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Listed 100 (total found 274) sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "ARCADIA Prefecture PELOPONNISOS" .


Information about the place (274)

Miscellaneous

Ancient authors' reports

ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI

The springs of the rivers Alpheus and Eurotas

Eurotas: River of Laconia, its sources, unites with Alpheus. Alpheus: River, sources and upper course, often vanishes under ground, tributaries, dearest of rivers to Zeus, ashes of victims kneaded with its water, wild olive first grew on its banks, women forbidden to cross it on certain days, loves Arethusa, flows through Adriatic to Ortygia, loves Artemis, images, altars, Leucippus keeps hair long for, Apollo at the, diverted by Herakles into the cattleyard of Augeas.


IREA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

The wine of Heraea

It caused men to go into ecstasies and women to have children (Theophrastus, Ath. 1,31).


Boundaries

TORTHYNION (Ancient city) VYTINA

Torthynium

Torthynium is not mentioned by Pausanias or any of the great historians. It was probably located 5,5 kms away from Nymphasia and it was the border of Megalopolis, Orchomenus and Caphya (Ekd. Athinon, Pausaniou Periegissis, vol. 4, p. 329, note 1).


Commercial WebPages

ASTROS (Small town) ARCADIA

FALESSIA (Village) ARCADIA

KONTOVAZENA (Municipality) ARCADIA

Kontovazena


LAGADIA (Village) LAGADIA

LEONIDIO (Small town) KYNOURIA

LEVIDI (Small town) MANTINIA

LIBOVISSI (Village) ARCADIA

TYROS (Port) APOLLON

VYTINA (Village) ARCADIA

Educational institutions WebPages

KOTILI (Village) GORTYS

LYKOURESSI (Village) IREA

LYSSAREA (Village) IREA

PANAGIA (Village) DIMITSANA

RADOS (Village) DIMITSANA

SAGA (Village) MANTINIA

TEGEA (Municipality) ARCADIA

Tegea


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

General

IREA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Heraea

There is a sign at the British Museum where one can read about a deal between the Heraeans and the Helians. The deal, which was made in 540 BC, was that for 100 years the two peoples would be allies at war and peace. If one of the two parts broke the deal, it would have to offer Zeus at Olympia one talent of silver. This deal helped Heraea grow and later on nine settlements united to the town. What is more, after this deal was signed, many Heraeans won victories at Olympic Games.


KYNOUREI (Ancient tribe) ARCADIA

We may infer from the name that these Cynurians were the same as the Cynurians on the east coast, (see Cynouria ) but we have no account of any historical connection between them.


Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

AKAKISSION (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Acacesium

Akakesion: Eth. Akakesios. Α town of Arcadia in the district of Parrhasia, at the foot of a hill of the same name, and 36 stadia on the road from Megalopolis to Phigalea. It is said to have been founded by Acacus, son of Lycaon; and according to some traditions Hermes was brought up at this place by Acacus, and hence derived the surname of Acacesius. Upon the hill there was a statue in stone, in the time of Pausanias, of Hermes Acacesius; and four stadia from the town was a celebrated temple of Despoena. This temple probably stood on the hill, on which are now the remains of the church of St. Elias.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


AMILOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI

Amilus

Amilos: Amilios. A village of Arcadia in the territory of Orchomenus, and on the road from the latter to Stymphalus.


ANTHINI (Ancient city) ASTROS

Anthene

Anthene (Anthene, Thuc.; Anthana, Steph. B. s. v.; Athene, Paus.: Eth. Anthaneus, Steph. B.), a town in Cynuria, originally inhabited by the Aeginetans, and mentioned by Thucydides along with Thyrea, as the two chief places in Cynuria. Modern travellers are not agreed respecting its site.


