of the gulf of Corinth, around the city of Naupactus, was called Ozolian Locris (and its inhabitants Ozolae).
  Mythology knows of a Locrus, eponym of the Locrians, variously related to Amphictyon, a son of Deucalion (he is at times his son, at times his great-grandson). Locrus had for wife Protogenia (“the first born” in Greek), the daughter of Deucalion, who had two sons from Zeus, Aethlius and Opus (the eponym of the city by the same name), of whom Locrus was the “mortal” father. Aethlius was the father of Endymion, who became king of Elis and was himself the father of Aetolus, the eponym of the Aetolians. It is as a result of a fight between Locrus and his son Opus that the former decided to leave the throne to his son and move with some of his subjects to another country, eventually to settle on the western slopes of Mount Parnassus, in what became Ozolian Locris.
  Ozolian Locrians, toward the end of the VIIth century B. C., founded the city of Locri in southern Italy, giving it, and the nearby region, the name of their former country. To distinguish this Locris from Greek Locris, it was sometimes called Epizephyrian Locris, after the name of nearby cape Zephyrion, to mean that it was “past (or next to) Zephyrion”.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
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