ARKADIA (Ancient area) PELOPONNISOS

Arcadia (Arkadla: Eth. Arkas, pl. Arkades, Areas, pl. Arcades), the central country of Peloponnesus, was bounded on the E. by Argolis, on the N. by Achaia, on the W. by Elis, and on the S. by Messenia and Laconia. Next to Laconia it was the largest country in Peloponnesus; its greatest length was about 50 miles, its breadth varied from 35 to 41 miles, and its area was about 1700 square miles. It was surrounded on all sides by a ring of mountains, forming a kind of natural wall, which separated it from the other Peloponnesian states; and it was also traversed, in its interior, by various ranges of mountains in all directions. Arcadia has been aptly called the Swjtieland of Greece.
  The western and eastern parts of Arcadia differed considerably in their physical features. In the western region the mountains were wild, high, and bleak, closely piled upon one another, and possessing vallies of small extent and of little fertility. The mountains were covered with forests and abounded in game; and even in the time of Pausanias (viii. 23. § 9), not only wild boars, but even bears were found in them. It was drained by the Alpheius and its tributary streams. This part of Arcadia was thinly populated, and its inhabitants were reckoned among the rudest of the Greeks. They obtained their subsistence by hunting, and the rearing and feeding of cattle.
  On the other hand, the eastern region is intersected by mountains of lower elevation, between which there are several small and fertile plains, producing corn, oil, and wine. These plains are so completely inclosed by mountains, that the streams which flow into them from the mountains only find outlets for their waters by natural chasms in the rocks, which are not uncommon in limestone mountains. Many of these streams, after disappearing beneath the ground, rise again after a greater or less interval. These chasms in the mountains were called zerethra by the Arcadians (Strab. p. 389), and are termed katavothra by the modern Greeks. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 55.) In these plains, enclosed by mountains, were situated almost all the chief cities of Arcadia,--Tegea, Mantineia, Orchomenus, Stymphalus, and Pheneus, whose territories extended along the whole eastern frontier of Arcadia, from the borders of Laconia to those of Sicyon and Pellene, in Achaia.
  Of all the productions of Arcadia the best known were its asses, which were in request in every part of Greece. (Varr. R. R. ii. 1. § 14; Plin. viii. 43. s. 68; Plant. Asin. ii. 2. 67; Strab. p. 388; Pers. iii. 9, Arcadiae pecuaria rudere credas. )
  The principal mountains in Arcadia were: on the N. Cyllene, in the NE. corner of the country, the highest point in the Peloponnesus (7788 feet), which runs in a westerly direction, forming the boundary between Achaia and Elis, and was known under the names of Crathis, Aroanius, and Erymanthus. On the W. Lampeia and Pholoe, both of them a southern continuation of Erymanthus, and the other mountains separating Arcadia from Elis, but the names of which are not preserved. On the E. Lyrceius, Artemisium, Parthenium, and the range of mountains separating Arcadia from Argolis, and connected with the northern extremity of Taygetus. In the S. Maenalus and Lycaeus. Of these mountains an account is given under their respective names.
  The chief river of Arcadia, which is also the principal river of the Peloponnesus, is the Alpheius. It rises near the southern frontier, flows in a northwesterly direction, and receives many tributaries. Besides these, the Styx, Eurotas, and Erasinuis, also rise in Arcadia. Of the numerous small lakes on the eastern frontier the most important was Stymphalus, near the town of that name.
  The Arcadians regarded themselves as the most ancient inhabitants of Greece, and called themselves proselenoi, as laying claim to an antiquity higher than that of the moon, though some modern writers interpret this epithet differently. (Apoll. Rhod. iv. 264; Lucian, de Astrol. c. 26; Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 397; Heyne, De Arcadibus luna antiquioribus, in Opuscula, vol. ii. pp. 333--355.) They derived their name from an eponymous ancestor Areas, the son of Zeus, though his genealogy is given differently by different writers. (Dict. of Biogr. art. Areas.) The Greek writers call them indigenous (autochthones), or Pelasgians, and Pelasgus is said to have been their first sovereign. Herodotus says that the Arcadians and Cynurians were the only two peoples in Peloponnesus who had never changed their abodes; and we know that Arcadia was inhabited by the same race from the earliest times of which we have any historical records. (Herod. viii. 73, and i. 146, Arkades Pelasgoi; Xen. Hell. vii. 1. 23; Dem. de Fals. Leg. § 261; Paus. viii. 1; Strab. p. 338.) Shut up within their mountains the Arcadians experienced fewer changes than most of the inhabitants of Greece. They are represented as a people simple in their habits, and moderate in their desires; and, according to the testimony of their countryman Polybius, they retained down to his time a high reputation among the Greeks for hospitality, kindness, and piety. He ascribes these excellencies to their social institutions, and especially \ to their cultivatio of music, which was supposed to counteract the harshness of character which their i rugged country had a tendency to produce; and he attributes the savage character of the inhabitants of Cynaetha to their neglect of music. (Pol. iv. 20, / 21.) We know from other authorities that music formed an important part of their education; and : they were celebrated throughout antiquity both for their love of music and for the success with which they cultivated it. (Comp. e. g. Virg. Eel. x. 32.) The lyre is said to have been invented in their country by Hermes. The syrinx, also, which was the musical instrument of shepherds, was the invention of Pan, the tutelary god of Arcadia. The simplicity of the Arcadian character was exaggerated by the Roman poets into an ideal excellence; and its shepherds were represented as living in a state of innocence and virtue. But they did not possess an equal reputation for intelligence, as is shown by the proverbial expressions, Arcadici senses, Arcadicae acres, &c.: a blockhead is called by Juvenal (vii. 160) Arcadicus juvenis. The Arcadians were a strong and hardy race of mountaineers; and, like the Swiss in modern Europe, they constantly served as mercenaries. (Athen. i. p. 27; Thuc. vii. 57.)
  The religion of the Arcadians was such as might have been expected from a nation of shepherds and huntsmen. Hermes was originally an Arcadian divinity, said to have been born on Mt. Cyllene, and brought up on Mt. Acacesius; but the deity whom they most worshipped was his son Pan, the great guardian of flocks and shepherds. Another ancient Arcadian divinity was Artemis, who presided over the chase, and who appears to have been originally a different goddess from Artemis, the sister of Apollo, though the two were afterwards confounded. (Diet. of Biog. art. Artemis.) The worship of Zeus, surnamed Lycaeus, was also very ancient in Arcadia, and was celebrated with human sacrifices even down to the Macedonian period, a fact which proves that the Arcadians still retained much of their original rude and savage character, notwithstanding the praises of their countryman Polybius. (Theoph. ap. Porphyr. de Abstin. ii. 27; comp. Pans. viii. 38. § 7.) Despoena daughter of Poseidon and Demeter, was likewise worshipped with great solemnity in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 37.)
  Of the history of the Arcadians little requires to be said. Pausanias (viii. 1, seq.) gives a long list of the early Arcadian kings, respecting whom the curious in such matters will find a minute account in Clinton. (Fast. Hell. vol. i. pp. 88--92.) It appears from the genealogy of these kings that the Arcadians were, from an early period, divided into several independent states. The most ancient division appears to have been into three separate bodies. This is alluded to in the account of the descendants of Arcas, who had three sons, Azan, Apheidas, and Elatus, from whom sprang the different Arcadian kings (Paus. viii. 4); and this triple division is also seen in the geographical distributions of the Arcadians into Azanes, Parrhasii, and Trapezuntii. (Steph. B. s. v. Azania.) In the Trojan war, however, there is only one Arcadian king mentioned, Agapenor, the son of Ancaeus, and descendant of Apheidas, who sailed with the Arcadians against Troy, in 60 ships, which had been supplied to them by Agamemnon. (Hom. Il. ii. 609.) Previous to the Trojan war various Arcadian colonies are said to have been sent to Italy. Of these the most celebrated was the one led by Evander, who settled on the banks of the Tiber, at the spot where Rome was afterwards built, and called the town which he built Pallantium, after the Arcadian place of this name, from which he came. That these Arcadian colonies are pure fictions, no one would think of doubting at the present day; but it has been suggested that an explanation of them may be found in the supposition that the ancient inhabitants of Latium were Pelasgians, like the Arcadians, and may thus have possessed certain traditions in common. (Comp. Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. i. p. 86.)
  On the invasion of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, the Arcadians, protected by their mountains, maintained their independence (Herod. ii. 171 ; Strab. p. 333); but the Spartans, when their power became more fully developed, made various attempts to obtain dominion over the Arcadian towns. Accordingly, the Arcadians fought on the side of the Messenians in their wars against Sparta; and they showed their sympathy for the Messenians by receiving them into their country, and giving them their daughters in marriage at the close of the second Messenian war (B.C. 631), and by putting to death Aristocrates, king of Orchomenus, because he treacherously abandoned the Messenians at the battle of the Treneh. (Diod. xv. 66; Pol. iv. 33; Paus. viii. 5. § 10, seq.) Since the Arcadians were not united by any political league, and rarely acted in concert, till the foundation of Megalopolis by Epaminondas, in B.C. 371, their history down to this period is the history of their separate towns. It is only necessary to mention here the more important events, referring, for details, to the separate articles under the names of these towns. Most of the Arcadian towns were only villages, each independent of the other, but on the eastern frontier there were some considerable towns, as has been mentioned above. Of these by far the most important were Tegea and Mantineia, on the borders of Laconia and Argolis, their territories consisting of the plain of Tripolitza.
  It has already been stated, that the Spartans made various attempts to extend their dominion over Arcadia. The whole of the northern territory of Sparta originally belonged to Arcadia, and was inhabited by Arcadian inhabitants. The districts of Sciratis, Beleminatis, Maleatis, and Caryatis, were at one time part of Arcadia, but had been conquered and annexed to Sparta before B.C. 600. (Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. ii. p. 588.) The Spartans, however, met with a formidable resistance from Tegea, and it was not till after a struggle, which lasted for several centuries, and in the course of which the Spartans had been frequently defeated, that Tegea at length acknowledged the supremacy of Sparta, about B.C. 560. From this time Tegea and the other Arcadian towns appear as the allies of Sparta, and obeyed her orders as to the disposal of their military force; but they continued to maintain their independence, and never became the subjects of Sparta. In the Persian wars, the Arcadians fought under Sparta, and the Tegeatans appear as the second military power in the Peloponnesus, having the place of honour on the left wing of the allied army. (Herod. ix. 26.) Between the battle of Plataea and the beginning of the third Messenian war (i. e. between B.C. 479 and 464), the Arcadians were again at war with Sparta. Of this war we have no details, and we only know that the Spartans gained two great victories, one over the Tegeates and Argives at Tegea, and another over all the Arcadians, with the exception of the Mantineians, at Dipaea (En Dipaeudin) in the Maenalian territory. (Herod. ix. 35; Paus. iii. 11. § 7.) In the Peloponnesian war, all the Arcadian towns remained faithful to Sparta, with the exception of Mantineia; but this city, which was at the head of the democratical interest in Arcadia, formed an alliance with Argos, and Athens, and Elis, in B.C. 421, and declared war against Sparta. The Mantineians, however, were defeated, and compelled to renew their alliance with Sparta, B.C. 417. (Thuc. v. 29, seq., 66, seq., 81.) Some years afterwards, the Spartans, jealous of the power of Mantineia, razed the walls of the city, and distributed the inhabitants among the four or five villages, of which they had originally consisted, B.C. 385. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 1--6; Diod. xv. 19.) The defeat of the Spartans at the battle of Leuctra, by Epaminondas and the Thebans (B.C. 371), destroyed the Spartan supremacy in the Peloponnesus, and restored the independence of the Arcadian towns. This victory was followed immediately by the restoration of Mantineia, and later in the same year by the formation of a political confederation in Arcadia. The person who took the most active part in effecting this union, was a native of Mantineia, named Lycomedes, and his project was warmly seconded by Epaminondas and the Boeotian chiefs. The plan was opposed by the aristocratical parties at Orchomenus, Tegea, and other Arcadian towns, but it received the cordial approbation of the great body of the Arcadian people. They resolved to found a new city, which was to be the seat of the new government, and to be called Megalopolis, or the Great City. The foundations of the city were immediately laid, and its population was drawn from about 40 petty Arcadian townships. Of the constitution of the new confederation we have very little information. We only know that the great council of the nation, which used to meet at Megalopolis, was called hoi Murioi, or the Ten Thousand. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 3, seq., vii. 1. § 38; Paus. viii. 27; Diod. xv. 59.) This council was evidently a representative assembly, and was not composed exclusively of Megalopolitans; but when and how often it was assembled, and whether there was any smaller council or not, are questions which cannot be answered. (For details, see Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. v. p. 88.) A standing army was also formed, called Epariti (Eparitoi), consisting of 5000 men, to defend the common interests of the confederation. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. 34, vii. 5. § 3; Diod. xv. 62, 67; Hesych. s. v. eporoetoi.) Supported by the Thebans, the Arcadians were able to resist all the attempts of the Spartans to prevent the new confederacy from becoming a reality; but they sustained one signal defeat from the Spartans under Archidamus, in B.C. 367, in what is called the Tearless battle, although the statement that 10,000 of the Arcadians and their Argive allies were slain, without the loss of a single man on the Spartan side, is evidently an exaggeration. (Plut. Ages. 33; Diod. xv. 72; Xen. Hell. vii. 1. 28, seq.) In B.C. 365, a war broke out between the Arcadians and Eleans, in which the former were not only successful, but took possession of Olympia, and gave to the Pisatans the presidency of the Olympic games (364). The members of the Arcadian government appropriated a portion of the sacred treasures at Olympia to pay their troops; but this proceeding was warmly censured by the Mantineians, who were, for some reason, opposed to the supreme government. The latter was supported by Tegea, as well as by the Thebans, and the Mantineians, in consequence, were led to ally themselves with their ancient enemies the Spartans. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4; Diod. xv. 77, seq.) Thus, the two most powerful cities of Arcadia were again arrayed against each other, and the strength of the new confederation was destroyed almost as soon as it was formed. The disturbed state of Arcadia brought Epaminondas at the head of a Theban army into Peloponnesus, in B.C. 362; and his death at the battle of Mantineia was followed by a general peace among all the belligerents, with the exception of Sparta. In the subsequent disturbances in Greece, we hear little of the Arcadians; and though Megalopolis continued to be an important city, the political confederation lost all real power. After the death of Alexander the Great, we find many of the Arcadian cities in the hands of tyrants; and so little union was there between the cities, that some of them joined the Achaean, and others the Aetolian, league. Thus Megalopolis was united to the Achaean League, whereas Orchomenus, Tegea, and Mantineia, were members of the Aetolian. (Pol. ii. 44, 46.) Subsequently, the whole of Arcadia was annexed to the Achaean League, to which it continued to belong till the dissolution of the league by the Romans, when Arcadia, with the rest of the Peloponnesus, became part of the Roman province of Achaia. Like many of the other countries of Greece, Arcadia rapidly declined under the Roman dominion. Strabo describes it as almost deserted at the time when he wrote; and of all its ancient cities Tegea was the only one still inhabited in his day. (Strab. p. 388.) For our knowledge of the greater part of the country we are indebted chiefly to Pausanias, who has devoted one of his books to a description of its cities and their remains.
The following is a list of the towns of Arcadia:
1. In Tegeatis (Tegeatis), the SE. district, Tegea with the dependent places Manthyrea, Phylace, Garea, Corytheis.
2. In Mantinice (Mantinike), the district N. of Tegeatis, Mantineia with the dependent places, Maera, Petrosaca, Phoezon, Nestane, Melangeia, Elymia.
3. In Stymplmalia (Stumphalia), the district N. of Mantinice, Stymphalus, Oligyrtum, Alea.
4. In Maenalia (Mainalia), so called from Mt. Maenalus, the district S. and W. of Mantinice, and W. of Tegeatis: on the road from Megalopolis to Tegea, Ladoceia; Haemoniae (Haimoniai), probably on the western side of Mt. Tzimbaru (Paus. viii. 3. § 3, 44. § 1; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 247); Oresthasium a little to the right of the road; Aphrodisium (Aphrodision, Paus. viii. 44. § 2); Athenaeum; Asea; Pallantium. On the road from Megalopolis to Maenalus, along the valley of the Helisson, Peraetheis (Peraitheis, Paus. viii. 3. § 4, 27. § 3, 36. § 7), Lycoa, Dipaea, Suaiatia, Maenalus. N. of Maenalus, Anemosa and Helisson. Between Pallantium and Asea Eutea The inhabitants of most of these towns were removed to Megalopolis on the foundation of the latter city, which was situated in the SW. corner of Maenalia. The same remark applies to the inhabitants of most of the towns in the districts Maleatis, Cromitis, Parrhasia, Cynuria, Eutresia.
5. In Maleatis (Maleatis), a district S. of Maenalia, on the borders of Laconia. The inhabitants of this district, and of Cromitis, are called Aegytae by Pausanias (viii. 27. § 4), because the Lacedaemonian town of Aegys originally belonged to Arcadia. Malea; Leuctra or Leuctum; Phalaeseae; Scirtonium (Skirtonion, Paus. viii. 27. § 4), of uncertain site.
6. In Cromitis (Kromitis), a district west of Maleatis, on the Messenian frontier: Cromi or Cromsus; Gatheae; Phaedrias (Phaidrias, Paus. viii. 35. § 1), on the road from Megalopolis to Carnasium, perhaps on the height above Neokhori. (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 236.)
7. In Parrhasia (Parrhadike, Thuc. v. 33), a district on the Messenian frontier, N. of Cromitis and Messenia, occupying the left bank of the plain of the Alpheius: Macareae; Daseae; Acacesium; Lycosura; Thocnia; Basilis; Cypsela; Bathos; Tra[ezus; Acontitum and Proseis (Akontion, Proseis), both of uncertain site. (Paus. viii. 27. § 4.) The Parrhasii (Parrhasioi) are mentioned as one of the most ancient of the Arcadian tribes. (Strab. p. 388; Steph. B. s. v. Azania.) During the Peloponnesian war the Mantineians had extended their supremacy over the Parrhasii, but the latter were restored to independence by the Lacedaemonians, B.C. 421. (Thuc. v. 33.) Homer mentions a town Parrhasia, said to have been founded by Parrhasus, son of Lycaon, or by Pelasgus, son of Arestor, which Leake conjectures to be the same as Lycosura. (Hom. Il. ii. 608; Plin. iv. 10; Steph. B. s. v. Parrhasia.) The Roman poets frequently us, the adjectives Parrhasius and Parrhasis as equivalent to Arcadian. (Virg. Aen. viii. 344, xi. 31; [p. 193] Ov. Met. viii. 315.) Thus we find Parrhasides stellae, i. e. Ursa major (Ov. Fast. iv. 577); Parrhasia dea, i. e. Carmenta (Ov. Fast. i. 618); Parrhasia virgo, i. e. Callisto. (Ov. Trist. ii. 190.) 8. In Phigalice, W. of Parrhasia and N. of Messenia, Phigalia.
9. In Cynuria, N. of Phigalice and Parrhasia: Lycaea (Lycoa); Theisoa; Brenthe; Rhaeteae (Hpaaiteai), at the confluence of the Gortynius and Alpheius (Paus. viii. 28. § 3); Thyraeum; Hypsus; Gortys or Gortyna; Maratha; Buphagium; Aliphera.
10. In Eutresia (Eutresia), a district between Parrhasia and Maenalia, inhabited by the Eutresii (Xen. Hell. vii. 1. 29), of which the following towns are enumerated by Pausanias (viii. 27. § 3): Tricoloni (Trikolonoi, viii. 3. § 4, 35. § 6); Zoeteium or Zoetia (Zoiteion or Zoitia, viii. 35. § 6); Charisia (Charisia, viii. 3. § 4, 35. § 5); Ptoeclerma (Ptolederma); Cnausum (Knauson); Paroreia (Paroreia, viii. 35. § 6). In Eutresia, there was a village, Scias (Skias), 13 stadia from Megalopolis; then followed in order, northwards, Charisia, Tricoloni, Zoeteium or Zoetia, and Paroseia; but the position of the other places is doubtful. Stephanus speaks of a town Eutresii (s. v. Eutresis), and Hesychius of a town Eutre (s. v. Eutre); but in Pausanias the name is only found as that of the people.
11. In Heraeatis (Heraiatis), the district in the W. on the borders of Elis, Heraea and Melaeneae
12. In Orchomenia (Orchomenia), the district N. of Eutresia and Cynuria, and E. of Hereatis: Orchomenus; Amilus; Methydrium; Phalanthum; Theisoa; Teuthis; Nonacris, Callia, and Dipoena, forming a Tripolis, but otherwise unknown. (Paus. viii. 27. § 4.) This Nonacris must not be confounded with the Nonacris in Pheneatis, where the Styx rose.
13. In Caphyatis (Kaphuatis), the district N. and W. of Orchomenia: Caphyae and Nasi (Nasoi) on the river Tragus. (Paus. viii. 23. § § 2, 9.)
14. In Pheneatis (Pheneatis), the district N. of Caphyatis, and in the NE. of Arcadia, on the frontiersof Achaia: Pheneus; Lycuria; Carye; Penteleum; Nonacris.
15. In Cleitorica (Kleitoria), the district W. of Pheneatis: Cleitor; Lusi; Paus; Seirae (Seirai, Paus. viii. 23. § 9; nr. Dekchuni, Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 221), on the frontiers of Psophidia; Leucasium (Leukasion), Mesoboa (Mesoboa), Nasi (Nasoi), Oryx or Halus (Orux, Halous), and Thaliades (Xaliades), all on the river Ladon. (Paus. viii. 25. § 2; Leake, Peloponnesiace, p. 229.)
16. Cynaetha with a small territory N. of Cleitoria.
17. In Psophidia (Psophidia), a district W. of Cleitoria, on the frontiers of Elis: Psopsis with the village Tropaea.
18. In Thelpusia (Xelpusia), the district S. of the preceding, also on the frontiers of Elis: Thelpusa and Onceium or. Onncae.

The site of the following Arcadian towns, mentioned by Stephanus Byzantinus, is quite unknown: Allante (Allante); Anthana (Anthana); Aulon (Au_lon); Derea (Derea); Diope (Diope); Elis (Elis); Ephyra (Ephura); Eua (Eua); Eugeia (Eugeia); Hysia (Husia); Nede (Nede); Nestania (Nestania); Nostia. (Nostia); Oechalia (Oichalia); Pylae (Pulai); Phorieia (Phorieia); Thenae (Xenai); Thyraeeum (Xuraion).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI

Asea

  he Asea: Aseates, a town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, situated near the frontier of Laconia, on the road from Megalopolis to Pallantium and Tegea. Asea took part in the foundation of Megalopolis, to which city most of its inhabitants removed (Paus. viii. 27. § 3, where for Iasaia we ought to read Asaia or Asea); but Asea continued to exist as an independent state, since the Aseatae are mentioned, along with the Megalopolitae, Tegeatae, and Pallantieis, as joining Epaminondas before the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 362. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 5) At a later time, however, Asea belonged to Megalopolis, as we see from the descriptions of Strabo and Pausanias. The city was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions its acropolis. In its territory, and at the distance of 5 stadia from the the city, on the road to Pallantium, were the sources of the Alpheius, and near them those of the Eurotas. The two rivers united their streams, and, after flowing in one channel for 20 stadia, disappeared beneath the earth; the Alpheius rising again at Pegae, and the Eurotas at Belemina in Laconia. North of Asea, on the road to Pallantium, and on the summit of Mt. Boreium (Kravari), was a temple of Athena Soteira and Poseidon, said to have been founded by Odysseus on his return from Troy, and of which the ruins were discovered by Leake and Ross. The remains of Asea are to be seen on the height which rises above the copious spring of water called Frangovrysi, Frank-spring, the sources of the Alpheius. (Strab. pp. 275, 343; Paus. viii. 3. § 4, viii. 44. § 3, viii. 54. § 2; Steph. B. s. v.)

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ATHINEON (Ancient city) VALTETSI

Athenaeum

Athenaeum (Athenaion). A fortress in the S. of Arcadia, and in the territory of Megalopolis, is described by Plutarch as a position in advance of the Lacedaemonian frontier (embole tes Lakonikes), and near Belemina. It was fortified by Cleomenes in B.C. 224, and was frequently taken and retaken in the wars between the Achaean League and the Spartans. Leake supposes that it occupied the summit of Mount Tzimbaru, on which there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. In that case it must have been a different place from the Athenaeum mentioned by Pausanias on the road from Megalopolis to Asea, and 20 stadia from the latter. (Plut. Cleom. 4; Pol. ii. 46, 54, iv. 37, 60, 81; Paus. viii. 44. § § 2, 3; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 248.)

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DASSES (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Daseae

  Daseai: Eth. Daseates. A town of Arcadia in the district Parrhasia, on the road from Megalopolis to Phigalea, 7 stadia from Macareae, and 29 stadia from Megalopolis. It was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, as its inhabitants had been removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter. Its name was apparently derived from the thick woods, the remains of which still cover the heights of Deli Hassani, near which Daseae must have stood.

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DIPEA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Dipaea

  Dipaia: Eth. Dipaieus. A town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, through whose territory the river Helisson flowed. Its inhabitants removed to Megalopolis on the foundation of the latter city. It is frequently mentioned on account of a battle fought in its neighbourhood between the Lacedaemonians and all the Arcadians except the Mantineians, sometime between B.C. 479 and 464 (Paus. iii. 11. § 7, viii. 8. § 6, 27. § 3, 30. §. 1, 45. § 2; Herod. ix. 35.) Leake supposes that the ruins near Davia represent Dipaea; but since Pausanias does not mention Dipaea in his description of Maenalia, although he notices every insignificant place, Ross remarks that it is improbable that Pausanias should have passed over Dipaea, if these ruins really belong to the latter, since they are still very considerable. Ross regards them as the remains of Maenalus.

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EFTEA (Ancient city) SKYRITIDA

Eutaea

Eutaea (Eutaia: Eth. Eutaieus), a town in the S. of Arcadia, in the district Maenalia, probably between Asea and Pallantium, though not on the road between these towns. Leake places it at Barbitza. (Paus. viii. 27. § 3; Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 12; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 31.)


ELISSON (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Helisson

  Helisson (Paus.); Helissous, (Diod.). a town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, situated on Mt. Maenalus near the territory of Mantineia. The town was taken by the Lacedaemonians in one of their wars with the Arcadians, B.C. 352; but most of its inhabitants had been previously removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in 371. Near it rose the liver Helisson, which flowed through Maenalia into the Alpheius. The site of Helisson is doubtful. Leake places it at the village Alonistena, from which the river takes its modern name, and near which it rises; but as there are no ancient remains at this village, Ross conjectures that its site is represented by the Paleokastron near the village Piana, lower down the mountain. (Paus. viii. 3. § 3, 27. § § 3, 7, 30. § 1; Diod. xvi. 39.) The Elisphasii mentioned by Polybius (xi. 11. § 6) are conjectured by some modern writers to be a corrupt form of Helissontii.

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ENISPI (Ancient city) VYTINA

Enispe

An Arcadian town mentioned by Homer, in the Catalogue of Ships, along with Rhipe and Stratia. It was impossible even in antiquity to determine the position of these towns, and Pausanias treats as absurd the opinion of those who considered them to be islands in the river Ladon.


FALANTHOS (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Phalanthum

Phalanthum (Phalangon: Eth. Phalangios), a town and mountain of Arcadia, in the district Orchomenia, near Methydrium. (Paus. viii. 35. § 9; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 240.)


FALESSIE (Ancient city) FALESSIA

Phalaeseae

Phalaeseae (Phalaisiai: Eth. Phalaisieus), a town of Arcadia, in the district Maleatis on the road from Megalopolis to Sparta, 20 stadia from the Hermaeum towards Belbina. Leake originally placed it near Gardhiki, but subsequently a little to the eastward of Bura, where Gell remarked some Hellenic remains among the ruins of the Buzeika Kalyvia. (Paus. viii. 35. § 3; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 298; Peloponnesiaca, p. 237.)

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GATHEES (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Gatheae

Gatheai: Eth. Gatheates. A town of Arcadia in the district Cromitis, situated upon the river Gatheatas (Gatheatas), which rose near the place, and which, after receiving the Carnion (Kapnion), rising in the territory of Aegys, flowed into the Alpheius. Gatheae is placed by the best modern authorities at Kyradhes.


GLYPPIA (Ancient small town) LEONIDION

Glyppia

Glyppia or Glumpia (Gluppia, Paus. iii. 22. § 8), a village of Laconia, situated near the frontiers of Argolis. Glyppia is the name in Pausanias, who simply describes it as situated in the interior above Marius. It appears to be the same place as the fortress called Glumpeis by Polybius, who places it near the borders of the Argeia and Laconia, and who relates that the Messenians were defeated here in B.C. 218 by the Spartans, when they; were endeavouring, by a round--about march from Tegea, to penetrate into the southern valley of the Eurotas. (Polyb. v. 20.) It is also mentioned on another occasion by Polybius (iv. 36). The ancient town is probably represented by the Hellenic remains at Lympiada, which is probably a corruption of the ancient name. The district south of Lympiada is called Olympo-khoria, which name would seem to indicate that, one of the mountains in the neighbourhood bore the name of Olympus in ancient times. Leake indeed conjectures that Glumpia was the ancient local form of Olumpia, and consequently that Lympiada and Olympo-khoria may both originate in the same ancient name Olympia having the local form of Glympia.

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GORTYS (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Gortys

Gortys or Gortyna (Gortus, Gortuna), a town of Arcadia in the district Cynuria, situated near the river Gortynius (Gortunios), also called Lusius (Lousios) nearer its sources, which was a tributary of the Alpheius, and was remarkable for the coldness of its waters. The town is said to have been founded by Gortys, a son of Stymphalus, and is described by Pausanias as a village in his time, though it had formerly been a considerable city. Most of its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in B.C. 371; but it must have continued to be a place of some importance, since Polybius says that it was taken by Euripidas, the general of the Eleians, in the Social War, B.C. 219. At that time it was subject to Thelpusa. It contained a celebrated temple of Asclepius, built of Pentelic marble, and containing statues of Asclepius and Hygieia by Scopas. Cicero alludes to this temple, when he says (de Nat. Deer. iii. 22) that near the river Lusius was the sepulchre of one of the Aeculapii, of whom he reckoned three. Its ruins are seen upon a height near the village of Atzikolo. There are still remains of its principal gate and of its walls, consisting of polygonal masonry.

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IREA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Heraea

Heraea (Heraia: Eth. Heraieus, Heraeus, in an ancient inscription ErWaoios: the territory Heraiatis), the most important Arcadian town on the Lower Alpheius, was situated near the frontiers of Elis, and on the high road from Arcadia to Olympia. It is said to have been founded by Heraeeus, a son of Lycaon, and to have been called originally Sologorgus (Paus. viii. 26. § 1; Steph. B. s. v. Heraia). At an early period the Heraeans concluded a treaty with the Eleians for mutual protection and support for one hundred years; the original of which treaty, engraven on a bronze tablet in the old Peloponnesian dialect, was brought from Olympia by Gell, and is now in the Payne Knight collection in the British Museum. This treaty is placed about the 50th Olympiad, or B.C. 580, since it belongs to a time when the Eleians exercised an undisputed supremacy over the dependent districts of Pisatis and Triphylia; and the Heraeans consequently were anxious to avail themselves of their support. Heraea was, at that time, the chief village among eight others which lay scattered upon the banks of the Alpheius and its tributaries the Ladon and Erymanthus; but the inhabitants of these separate villages were transferred to Heraea, and a city there was founded by the Spartan king Cleombrotus or Cleonymus. (Strab. viii. p. 337.) In consequence of their close connection with Sparta, the Heraeans incurred the hostility of the other Arcadians, who laid waste their territory in B.C. 370. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 22) At a later time Heraea was a member of the Achaean League; and, as Elis was one of the chief places of the Aetolian League, it is frequently mentioned in the contests between these two powers. (Polyb. ii. 54, iv. 77, seq.) It was afterwards in the hands of Philip, but it was restored to the Achaeans. (Liv. xxviii. 8, xxxii. 5, xxxiii. 34; Polyb. xviii. 25, 30.) Heraea is mentioned by Strabo (viii. p. 388) as one of the deserted cities of Arcadia; but when it was visited by Pausanias, it was still a place of some importance. The latter writer describes its temples, baths, plantations of myrtles and other trees along the banks of the Alpheius: among its temples he mentions two sacred to Dionysus, one to Pan, and another to Hera, of the latter of which only some ruins were left. (Paus. viii. 26. § § 1, 2.)
The site of Heraea is fixed by its distance from the mouth of the Ladon, which, according to Pausanias, was 15 stadia. The same writer says that the greater part of the city lay upon a gently sloping hill, and the remainder upon the banks of the Alpheius. The remains of Heraea are visible on a hill west of the village of Aianni (St. John), bounded on either side by a ravine, and sloping down towards the river. These ruins extend along the summit of the hill and the slope towards the river; but they are inconsiderable, and have for the most part been cleared away in consequence of the fertility of the land. A sweetish red wine is grown upon the spot, which Leake says has more flavour and body than almost any other he met with in the Morea. This wine was also celebrated in antiquity, and was said to make women fruitful. (Theophr. H. Pl. ix. 20; Athen. i. p. 31; Plin. xiv. 18. s.22; Aelian, V. H. xiii. 6.)
Heraea was favourably situated in several respects. Its territory was fertile, and it was situated, as we have already said, on the high road from Olympia into the interior of Arcadia. From the north of Arcadia a road led into the valley of the Alpheius, near Heraea; and two roads led into the Hereatis, one from Megalopolis, and the other from Messene and Phigalia, which joined the former close to the town. There was a bridge over the Alpheius close to Heraea, which Philip restored in B.C. 219. (Polyb. iv. 77, 78.) The Heraeatis was separated from Pisatis by the river Erymanthus, and from the territory of Megalopolis by the river Buphagus.

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Heraea

  Heraea (Heraia: Eth. Heraieus, Heraeus, in an ancient inscription ErWaoios: the territory Heraiatis), the most important Arcadian town on the Lower Alpheius, was situated near the frontiers of Elis, and on the high road from Arcadia to Olympia. It is said to have been founded by Heraeeus, a son of Lycaon, and to have been called originally Sologorgus. (Paus. viii. 26. § 1; Steph. B. s. v. Heraia) At an early period the Heraeans concluded a treaty with the Eleians for mutual protection and support for one hundred years; the original of which treaty, engraven on a bronze tablet in the old Peloponnesian dialect, was brought from Olympia by Gell, and is now in the Payne Knight collection in the British Museum. This treaty is placed about the 50th Olympiad, or B.C. 580, since it belongs to a time when the Eleians exercised an undisputed supremacy over the dependent districts of Pisatis and Triphylia; and the Heraeans consequently were anxious to avail themselves of their support. Heraea was, at that time, the chief village among eight others which lay scattered upon the banks of the Alpheius and its tributaries the Ladon and Erymanthus; but the inhabitants of these separate villages were transferred to Heraea, and a city there was founded by the Spartan king Cleombrotus or Cleonymus. (Strab. viii. p. 337.) In consequence of their close connection with Sparta, the Heraeans incurred the hostility of the other Arcadians, who laid waste their territory in B.C. 370. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 22) At a later time Heraea was a member of the Achaean League; and, as Elis was one of the chief places of the Aetolian League, it is frequently mentioned in the contests between these two powers. (Polyb. ii. 54, iv. 77, seq.) It was afterwards in the hands of Philip, but it was restored to the Achaeans. (Liv. xxviii. 8, xxxii. 5, xxxiii. 34; Polyb. xviii. 25, 30.) Heraea is mentioned by Strabo (viii. p. 388) as one of the deserted cities of Arcadia; but when it was visited by Pausanias, it was still a place of some importance. The latter writer describes its temples, baths, plantations of myrtles and other trees along the banks of the Alpheius: among its temples he mentions two sacred to Dionysus, one to Pan, and another to Hera, of the latter of which only some ruins were left. (Paus. viii. 26. § § 1, 2.)
  The site of Heraea is fixed by its distance from the mouth of the Ladon, which, according to Pausanias, was 15 stadia. The same writer says that the greater part of the city lay upon a gently sloping hill, and the remainder upon the banks of the Alpheius. The remains of Heraea are visible on a hill west of the village of Aianni (St. John), bounded on either side by a ravine, and sloping down towards the river. These ruins extend along the summit of the hill and the slope towards the river; but they are inconsiderable, and have for the most part been cleared away in consequence of the fertility of the land. A sweetish red wine is grown upon the spot, which Leake says has more flavour and body than almost any other he met with in the Morea. This wine was also celebrated in antiquity, and was said to make women fruitful. (Theophr. H. Pl. ix. 20; Athen. i. p. 31; Plin. xiv. 18. s.22; Aelian, V. H. xiii. 6.)
  Heraea was favourably situated in several respects. Its territory was fertile, and it was situated, as we have already said, on the high road from Olympia into the interior of Arcadia. From the north of Arcadia a road led into the valley of the Alpheius, near Heraea; and two roads led into the Hereatis, one from Megalopolis, and the other from Messene and Phigalia, which joined the former close to the town. There was a bridge over the Alpheius close to Heraea, which Philip restored in B.C. 219. (Polyb. iv. 77, 78.) The Heraeatis was separated from Pisatis by the river Erymanthus, and from the territory of Megalopolis by the river Buphagus. (Gell, Itiner. of the Morea, p. 113; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 91; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 159; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 363, seq.)

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KAFYES (Ancient city) LEVIDI

Caphyae

  Kaphuai: Eth. Kaphuates, Kaphueus. A town of Arcadia situated in a small plain, NW. of the lake of Orchomenus. It was protected against inundations from this lake by a mound or dyke, raised by the inhabitants of Caphyae. The city is said to have been founded by Cepheus, the son of Aleus, and pretended to be of Athenian origin. (Paus. viii. 23. § 2; Strab. xiii.) Caphyae subsequently belonged to the Achaean league, and was one of the cities of the league, of which Cleomenes obtained possession. (Pol. ii. 52.) In its neighbourhood a great battle was fought in B.C. 220, in which the Aetolians, gained a decisive victory over the Achaeans and Aratus. (Pol. iv. 11, seq.) The name of Caphyae also occurs in the subsequent events of this war. (Pol. iv. 68, 70.) Strabo (viii. p. 388) speaks of the town as in ruins in his time; but it still contained some temples when visited by Pausanias. The remains of the walls of Caphyae are visible upon a small insulated height at the village of Khotussa, which stands near the edge of the lake. Polybius, in his description of the battle of Caphyae, refers to a plain in front of Caphyae, traversed by a river, beyond which were trenches (taphroi), a description of the place which does not correspond with present appearances. The taphroi were evidently ditches for the purpose of draining the marshy plain, by conducting the water towards the katavothra, around which there was, probably, a small lake. In the time of Pausanias we find that the lake covered the greater part of the plain; and that exactly in the situation in which Polybius describes the ditches, there was a mound of earth. Nothing is more probable than that during the four centuries so fatal to the prosperity of Greece, which elapsed between the battle of Caphyae and the visit of Pausanias, a diminution of population should have caused a neglect of the drainage which had formerly ensured the cultivation of the whole plain, and that in the time of the Roman empire an embankment of earth had been thrown up to preserve the part nearest to Caphyae, leaving the rest uncultivated and marshy. At present, if there are remains of the embankment, which I did not perceive, it does not prevent any of the land from being submerged during several months, for the water now extends very nearly to the site of Caphyae.
  Pausanias says that on the inner side of the embankment there flows a river, which, descending into a chasm of the earth, issues again at a place called Nasi (Nasoi); and that the name of the village where it issues is named Rheunus (Hpeunos). From this place it forms the perennial river Tragus (Tragos). He also speaks of a mountain in the neighbourhood of the city named Cnacalus (Knakalos), on which the inhabitants celebrate a yearly festival to Artemis Cnacalesia. Leake remarks that the mountain above Khotussa, now called Kastania, seems to be the ancient Cnacalus. The river Tara is probably the ancient Tragus.

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KROMI (Ancient city) FALESSIA

Cromi

  Cromnus, Kromoi, Kromnos, Kromna. A town of Arcadia on the frontiers of Messenia, the inhabitants of which were removed to Megalopolis, on the foundation of the latter city in B.C. 371. Its territory is called Cromitis (Kromitis) by Pausanias. It is placed by Boblaye at Neockhorio, but by Leake at Samara, a little westward of Londari, since the latter writer conceives it to have been on the route leading from Megalopolis to Carnasium, and not on the one leading to Messene.

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KYNOURIA (Province) ARCADIA

Cynuria

  Cynuria (Eth. Kunourios, Kunoureus), a district on the eastern coast of Peloponnesus, between the Argeia and Laconia, so called from the Cynurians, one of the most ancient tribes in the peninsula. Herodotus (viii. 73) regards them as Autochthones, but at the same time calls them Ionians. There can be little doubt, however, that they were Pelasgians; but in consequence of their maritime position, they were regarded as a different race from the Arcadian Pelasgians, and came to be looked upon as Ionians, which was the case with the Pelasgians dwelling upon the coast of the Corinthian gulf, in the district afterwards called Achaia. They were a semi-barbarous and predatory tribe, dwelling chiefly in the eastern slopes of Mount Parnon; but their exact boundaries cannot be defined, as they were only a tribe, and never formed a political body. At a later time they were almost confined to the Thyreatis, or district of Thyrea. (See below.) Originally they extended much further south. Upon the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, the Cynurians were subdued by the Argeians, whose territory at one time extended along the eastern coast of Peloponnesus down to Cape Malea. (Herod. i. 82.) The Cynurians were now reduced to the condition of Argive Perioeci. (Herod. viii. 73.) They continued the subjects of Argos for some time; but as Sparta rose in power, she endeavoured to increase her territory at the expense of Argos; and Cynuria, but more especially the fertile district of the Thyreatis, was a frequent subject of contention between the two states, and was in possession sometimes of the one, and sometimes of the other power. As early as the reign of Echestratus, the son of Agis, who is placed about B.C. 1000, the Spartans are said to have gained possession of Cynuria (Paus. iii. 2. § 2), but they were driven out of it subsequently, and it continued in the hands of the Argives till about B.C. 547, when the celebrated battle was fought between the 300 champions from either nation. (Herod. i. 82: for details see Diet. of Biogr. art. Othryades.) But the great victory of Cleomenes over the Argives near Tiryns, shortly before the Persian wars, was the event which secured to the Spartans undisputed possession of Cynuria for a long time. When the Aeginetans were expelled from their own island by the Athenians, at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war (B.C. 431), the Spartans allowed them to settle in the Thyreatis, which at that time contained two towns, Thyrea and Anthene or Athene, both of which were made over to the fugitives. (Thuc. ii. 27; comp. v. 41.) Here they maintained themselves till the 8th year of the Peloponnesian war, when the Athenians made a descent upon the coast of the Thyreatis, where they found the Aeginetans engaged in building a fortress upon the sea. This was forthwith abandoned by the latter, who took refuge in the upper city (he ano polis) at the distance of 10 stadia from the sea; but the Athenians followed them, took Thyrea, which they destroyed, and dragged away the inhabitants into slavery. (Thuc. iv. 56, 57.) Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, gave back the Thyreatis to the Argives, and extended their territory along the coast as far as Glympeis and Zarax. It continued to belong to the Argives in the time of Pausanias (ii. 38. § 5); but even then the ancient boundary quarrels between the Argives and Spartans still continued (Paus. vii. 11. § 1).
  The Thyreatis (Thnreatis), or territory of Thyrea (Thurea, also Thureai), which is the only district that can be safely assigned to Cynuria, is one of the most fertile plains in the Peloponnesus. It extends about 6 miles in length along the coast, south of the pass Anigraea and the mountain Zavitza. Its breadth is narrow, as the projecting spurs of Mount Parnon are never more than 3 miles, and sometimes only about a mile from the coast. It is watered by two streams; one on its northern, and the other on its southern extremity. The former called Tanus or Tanaus (Tanos, Paus. ii. 38. § 7; Tanaos, Eurip. Electr. 413), now the river of Luku, rises in the summits of Mt. Parnon near St. Peter, and falls into the sea, at present north of Astros, but till recently south of the latter place. It formed the boundary between the.Argeia and Laconia in the time of Euripides, who accordingly represents it as the boundary between the two states in the heroic age. The stream, which waters the southern extremity of the plain, is smaller than the Tanos; it also rises in Mt. Parnon, and falls into the sea near St. Andrew. It is now sometimes called the river of Kani, from one of the summits of Parnon; sometimes, the river of St. Andrew: it appears in ancient times to have borne the name of Charadrus, which is described by Statius (Theb. iv. 46), as flowing in a long valley near Neris. Between these two rivers, at the nartowest part of the plain, is a salt marsh called Mustos, formed by some salt-springs rising at the foot of the calcareous mountains. The bay between the two rivers was called the Thyreatic gulf (ho Thureates kolpos, Paus. ii. 38. § 7).
  Besides Thyrea and Anthena or Athena, mentioned by Thucydides, two other place in the Thyreatis are noticed by Pausanias (ii. 38. § 5, seq.), namely, Neris and Eva (Eua). Pausanias entered the Thyreatis by the pass of the Anigraea; and after following the road along the coast, turned upwards into the interior, and came to Thyrea (ionti ano pros ten epeiron Thurea chorion estin), where he saw the sepulchres of the 300 Argive, and 300 Spartan champions. On leaving these, he came first to Anthena, next to Neris, and lastly to Eva, which he describes as the largest of the three villages, containing a sanctuary of Polemocrates, son of Machaon, who was honoured here as a god or hero of the healing art. Above these villages was the range of Mt. Parnon, where, not far from the sources of the Tanaus, the boundaries of the Lacedaemonians, Argives, and Tegeatae joined, and were marked by stone Hermae.
  Neris is also mentioned by Statius (Theb. iv. 46), who describes it as situated in a long valley: Quaeque pavet longa spumantem valle Charadrum Neris. Eva, in the Thyreatis, is probably also meant by Stephanus B., though he calls it a city of Arcadia.
  The identification of these places has given rise to much dispute, and cannot be satisfactorily determined; for although there are several ancient remains in the Thyreatis, no inscriptions have been found, containing the names of places, and none of the ruins are in such positions as at once to identify them with the ancient towns. There are two roads in the Thyreatis; one along the coast leading from the pass of the Anigraea, and the other across the mountains. Upon the coast-road we find ancient remains at three places.
(1.) Astros is now the chief place in the district, where persons land coming from Nauplia by sea. The present town, however, is of recent date, having been built during the War of Independence,and has become of importance in consequence of the second national assembly of the Greeks having, met here in 1823. It is situated on the southern side of a promontory, which projects some distance into the sea, about 10 minutes south of the mouth of the Tanus. Although the town is of modern origin, it is supposed that the place has retained its name from antiquity, and that it is the Astrum (Astron) of Ptolemy, in whose list it occurs as the frontier town of Argolis, between the Lacedaemonian Prasiae and the mouths of the Inachus. (Ptol. iii. 16. § 11.) On the land side of the promontory towards the river, are considerable remains of an ancient wall, built of large unhewn blocks of stone, the interstices between which are filled up with smaller stories; like the well known walls of Tiryns. On the other sides of the hill there are no traces of walls, nor are there any other remains of an ancient town.
(2.) About half an hour S. of Astros, to the right hand of the road, there were formerly Hellenic remains, which have now entirely disappeared.
(3.) Further south, at St. Andrew, on the coast, and immediately south of the river of Kani, at the very edge of the plain, are the remains of an ancient town. The foundations of the walls, about 9 feet in breadth, may still be traced, as well as the foundations of towers. Within the walls the highest point, on which the church of St. Andrew now stands, was the acropolis.
  Upon the road across the mountains there are likewise remains of three ancient places.
(1.) In crossing Mount Zavitza, we find upon the descent on the southern side the ruins of a fortress, which commanded the road from the Argeia to. the Thyreatis.
(2.) Further on, at the foot of Zavitza, close to the river Tanus and the monastery of Luku, considerable remains of ancient art have been discovered. The Museum of Athens possesses a fine Caryatid figure, and two striking bas-reliefs, brought from this place. The ancient remains at Luku are far more considerable than any other which have been discovered in the Thyreatis.
(3.) From the monastery of Luku the road goes towards Mt. Parnon, over the heights which extend between the two rivers of the Thyreatis. To the left of this road are the ruins of an ancient fortress, situated upon a lofty rock, and known in the country by the name of Helleniko.
  The great difficulty is to identify Thyrea with any of these sites. Leake and Ross suppose that the wall at Astros is the one commenced by the Aeginetans, in the eighth year of the Peloponnesian war, and which they were prevented from finishing by the arrival of the Athenians. They further believe that the ruins at Luku are those of Thyrea; though, instead of being only 10 stadia from the sea, as Thucydides states, they are more than three times that distance. Curtius, on the other hand, thinks that the remains at St. Andrew represent Thyrea, and that Pausanias came to this point before he turned into the interior. He observes that the wall at Astros belongs to a much more ancient period than the time of the Peloponnesian war, and that the remains at Luku do not exhibit traces of a town, and are more characteristic of a Roman villa than of an Hellenic city. But to the hypothesis of Curtius the words of Thucydides and Pausanias seem fatal,--the former describing Thyrea as the upper city at the distance of 10 stadia from the sea; and the latter, as situated in the interior of the country. Supposing Luku to represent Thyrea, the ruins at St. Andrew must be those of a city not mentioned by any ancient writer. It is evident from the route of Pausanias, that they cannot represent either Anthena, Neris, or Eva. Leake, indeed, supposes them to be those of the Lacedaemonian Brasiae or Prasiae, chiefly on the ground of the order of names in Ptolemy; but the city at St. Andrew, being in the plain of the Thyreatis, must clearly have belonged to the latter district; and Prasiae ought probably to be placed further south at Tyro.
  The position of Thyrea being so uncertain, it would be useless to endeavour to fix the site of the other ancient places in the Thyreatis.
  On the heights of Mt. Parnon, in the north-eastern extremity of the ancient Laconia, is a district now called Tzakonia, the inhabitants of which speak a peculiar dialect, which more closely resembles the ancient Greek than any of the other dialects spoken in modern Greece. Their principal town is Kastanitza. Their name is evidently a corruption of Laconia; but Thiersch conjectures with some probability, that they are the descendants of the ancient Cynurians, and have retained with the tenacity of mountaineers the language of their forefathers. A full account of the Tzakonic dialect has been given by Thiersch (Abhandlung. der Bayr. Akad. vol. i. p. 511, seq.), an abstract of which will be found in Leake's Peloponnesiaca (p. 304, seq.).

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LADOKIA (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Ladoceia

  ta Ladokeia. A place in Arcadia, in the district Maenalia, and, after the building of Megalopolis, a suburb of that city, was situated upon the road from the latter to Pallantium and Tegea. Here a battle was fought between the Mantineians and Tegeatae, B.C. 423, and between the Achaeans and Cleomenes, B.C. 226. Thucydides calls it Laodicium (Laodikion) in Oresthis.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LEFKTRON (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Leuctra

  Leuctrum (ta Leuktra, to Leuktron). Fortress of the district Aegytis, on the confines of Arcadia and Laconia, described by Thucydides (v. 54) as on the confines of Laconia towards Mt. Lycaeus, and by Xenophon (Hell. vi. 5. § 24). It was originally an Arcadian town, but was included in the territory of Laconia. (Thuc. l. c.) It commanded one of the passes leading into Laconia, by which a portion of the Theban army penetrated into the country on their first invasion under Epaminondas. (Xen. l. c.) It was detached from Sparta by Epaminondas, and added to the territory of Megalopolis. (Paus. viii. 27. § 4.) It appears to have stood on the direct road from Sparta to Megalopolis, either at or near Leondari, in which position it was originally placed by Leake; and this seems more probable than the site subsequently assigned to it by the same writer, who supposes that both Leuctra and Malea were on the route from Megalopolis to Carnasium.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LYKEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Lycaea

...There was another Lycoa not far from the Alpheius, near its junction with the Lusius or Gortynius, at the foot of Mt. Lycaeus.It has been conjectured that the proper name of the latter of these towns was Lycaea, since Pausanias (viii. 27. § 4) speaks of the Lycaeatae (Lukaiatai) as a people in the district of Cynuria, and Stephanus mentions a town Lycaea (Lukaia). (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 304.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LYKOA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Lycoa

Lycoa: (Lukoa: Eth. Lukoates), a town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, at the foot of Mt. Maenalus, with a temple of Artemis Lycoatis. It was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, and is represented by the Paleokastron between Arachova and Karteroli. There was another Lycoa not far from the Alpheius, near its junction with the Lusius or Gortynius, at the foot of Mt. Lycaeus.It has been conjectured that the proper name of the latter of these towns was Lycaea, since Pausanias (viii. 27. § 4) speaks of the Lycaeatae (Lukaiatai) as a people in the district of Cynuria, and Stephanus mentions a town Lycaea (Lukaia). (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 304.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MAKARIE (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Macareae

Makareai: Eth. Makarhieus. A town of Arcadia, in the district Parrhasia, 22 stadia from Megalopolis, on the road to Phigaleia, and 2 stadia from the Alpheius. It was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, as its inhabitants had been removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter.


MALEA (Ancient small town) MEGALOPOLIS

Malea

Malea, a town in the district of Aegytis in Arcadia, the inhabitants of which were transferred to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city. (Paus. viii. 27. § 4.) Its territory was called the Maleatis (he Maleatis). Xenophon describes Leuctra as a fortress situated above the Maleatis; and as Leuctra was probably at or near Leondari, Malea must have been in the same neighbourhood. Leake, however, connecting Malea with the river Malus (Malous, Paus. viii. 35. § 1), a tributary of the Alpheius, places the town on this river, and on the road from Megalopolis to Carnasium (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 248); but this is not probable. The place Midea mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. vii. 1. § 28) is probably a corrupt form of Malea. (Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 336.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Mantineia

(Mantineia: Eth. Mantineus, Mantinensis: Paleopoli), one of the most ancient and powerful towns in Arcadia, situated on the borders of Argolis, S. of Orchomenus, and N. of Tegea. Its territory was called Mantinice (Mantinike). The city is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue as Mantinee erateine, and, according to tradition, it derived its name from Mantineus, a son of Lycaon. (Hom. Il. ii. 607; Pol. ii. 56; Paus. viii. 8. § 4.) Mantineia originally consisted of four or five distinct villages, the inhabitants of which were collected into one city. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 6, seq.; Strab. viii. p. 337; Diod. xv. 5.) If Strabo is correct in stating that this incorporation was brought about by the Argives, we may conjecture, with Mr. Grote, that the latter adopted this proceeding as a means of providing some check upon their powerful neighbours of Tegea. The political constitution of Mantineia is mentioned by Polybius as one of the best in antiquity; and the city had acquired so great a reputation at an early period, that the Cyrenaeans, in the reign of Battus III. (B.C. 550--530), when weakened by internal seditions, were recommended to apply to the Mantineians, who sent to them Demonax to settle their constitution. (Pol. vi. 43; Herod. iv. 161.) Some time before the Persian wars, Mantineia, like the other Arcadian towns, had acknowledged the Spartan supremacy; and accordingly the Mantineians fought against the Persians as the allies of Sparta. Five hundred of their citizens fought at Thermopylae, but their contingent arrived on the field of Plataea immediately after the battle. (Herod. vii. 202, ix. 77.) In the Peloponnesian War, Mantineia was at first a member of the Peloponnesian confederacy; but several causes tended to estrange her from the Spartan alliance. Mantineia and Tegea were, at this time, the two most important Arcadian states, and were frequently engaged in hostilities. In B.C. 423, they fought a bloody and indecisive battle, which is mentioned by Thucydides (iv. 134). Tegea, being oligarchically governed, was firmly attached to Sparta; whereas Mantineia, from her possessing a democratical constitution, as well as from her hatred to Tegea, was disposed to desert Sparta on the first favourable opportunity. In addition to this, the Mantineians had recently extended their dominion over the Parrhasians and had garrisoned a fortress at Cypsela, near the site where Megalopolis was afterwards built. Well aware that the Lacedaemonians would not allow them to retain their recent acquisitions, as it was the policy of Sparta to prevent the increase of any political power in the Peloponnesus, the Mantineians formed an alliance with Argos, Elis, and Athens, in B.C. 421, and thus became involved in war with Sparta. (Thuc. v. 29, 33, 47.) This war was brought to a close by the decisive battle fought near Mantineia, in June, 418, in which the Argives, Mantineians, and Athenians were defeated by the Lacedaemonians under Agis. This battle was fought to the S. of Mantineia, between the city and the frontiers of Tegea, and is the first of the five great battles bearing the name of Mantineia. The Mantineians now concluded a peace with Sparta, renouncing their dominion over the districts in Arcadia, which they had conquered. (Thuc. v. 65, seq., 81.)
  Mantineia continued an unwilling ally of Sparta for the next 33 years; but in the second year after the peace of Antalcidas, which had restored to the Spartans a great part of their former power, they resolved to crush for ever this obnoxious city. Accordingly, they required the Mantineians to raze their walls; and upon the refusal of the latter, they marched against the city with an army under the command of their king Agesipolis (B.C. 385), alleging that the truce for 30 years had expired, which had been concluded between the two states after the battle of 418. The Mantineians were defeated in battle, and took refuge in their city, prepared to withstand a siege; but Agesipolis having raised an embankment across the river Ophis, which flowed through Mantineia, forced back the waters of the river, and thus caused an inundation around the walls of the city. These walls, being built of unbaked bricks, soon began to give way; and the Mantineians, fearing that the city would be taken by assault, were obliged to yield to the terms of the Spartans, who required that the inhabitants should quit the city, and be dispersed among the villages, from the coalescence of which the city had been originally formed. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 6, 7; Diod. xv. 5; Ephorus, ap. Harpocrat. s. v. Mantineon dioikismos; Pol. iv. 27; Paus. viii. 8. § 7, seq.) Of the forces of Mantineia shortly before this time we have an account from the orator Lysias, who says that the military population or citizens of Mantineia were not less than 3000, which will give 13,000 for the free population of the Mantineian territory. (Lysias, ap. Dionys. p. 531; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 416.)
  The Mantineians did not long remain in this dispersed condition. When the Spartan supremacy was overthrown by the battle of Leuctra in 371, they again assembled together, and rebuilt their city. They took care to exclude the river from the new city, and to make the stone substructions of the walls higher than they had been previously. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 3; Paus. viii. 8. § 10; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 73.) The Mantineians took an active part in the formation of the Arcadian confederacy, and in the foundation of Megalopolis, which followed immediately after the restoration of their own city; and one of their own citizens, Lycomedes, was the chief promoter of the scheme. But a few years afterwards the Mantineians, for reasons which are not distinctly mentioned, quarrelled with the supreme Arcadian government, and formed an alliance with their inveterate enemies the Spartans. In order to put down this new coalition, Epaminondas marched into the Peloponnesus; and Mantineia was again the scene of another great battle (the second of the five alluded to above), in which the Spartans were defeated, but which was rendered still more memorable by the death of Epaminondas. (Xen. Hell. vii. 5; Diod. xv. 84.) The site of this battle is described below. The third and fourth battles of Mantineia are only incidentally mentioned by the ancient writers: the third was fought in 295, when Demetrius Poliorcetes defeated Archidamus and the Spartans (Plut. Demetr. 35) ; the fourth in 242, when Aratus and the Achaeans defeated the Spartans under Agis, the latter falling in the battle. (Paus. viii. 10. § 5, seq.)
  Mantineia continued to be one of the most powerful towns of Arcadia down to the time of the Achaean League. It at first joined this league; but it subsequently deserted it, and, together with Orchomenus and Tegea, became a member of the Aetolian confederacy. These three cities at a later time renounced their alliance with the Aetolians, and entered into a close union with Sparta, about B.C. 228. This step was the immediate cause of the war between the Achaeans and the Spartans, usually called the Cleomenic War. In 226, Aratus surprised Mantineia, and compelled the city to receive an Achaean garrison. The Mantineians soon afterwards expelled the Achaeans, and again joined the Spartans ; but the city was taken a second time, in 222, by Antigonus Doson, whom the Achaeans had invited to their assistance. It was now treated with great severity. It was abandoned to plunder, its citizens were sold as slaves, and its name changed to Antigoneia (Antigoneia), in compliment to the Macedonian monarch (Pol. ii. 57, seq.; Plut. Arat. 45; Paus. viii. 8. § 11). In 207, the plain of Mantineia was the scene of a fifth great battle, between the Achaean forces, commanded by Philopoemen, and the Lacedaemonians, under the tyrant Machanidas, in which the latter was defeated and slain. An account of this battle is given by Polybius, from whom we learn that the Achaean army occupied the entire breadth of the plain S. of the city, and that their light-armed troops occupied the hill to the E. of the city called Alesium by Pausanias. The Lacedaemonians were drawn up opposite to the Achaeans ; and the two armies thus occupied the same position as in the first battle of Mantineia, fought in the Peloponnesian War. (Pol. xi. 11.)
  The Mantineians were the only Arcadian people who fought on the side of Augustus at the battle of Actium. (Paus. viii. 8. § 12.) The city continued to bear the name of Antigoneia till the time of Hadrian, who restored to it its ancient appellation, and conferred upon it other marks of his favour, in honour of his favourite, Antinous, because the Bithynians, to whom Antinous belonged, claimed descent from the Mantineians. (Paus. viii. 8. § 12, viii. 9. § 7.)
The territory of Mantineia was bounded on the W. by Mt. Maenalus, and on the E. by Mt. Artemisium, which separated it from Argolis. Its northern frontier was a low narrow ridge, separating it from Orchomenia ; its southern frontier, which divided it from Tegeatis, was formed by a narrow part of the valley, hemmed in by a projecting ridge from Mt. Maenalus on the one side, and by a similar ridge from Mt. Artemisius on the other. The territory of Mantineia forms part of the plain now called the plain of Tripolitza, from the modern town of this name, lying between the ancient Mantineia and Tegea, and which is the principal place in the district. This plain is about 25 English miles in length, with a breadth varying from 1 to 8, and includes, besides the territory of Mantineia, that of Orchomenus and Caphyae on the N., and that of Tegea and Pallantium on the S. The distance between Mantineia and Tegea is about 10 English miles in a direct line. The height of the plain where Mantineia stood is 2067 feet above the level of the sea. Owing to its situation, Mantineia was a place of great military importance, and its territory was the scene of many important battles, as has been already related. It stood upon the river Ophis, nearly in the centre of the plain of Tripolitza as to length, and in one of the narrowest parts as to breadth. It was enclosed between two ranges of hills, on the E. and the W., running parallel to Mts. Artemisium and Maenalus respectively. The eastern hill was called Alesium (Alesion, Paus. viii. 10. § 1), and between it and Artemisium lay the plain called by Pausanias (viii. 7. § 1) to argon pedion, or the Uncultivated Plain. (viii. 8. § 1.) The range of hills on the W. had no distinct name: between them and Mt. Maenalus there was also a plain called Alcimedon (Alkimedon, Paus. viii. 12. § 2.)
  Mantineia was not only situated entirely in the plain, but nearly in its lowest part, as appears by the course of the waters. In the regularity of its fortifications it differs from almost all other Greek cities of which there are remains, since very few other Greek cities stood so completely in a plain. It is now called Paleopoli. The circuit of the walls is entire, with the exception of a small space on the N. and W. sides. In no place are there more than three courses of masonry existing above ground, and the height is so uniform that we may conclude that the remainder of the walls was constructed of unbaked bricks. The city had 9 or 10 gates, the approach to which was carefully defended. Along the walls there were towers at regular distances. Leake reckoned 118 towers, and says that the city was about 21 miles in circumference ; but Ross makes the city considerably larger, giving 129 or 130 as the number of the towers, and from 28 to 30 stadia, or about 3 1/2 English miles, as the circuit of the city. The walls of the city are surrounded by a ditch, through which the river Ophis flows. This stream is composed of several rivulets, of which the most important rises on Mt. Alesium, on the E. side of the city: the different rivulets unite on the NW. side of the town, and flow westward into a katavothra. Before the capture of Mantineia by Agesipolis, the Ophis was made to flow through the city and it is probable that all the water-courses of the surrounding plain were then collected into one channel above the city. Of the buildings in the interior of the city, described by Pausanias, few remains are left. Nearly in the centre of the city are the ruins of the theatre, of which the diameter was about 2440 feet; and west of the theatre, Ross observed the foundations of the temple of Aphrodite Symmachia, which the Mantineians erected to commemorate the share they had taken in the battle of Actium. (Paus. viii. 9. § 6.)
  The territory of Mantineia is frequently described by the ancient writers, from its having been so often the seat of war; but it is difficult, and almost impossible, to identify any of the localities of which we find mention, from the disappearance of the sanctuaries and monuments by which spots are indicated, and also from the nature of the plain, the topography of which must have been frequently altered by the change of the water-courses. On the latter subject a few words are necessary. The plain of Tripolitza, of which Mantinice formed part, is one of those valleys in Arcadia, which is so completely shut in by mountains, that the streams which flow into it have no outlet except through the chasms in the mountains, called katavothra. The part of the plain, which formed the territory of Mantineia, is so complete a level, that there is not, in some parts, a sufficient slope to carry off the waters ; and the land would be overflowed, unless trenches were made to assist the course of the waters towards some one or other of the katavothra which nature has provided for their discharge. (Pol. xi. 11.) Not only must the direction of these trenches have been sometimes changed, but even the course of the streams was sometimes altered, of which we have an interesting example in the history of the campaign of 418. It appears that the regulation of the mountain torrent on the frontiers of Mantinice and Tegeatis was a frequent subject of dispute and even of war between the two states; and the one frequently inundated the territory of the other, as a means of annoyance. This was done in 418 by Agis, who let the waters over the plain of Mantineia (Thuc. v. 65). This river can only be the one called Ophis by the Geographers of the French Commission. It rises a little N. of Tegea, and after flowing through Tegeatis falls now into a katavothra north of the hill Scope. In general the whole plain of Mantineia bears a very different aspect from what it presented in antiquity; instead of the wood of oaks and cork-trees, described by Pausanias, there is now not a single tree to be found; and no poet would now think of giving the epithet of lovely (erateine) to the naked plain, covered to a great extent with stagnant water, and shut in by gray treeless rocks. (Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, p. 128.)
  About a mile N. of the ruins of Mantineia is an isolated hill called Gurtzuli; north of which again, also at the distance of about a mile, is another hill. The latter was probably the site of the ancient Mantineia, arid was therefore called Ptolis in the time of Pausanias (viii. 12. § 7). This appears to have been one of the five villages from the inhabitants of which the city on the plain was peopled.
  There were several roads leading from Mantineia. Two of these roads led north of the city to Orchomenus: the more easterly of the two passed by Ptolis, just mentioned, the fountain of Alalcomeneia, and a deserted village named Maera (Maira), 30 stadia from Ptolis ; the road on the west passed over Mt. Anchisia, on the northern slope of which was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which formed the boundary between Mantinice and Orchomenia. (Paus. viii. 12. §§ 5--9, comp. viii. 5. § 11.)
  A road led from Mantineia on the W. to Methydrium. It passed through the plain Alcimedon, which was 30 stadia from the city, above which was Mount Ostracina; then by the fountain Cissa, and, at the distance of 40 stadia from the fountain, by the small place Petrosaka, which was on the confines of the Mantineian and Megalopolitan territories. (Paus. viii. 12. §§ 2--4.)
  Two roads led from Mantineia southwards,--the one SE. to Tegea, and the other SW. to Pallantium. On the left of the road to Tegea, called Xenis by Polybius (xi. 11, § 5), just outside the gates of Mantineia, was the hippodrome, and a little further on the stadium, above which rose Mount Alesium: at the spot where the mountain ceased was the temple of Poseidon Hippius, which was 7 stadia from the city, as we learn from Polybius (xi. 11. § 4, compared with xi. 14. § 1). Here commenced the ditch, which is said by Polybius to have led across the Mantineian plain to the mountains bordering upon the district of the Elisphasii (he ton Elisphasion Chora Pol. xi. 11. § 6, comp. 15. § 7, xvii. 6). Beyond the temple of Poseidon was a forest of oaks, called Pelagus (Pelagos), through which ran the road to Tegea. On turning out of the road to the left, at the temple of Poseidon, one found at the distance of 5 stadia the tombs of the daughters of Pelias. Twenty stadia further on was a place called Phoezon (Phoizon). This was the narrowest part of the plain between Tegea and Mantineia, the road being shortened by the hill Scope on the W. and a similar projecting rock on the E. Here was the tomb of Areithous, who was said to have been slain in a narrow pass by Lycurgus (steinopoi en hodoi, Hom. Il. vii. 143). 2 This narrow valley, shut in by the two projecting ridges already mentioned, formed the natural frontier between the territories of Mantineia and Tegea. The boundary between the two states was marked by a round altar on the road, which was about four miles distant from Mantineia, and about six miles from Tegea. It was here that the Lacedaemonian army was posted, over which Epaminondas gained his memorable victory. He had marched from Tegea in a north-westerly direction, probably passing near the site of the modern Tripolitza, and then keeping along the side of Mt. Maenalus. He attacked the enemy on their right flank, near the projecting ridge of Mt. Maenalus, already described. It was called Scope (Skope, now Myrtikas), because Epaminondas, after receiving his mortal wound, was carried to this height to view the battle. Here he expired, and his tomb, which Pausanias saw, was erected on the spot. (Paus. viii. 11. §§ 6, 7)
  The road from Mantineia to Pallantium ran almost parallel to the road to Tegea till it reached the frontiers of Tegeatis. At the distance of one stadium was the temple of Zeus Charmon. (Paus. viii. 10, 11, 12. § 1.)
Two roads led from Mantineia eastwards to Argos, called Prinus (Prinos) and Climax (Klimaxi), or the Ladder, respectively. (Paus. viii. 6. § 4.) The latter was so called from the steps cut out of the rock in a part of the road; and the Prinus probably derived its name from passing by a large holm-oak (prinos), or a small wood of holm-oaks; but the roads do not appear to have borne these names till they entered Mantinice. There are only two passes through the mountains, which separate the Argive plain from Mantinice, of which the southern and the shorter one is along the course of the river Charadrus, the northern and the longer one along the valley of the Inachus. Both Ross and Leake agree in making the Prinus the southern and the Climax the northern of these two roads, contrary to the conclusions of the French surveyors. Both roads quitted Argos at the same gate, at the hill called Deiras, but then immediately parted in different directions. The Prinus after crossing the Charadrus, passed by Oenoe, and then ascended Mount Artemisium (Malevos), on the summit of which, by the road-side, stood the temple of Artemis, and near it were the sources of the Inachus. Here were the boundaries of Mantinice and Argolis. (Paus. ii. 25. §§ 1--3.) On descending this mountain the road entered Mantinice, first crossing through the lowest and most marshy part of the Argon, or Uncultivated Plain, so called because the waters from the mountains collect in the plain and render it unfit for cultivation, although there is a katavothra to carry them off. On the left of the plain were the remains of the camp of Philip, son of Amyntas, and a village called Nestane, probably now the modern village of Tzipiana. Near this spot the waters of the plain entered the katavothra, and are said not to have made their exit till they reached the sea off the coast of the Argeia. Below Nestane was the Dancing-place of Maera (Choros Mairas), which was only the southern arm of the Argon Plain, by means of which the latter was connected with the great Mantineian plain. The road then crossed over the foot of Mount Alesium, and entered the great Mantineian plain near the fountain Arne at the distance of 12 stadia from the city. From thence it passed into the city by the south-eastern or Tegeatan gate. (Paus. viii. 6. § 6--viii. 8. § 4.)
  The other road, called Climax ran from Argos in a north-westerly direction along the course of the Inachus, first 60 stadia to Lyrceia, and again 60 stadia to Orneae, on the frontiers of Sicyonia and Phliasia. (Paus. ii.25. §§ 4--6.) It then crossed the mountain, on the descent of which into Mantinice were the steps cut out of the rock. The road entered Mantinice at the upper or northern corner of the Argon Plain, near the modern village of Sanga. It then ran in a south-westerly direction, along the western side of Mount Alesium, to a place called Melangeia (ta Melangeia), from which drinking-water was conducted by an aqueduct to Mantineia, of which remains were observed by Ross. It corresponds to the modern village of Pikerni, which is said to signify in the Albanian language abounding in springs. The road next passed by the fountain of the Meliastae (Meliastai), where were temples of Dionysus and of Aphrodite Melaenis: this fountain was 7 stadia from the city, opposite Ptolis or Old Mantineia. (Paus. viii. 6. §§ 4, 5.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MARATHA (Ancient city) GORTYS

Maatha

  Maatha (Maratha), a village of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, between Buphagium and Gortys, perhaps represented by the ruin called the Castle of Leodhoro. (Paus. viii. 28. § 1; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 66, Peloponnesiaca, p. 232.)


MARIOS (Ancient city) LEONIDION

Marius

  Marios. A town of Laconia, belonging in the time of Pausanias to the Eleuthero-Lacones, was situated 100 stadia east of Geronthrae. It contained a sanctuary of all the gods and, one of Artemis, and in each there were copious springs of water. It is represented by Mari, which stands on the road from Gheraki (Geronthrae) over the mountains to Kremasti; but, according to the French Commission, its real distance from Geronthrae is from 75 to 80 stadia, and not 100, as is stated by Pausanias. There are ruins of the ancient town about a mile and a half to the south of the modern village, and the place is still characterised by its abundant fountains.

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MEGALOPOLIS (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Megalopolis

  (he Megale polis or Megalopolis: Eth. Megalopolites: Sinanu).The Great City, one of the most recent of the Grecian cities, and the later capital of Arcadia, was founded in B.C. 370, a few months after the battle of Leuctra, and was finished in the course of three years. (Paus. viii. 27. § 1; Diod. xv. 52, 62, 72.) Arcadia had been previously divided into a number of independent political communities; and it had always been the object of Sparta to maintain them in their isolated condition, that she might the more easily exercise supremacy over them. But after the fatal blow, which the Spartans had received at the battle of Leuctra, several of the leading Arcadians, supported by Epaminondas, who was the soul of the undertaking, resolved to found a new city, which should become the capital of an Arcadian confederation. Ten oecists were appointed to carry this resolution into effect, of whom two were from Tegea, two from Mantineia. two from Cleitor, two from the district of Maenalus, and two from that of Parrhasia. The site, which they chose, was an extensive plain upon the northwest frontier of Laconia; and the city was built upon the river Helisson, a tributary of the Alpheius. Forty distinct Arcadian townships were either persuaded or compelled to contribute their inhabitants to form the new state. (Paus. viii. 27; Diod. xv. 94.) The inhabitants were furnished from seven states: 10 from Maenalus, 8 from the Parrhasii, 3 from Orchomenus, 4 from Cynuria, 6 from Eutresis, 3 from Tripolis, and probably 6 (though Pausanias mentions the names of only 5) from Aegytis. The city was 50 stadia (more than 5 miles and a half) in circumference (Polyb. ix. 21); while the territory assigned to it was more extensive than that of any other Arcadian state, extending northwards about 23 English miles from the city, being bounded on the east by the territories of Tegea, Mantineia, Orchomenus. and Caphyae, and on the west by those of Messene, Phigalia, and Heraea.
  Megalopolis was the place of meeting of the Arcadian confederation which was now formed. The council of the confederation was called the Ten Thousand (hoi Murioi), and consisted of representatives of all the Arcadian states, except Orchomenus and Heraea. The number must be regarded as an indefinite one; and it is probable that all the citizens of the separate states had the right of attending the meetings. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 6, vii. 1. § 38; Diod. xv. 59; Paus. viii. 32. § 1; Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 344.) A body of troops, called Epariti (Eparitoi), was raised for the service of the confederation; their number was 5000 (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. 34, vii. 5. § 3; Diod. xi. 62, 67.) The new confederation succeeded for a time in giving a certain degree of unity of sentiment and action to the Arcadians; but its influence gradually declined; and the city of Megalopolis never attained that importance which its founders had anticipated, and which had caused it to be laid out on a scale too large for the the population collected within its walls. (Polyb ii. 55.)
  Upon the decline of the Theban power, the Spartans directed their attacks against Megalopolis; but these were easily repelled; and upon the rise of the Macedonian power the Megalopolitans formed a close alliance with Philip, and subsequently with Alexander, as their best security against their formidable neighbour. After the death of Alexander they continued faithful to the Macedonian alliance, and refused to join the other Greeks against Antipater. In the contest between Polysperchon and Cassander, Megalopolis espoused the side of the latter; in consequence of which Polysperchon laid siege to the city in B.C. 318. It was, however, bravely defended by its inhabitants, under an officer named Damis; and though Polysperchon succeeded in making a breach in its walls, he was finally repulsed with loss. (Diod. xviii. 70, 71.) We learn from Diodorus that the territory of Megalopolis possessed at this time 15,000 men capable of bearing arms, which implies a population of about 65,000 souls. After this time Megalopolis was governed by tyrants, of whom the first was Aristodemus, a Phigalian by birth, who, on account of his good qualities, was called Chrestos. During his reign the Spartans, under their king Acrotatus, the son of Areus, and grandson of Cleonymus II., attacked Megalopolis, but were defeated, and Acrotatus was slain. (Paus. viii. 27. § 11, who erroneously calls Acrotatus the son of Cleonymus.) Two generations later Lydiades, a native of Megalopolis, became tyrant of the city, but he voluntarily resigned his power in B.C. 232, and united Megalopolis to the Achaean League. (Paus. viii. 27. § 12, seq.; Polyb. ii. 44.) In B.C. 222, Cleomenes III. surprised Megalopolis; the greater part of the inhabitants succeeded in making their escape to Messene; but, after plundering the city, he laid the greater part of it in ruins. (Paus. viii. 27. § 15, seq.; Polyb. ii. 55; Plut. Philop. 5, Cleom. 25.) Soon after the defeat of Cleomenes at the battle of Sellasia (B.C. 221), the Megalopolitans began to rebuild their city; but a dispute arose among them respecting its size. One party wished the compass of the walls to be contracted, that they might be the more easily defended; and the other [p. 308] insisted upon preserving the former dimensions of the city. The former party, through the mediation of Aratus, appear to have prevailed, and the city was unfortunately rebuilt in its original magnitude. (Polyb. v. 93.) The fortifications were sufficiently strong to resist the attack of the tyrant Nabis (Plut. Philop. 13); but they were again suffered to fall into decay; and even as soon as B.C. 175, we find that Antiochus IV. Epiphanes promised the Megalopolitans to surround their city with a wall, and gave them the greater part of the necessary money. (Liv. xli. 20.) Polybius remarks (ix. 21) that the population of Megalopolis in his time was only the half of that of Sparta, although it was two stadia greater in circumference. So much was it reduced, that a comic poet, quoted by Strabo, described the Great City as a great desert (eremia megale 'stin e Megale polis, viii. p. 388). Accustomed as Pausanias was to the sight of fallen cities, the ruined condition of Megalopolis appears to have particularly impressed him, and gave rise to the reflections which he has inserted after his description of the city (viii. 33). Megalopolis was the birthplace of Philopoemen, and of the historian Polybius.
  Megalopolis was situated in the middle of a plain, and, unlike the generality of Grecian cities, possessed no height, which might be converted into an acropolis. Mantineia, which was also rebuilt about the same time, was placed in a level situation, instead of its old position upon a hill. A level situation appears to have been chosen as more convenient for a large population than the rocky heights upon which the old Greek cities were built; while the improvements which had been made in the art of fortifying cities enabled their inhabitants to dispense with natural defences. The city lay upon either bank of the Helisson, which flowed through it from east to west, and divided it into nearly two equal parts.
  The Helisson flows into the Alpheius about 2 1/2 English miles from the city. The southern half of the city was called Orestia, from an ancient settlement of the Maenalians upon this spot. (Steph. B. s. v. Megale polis. The ruins of Megalopolis are near the modern village of Sinanu; but almost all trace of the walls has disappeared, because they were probably built, like those of Mantineia (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 5; Paus. viii. 8. § 5), of unburnt bricks. Pausanias has given a particular description of the public buildings (viii. 30--32), the site of some of which may still be fixed by the existing remains. The two most important buildings were the theatre, on the left or southern side of the river, and the Agora on the right. The colossal remains of the theatre are conspicuous in the whole plain. Several of the seats remain, and a part of the wall of the cavea. It is described by Pausanias (viii. 32. § 1) as the greatest theatre in Greece, and was 480 feet in diameter. Pausanias says that in the theatre there was a perennial fountain, which Leake could not find, but which Ross noticed in the Orchestra; it is now covered with rubbish, so that it is not visible, but in dry seasons it makes the ground quite moist and slippery. On the eastern side of the theatre was the stadium, the position of which is indicated in the shape of the ground near the river. Here is a fountain of water, which Pausanias says was in the stadium, and was sacred to Dionysus. On the eastern side of the stadium was a temple of Dionysus; and below the stadium, towards the river, were a sanctuary of Aphrodite, and an altar of Ares. Ross supposes a circular foundation close to the bank of the river to be the altar of Ares, and a quadrangular foundation between this and the theatre to be the temple of Aphrodite. East of the temple of Dionysus there is another source of water, also mentioned by Pausanias, by which we can fix the position of the temple of Asclepius the Boy; above which, on a gently sloping hill, was a temple of Artemis Agrotera. West of the theatre was the Thersilium, named from the person who built it, in which the Ten Thousand were accustomed to meet; and near it was a house, built originally by the Megalopolitans for Alexander, the son of Philip. In this same locality there were a few foundations of a temple sacred to Apollo, Hermes, and the Muses.
  Opposite the western end of the theatre there are, on both sides of the river, but more especially on the northern bank, large masses of square stones. These are probably the remains of the principal bridge over the Helisson, which led from the theatre to the Agora on the northern side of the river. The Agora was built on a magnificent scale, and extended along the river close to the western walls of the city; since Pausanias, who entered Megalopolis upon this side, immediately came upon the Agora. As Pausanias has given a fuller description of the Agora of Megalopolis than of any other in Greece, the following restoration of it (taken from Curtius) may be found useful in understanding the general form and arrangement of such buildings.
  In the centre of the Agora was an inclosure sacred to Zeus Lycaeus, who was the tutelary deity of all Arcadia. It had no entrance; but the objects it contained were exposed to public view; here were seen two altars of the god, two tables, two eagles, and a statue in stone of Pan. Before the sacred inclosure of Zeus there was a statue of Apollo in brass, 12 feet high, which was brought from Bassae by the Phigalians, to adorn the new capital; it survived the destruction of the city, and is represented on coins of Septimius Severus. This colossal statue probably stood on the west side of the sanctuary of Zeus. To the right of the colossal statue was the temple of the Mother of the Gods, of which [p. 309] only the columns remained in the time of Pausanias.
  On the northern side of the Agora lay the Stoa of Philip, the son of Amyntas, which was named in honour of this king, on account of the services he had rendered to Megalopolis. Near it were the remains of the temple of Hermes Acacesius. Alongside of the Stoa of Philip, was another smaller Stoa, containing the Archives (ta archeia), and consisting of six compartments. Behind the Stoa of the Archives was a temple of Tyche (Fortune).
  The Stoa called Myropolis, where the shops of the perfumers stood, was probably on the eastern side of the Agora. It was built from the spoils of the Lacedaemonians under Acrotatus, when they were defeated by Aristodemus. Between it and the sanctuary of Zeus was the statue of Polybius. To the left of this statue was the Bouleuterium, or Senate House. In the south of the Agora may be placed the Stoa of Aristander, named after its founder. At the eastern end of this Stoa, was a Peripteral Temple of Zeus Soter, containing a statue of the god seated between the goddesses Megalopolis and Artemis Soteira. At the other, or western end of the same Stoa, was the sacred inclosure of the Great Goddesses Demeter and Core (Persephone), containing several temples. The Gymnasium stood on the western side of the Agora.
  To the north of the Agora, behind the Stoa of Philip, there were two small heights, on one of which stood the ruins of the temple of Athena Polias, and on the other those of Hera Teleia. The foundations of these temples are still visible. At the foot of the temple of Hera Teleia was the stream Bathyllus, flowing into the Helisson. Parallel to the Bathyllus is another stream; and the hill between these two streams is, perhaps, the Scoleitas mentioned by Pausanias (viii. 31. § 7), who says that it lies within the walls, and that a stream descends from it to the Helisson.
  Some excavations were made on the site of Megalopolis by Ross in 1834, but nothing of importance was found. Pausanias also gives a minute account of the principal roads leading from Megalopolis.
  Of these he mentions eight, leading respectively to Messene, Carnasium, Sparta, Methydrium, Maenalus, Phigaleia, Tegea and Heraea.

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MELENEES (Ancient city) IREA

Melaeneae

  Melaineai, Melainai, Eth. Melaineus. A town of Arcadia, in the territory of Heraea, and on the road from Heraea to Megalopolis. It was distant 40 stadia from Buphagium. Pausanias says that it was founded by Melaeneus, the son of Lycaon, but that it was deserted in his time and overflowed with water. The ruins of Melaeneae lie 4 or 5 miles eastward of Heraea, between the villages Kokora and Kakoreos, where are the remains of a Roman bath, which has also been a church, and is sometimes used as such, though it is said to be generally inundated, even in the dry season, which is in conformity with the account of Pausanias. The Peutinger Table specifies Melaeneae as distant 12 miles from Olympia; but it does not mention Heraea, though a much more important place, and one which continued to exist long after Heraea: moreover, the distance of 12 miles applies to Heraea, and not to Melaeneae.

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MENALON (Mountain) LEVIDI

Maenalus

Maenalus. (Mainalos, Strab. viii. p. 388; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. i. 769; Mainalon, Theocr. i. 123; to Mainalion oros, Paus. viii. 36. § 7; Maenalus, Virg. Ecl. viii. 22; Mel. ii. 3; Plin. iv. 6. s. 10; Maenala, pl., Virg. Ecl. x. 55; Ov. Met. i. 216), a lofty mountain of Arcadia, forming the western boundary of the territories of Mantineia and Tegea. It was especially sacred to the god Pan, who is hence called Maenalius Deus (Ov. Fast. iv. 650.) The inhabitants of the mountain fancied that they had frequently heard the god playing on his pipe. The two highest summits of the mountain are called at present Aidin and Apano-Khrepa: the latter is 5115 feet high. The mountain is at present covered with pines and firs; the chief pass through it is near the modern town of Tripolitza. The Roman poets frequently use the adjectives Maenalius and Maenalis as equivalent to Arcadian. Hence Maenalii versus, shepherds' songs, such as were usual in Arcadia (Virg. Ecl. viii.21); Maenalis ora, i.e. Arcadia (Ov. Fast. iii. 84); Maenalisnympha, i. e. Carmenta (Ov. Fast. i. 634); Maenalis Ursa, and Maenalia Arctos, the constellation of the Bear, into which Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, was said to have been metamorphosed. (Ov. Trist. iii. 11. 8, Fast. ii. 192.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MENALOS (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Maenalus

  Mainalos: Eth. Mainalios, Mainalites, Mainaleus. A town of Arcadia, and the capital of the district Maenalia (Mainalia), which formed part of the territory of Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city. The town Maenalus was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions a temple of Athena, a stadium, and a hippodrome, as belonging to the place. (Paus. viii. 3. § 4, 36. § 8; Steph. B. s. v.) Its site is uncertain. Ross supposes that the remains of polygonal walls on the isolated hill, on the right bank of the river Helisson and opposite the village Davia, represent Maenalus; and this appears more probable than the opinion of Leake, who identifies this site with Dipaea, and thinks that Maenalus stood on Mt. Apano-khrepa. (Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes vol. i., Leake, Morea, vol. ii., Peloponnesiaca.)

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METHYDRION (Ancient city) VYTINA

Methydrium (Methudrion: Eth. Methudrieus), a town in central Arcadia, situate 170 stadia north of Megalopolis (Paus. viii. 35. § 5), obtained its name, like Interamna, from being situated upon a lofty height between the two rivers Maloetas and Mylaon. (Paus. viii. 36. § 1.) It was founded by Orchomenus; but its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis, upon the establishment of that city. It never recovered its former population, and is mentioned by Strabo (viii. p. 388) among the places of Arcadia which had almost entirely disappeared. It continued, however, to exist as a village in the time of Pausanias, who saw there a temple of Poseidon Hippius upon the river Mylaon. He also mentions, above the river Maloetas, a mountain called Thaumasium, in which was a cave where Rhea took refuge when pregnant with Zeus. At the distance of 30 stadia from Methydrium was a fountain named Nymphasia. (Paus. viii. 36. § § 1--3, comp. viii. 12. § 2, 27. § § 4, 7.) Methydrium is also mentioned in the following passages: Thuc. v. 58; Polyb. v, 10, 11, 13; Plin. iv. 6. s. 10; Steph. B. s. v. There is some difficulty in determining the exact site of Methydrium. Some writers identify it with the Hellenic remains called Palatia; but these are not on a lofty hill between two rivers, but in a low situation above the junction of the rivers on the right bank of one of them. Methydrium should rather be placed 45 minutes further, at the distance of 10 miles SE. of the village of Nimnitza, where there are some ancient ruins, one between two streams, on a height below Pyryo, otherwise called Pyrgako. It is true that this also is not a lofty hill; but Pausanias uses the expression kolonos hupselos, and hupselos has reference to kolonos, which means only a slight elevation.

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Methydrium

  Methudrion: Eth. Methudrieus. A town in central Arcadia, situated 170 stadia north of Megalopolis (Paus. viii. 35. § 5), obtained its name, like Interamna, from being situated upon a lofty height between the two rivers Maloetas and Mylaon. (Paus. viii. 36. § 1.) It was founded by Orchomenus; but its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis, upon the establishment of that city. It never recovered its former population, and is mentioned by Strabo (viii. p. 388) among the places of Arcadia which had almost entirely disappeared. It continued, however, to exist as a village in the time of Pausanias, who saw there a temple of Poseidon Hippius upon the river Mylaon. He also mentions, above the river Maloetas, a mountain called Thaumasium, in which was a cave where Rhea took refuge when pregnant with Zeus. At the distance of 30 stadia from Methydrium was a fountain named Nymphasia. (Paus. viii. 36. § § 1 - 3, comp. viii. 12. § 2, 27. § § 4, 7.)
  There is some difficulty in determining the exact site of Methydrium. Some writers identify it with the Hellenic remains called Palatia; but these are not on a lofty hill between two rivers, but in a low situation above the junction of the rivers on the right bank of one of them. Methydrium should rather be placed 45 minutes further, at the distance of 10 miles SE. of the village of Nimnitza, where there are some ancient ruins, one between two streams, on a height below Pyryo, otherwise called Pyrgako. It is true that this also is not a lofty hill; but Pausanias uses the expression kolonos hupselos, and hupselos has reference to kolonos, which means only a slight elevation.

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OGION (Ancient city) TROPEA

Onceium

Onceium (Onkeion), a place in Arcadia upon the river Ladon, near Thelpusa, and containing a temple of Demeter Erinnys. (Paus. viii. 25. § 4; Steph. B. s. v.) The Ladon, after leaving this temple, passed that of Apollo Oncaeates on the left, and that of the boy Asclepius on the right. (Paus. viii. 25. § 11.) The name is derived by Pausanias from Oncus, a son of Apollo, who reigned at this place. Leake supposes that Tumbiki, the only remarkable site on the right bank of the Ladon between Thelpusa and the Tuthoa, is the site of the temple of Asclepius. (Morea, vol. ii. p. 103.) Other writers mention a small town Oncae (Onkai) in Arcadia, which is probably the same as Onceium.

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ORCHOMENOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI

Orchomenus

  An ancient city of Arcadia, called by Thucydides (v. 61) the Arcadian (ho Arkadikos), to distinguish it from the Boeotian town. It was situated in a plain surrounded on every side by mountains. This plain was bounded on the S. by a low range of hills, called Anchisia, which separated it from the territory of Mantineia; on the N. by a lofty chain, called Oligyrtus, through which lie the passes into the territories of Pheneus and Stymphalus; and on the E. and W. by two parallel chains running from N. to S., which bore no specific name in antiquity: the eastern range is in one part 5400 feet high, and the western about 4000 feet. The plain is divided into two by hills projecting on either side from the eastern and western ranges, and which approach so close as to allow space for only a narrow ravine between them. The western hill, on account of its rough and rugged form, was called Trachy (Trachu) in antiquity; upon the summit of the western mountain stood the acropolis of Orchomenus. The northern plain is lower than the southern; the waters of the latter run through the ravine between Mount Trachy and that upon which Orchomenus stands into the northern plain, where, as there is no outlet for the waters, they form a considerable lake. (Paus. viii. 13. § 4.)
  The acropolis of Orchomenus, stood upon a lofty, steep, and insulated hill, nearly 3000 feet high, resembling the strong fortress of the Messenian Ithome, and, like the latter, commanding two plains. From its situation and its legendary history, we may conclude that it was one of the most powerful cities of Arcadia in early times. Pausanias relates that Orchomenus was founded by an eponymous hero, the son of Lycaon (viii. 3. § 3); but there was a tradition that, on the death of Areas, his dominions were divided among his three sons, of whom Elatus obtained Orchomenus as his portion. (Schol. ad. Dionys. Per. 415.) The kings of Orchomenus are said to have ruled over nearly all Arcadia. (Heraclid. Pont. ap. Diog. Laert. i. 94.) Pausanias also gives a list of the kings of Orchomenus, whom he represents at the same time as kings of Arcadia. One of these kings, Aristocrates, the son of Aechmis, was stoned to death by his people for violating the virgin priestess of Artemis Hymnia. Aristocrates was succeeded by his son Hicetas, and Hicetas by his son Aristocrates II., who, having abandoned the Messenians at the battle of the Trench in the second war against Sparta, experienced the fate of his grandfather, being stoned to death by the Arcadians. He appears to have been the last king of Orchomenus, who reigned over Arcadia, but his family was not deprived of the kingdom of Orchomenus, as is stated in some authorities, since we find his son Aristodemus represented as king of the city. (Paus. viii. 5; Polyb. iv. 3; Heracl. Pont. l. c.) It would appear, indeed, that royalty continued to exist at Orchomenus long after its abolition in most other Grecian cities, since Theophilus related that Peisistratus, king of Orchomenus, was put to death by the aristocracy in the Peloponnesian War. (Plut. Parall. 32.)
  Orchomenus is mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of polumelos (Il. ii. 605); and it is also called ferax by Ovid (Met. vi. 416), and aphneos by Apollonius Rhodius (iii. 512). In the Persian wars Orchomenus sent 120 men to Thermopylae (Herod. viii. 102), and 600 to Plataeae (ix. 28). In the Peloponnesian War, the Lacedaemonians deposited in Orchomenus the hostages they had taken from the Arcadians; but the walls of the city were then in a dilapidated state; and accordingly, when the Athenians and their Peloponnesian allies advanced against the city in B.C. 418, the Orchomenians dared not offer resistance, and surrendered the hostages. (Thuc. v. 61.) At the time of the foundation of Megalopolis, we find the Orchomenians exercising supremacy over Theisoa, Methydrium, and Teuthis; but the inhabitants of these cities were then transferred to Megalopolis, and their territories assigned to the latter. (Paus.viii.27. §4.) The Orchomenians, through their enmity to the Mantineians, refused to join the Arcadian confederacy, and made war upon the Mantineians. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 11, seq.; Diod. xv. 62.) Henceforth Orchomenus lost its political importance; but, from its commanding situation, its possession was frequently an object of the belligerent powers in later times. In the war between Cassander and Polysperchon, it fell into the power of the former, B.C. 313. (Diod. xix. 63.) It subsequently espoused the side of the Aetolians, was taken by Cleomenes (Polyb. ii. 46), and was afterwards retaken by Antigonus Doson, who placed there a Macedonian garrison. (Polyb. ii. 54, iv. 6; Plut. Arat. 5.) It was given back by Philip to the Achaeans. (Liv. xxxii. 5.) Strabo mentions it among the Arcadian cities, which had either disappeared, or of which there were scarcely any traces left (viii. p. 338); but this appears from Pausanias to have been an exaggeration. When this writer visited the place, the old city upon the summit of the mountain was in ruins, and there were only some vestiges of the agora and the town walls; but at the foot of the mountain there was still an inhabited town. The upper town was probably deserted at a very early period; for such is the natural strength of its position, that we can hardly suppose that the Orchomenians were dwelling there in the Peloponnesian War, when they were unable to resist an invading force. Pausanias mentions, as the most remarkable objects in the place, a source of water, and temples of Poseidon and Aphrodite, with statues of stone. Close to the city was a wooden statue of Artemis, enclosed in a great cedar tree, and hence called Cedreatis. Below the city were several heaps of stones, said to have been erected to some persons slain in battle. (Paus. viii. 13.)
  The village of Kalpaki stands on the site of the lower Orchomenus. On approaching the place from the south the traveller sees, on his left, tumuli, chiefly composed of collections of stones, as described by Pausanias. Just above Kalpaki are several pieces of white marble columns, belonging to an ancient temple. There are also some remains of a temple at a ruined church below the village, near which is a copious fountain, which is evidently the one described by Pausanias. On the summit of the hill are some remains of the walls of the more ancient Orchomenus.
  In the territory of Orchomenus, but adjoining that of Mantineia, consequently on the northern slope of Mt. Anchisia, was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which was held in high veneration by all the Arcadians in the most ancient times. (Paus. viii. 5. § 11.) Its site is probably indicated by a chapel of the Virgin Mary, which stands east of Levidhi.
  In the southern plain is an ancient canal, which conducts the waters from the surrounding mountains through the ravine into the lower or northern plain, which is the other Orchomnenian plain of Pausanias (viii. 13. § 4). After passing the ravine, at the distance of 3 stadia from Orchomenus, the road divides into two. One turns to the left along the northern side of the Orchomenian acropolis to Caphyae, the other crosses the torrent, and passes under Mt. Trachy to the tomb of Aristocrates, beyond which are the fountains called Teneiae (Teneiai). Seven stadia further is a place called Amilus (Amilos). Here, in ancient times, the road divided into two, one leading to Stymphalus and the other to Pheneus. (Paus. viii. 13. § 4, seq.) The above-mentioned fountains are visible just beyond Trachy, and a little further are some Hellenic ruins, which are those of Amilus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ORESTHION (Ancient city) VALTETSI

Oresthasium

  Oresthasion, Orestheion, Oresteion. A town in the south of Arcadia, in the district of Maenalia, a little to the right of the road, leading from Megalopolis to Pallantium and Tegea. Its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis on the foundation of the latter city. Its territory is called Oresthis by Thucydides (iv. 134), and in it was situated Ladoceia, which became a suburb of Megalopolis. (Ladokeia) Leake places Oresthasium at or near the ridge of Tzimbaru, and conjectures that it may have occupied the site of the village of Marmara or Marmaria, a name often attached in Greece to places where ancient wrought or sculptured stones have been found.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PALLANTION (Ancient city) TRIPOLI

Pallantium

Pallantium, more rarely Palantion: Eth. Pallantieus. One of the most ancient towns of Arcadia, in the district Maenalia, said to have been founded by Pallas, a son of Lycaon, was situated W. of Tegea, in a small plain called the Pallantic plain (Pallantikon pedion, Paus. viii. 44. § 5), which was separated from the territory of Tegea by a choma (choma) or dyke. It was from this town that Evander was said to have led colonists to the banks of the Tiber, and from it the Palatium or Palatine Mount at Rome was reputed to have derived its name. (Hes. ap. Steph. B. s. v.; Paus. viii. 43. § 2; Liv. i. 5; Plin. iv. 6; Justin, xliii. 1.) Pallantium took part in the foundation of Megalopolis, B.C. 371 (Paus. viii. 27. § 3); but it continued to exist as an independent state, since we find the Pallantieis mentioned along with the Tegeatae, Megalopolitae and Aseatae, as joining Epaminondas before the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 362. (Xen. Hell. vii. 5. 5) Pallantium subsequently sank into a mere village, but was restored and enlarged by the emperor Antoninus Pius, who conferred upon it freedom from taxation and other privileges, on account of its reputed connection with Rome. The town was visited by Pausanias, who found here a shrine containing statues of Pallas and Evander, a temple of Core (Proserpine), a statue of Polybius; and on the hill above the town, which was anciently used as an acropolis, a temple of the pure (katharoi) gods. (Paus. viii. 43. § 1, 44. § § 5, 6.) Leake was unable to find the site of Pallantium, and supposed that it occupied a part of Tripolitza itself; though at a later time he appears to have adopted the erroneous opinion of Gell, who placed it at the village of Thana, to the S. of Triolitza. (Leake, Morea, vol. i., vol. iii. p. 36 Gell, Itinerary of the Morea, p. 136.) The remains of tie town were first discovered by the French expedition at a quarter of an hour's distance from the Khan of Makri on the road from Tripolitza to Leondari. The ruins have been used so long as a quarry by the inhabitants of Tripolitza and of the neighbouring villages, that there are very few traces of the ancient town. Ross discovered the foundations of the temple of the pure gods on the highest point of the acropolis.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PARASSIA (Ancient area) ARKADIA

Parrhasia

...In Parrhasia (Parrhadike, Thuc. v. 33), a district on the Messenian frontier, N. of Cromitis and Messenia, occupying the left bank of the plain of the Alpheius: Macarae; Daseae; Acacesium; Lycosoura; Thocnia; Basilis; Cypsela; Bathos; Trapezus; Acontitum and Proseis (Akontion, Proseis), both of uncertain site. (Paus. viii. 27. § 4.) The Parrhasii (Parrhasioi) are mentioned as one of the most ancient of the Arcadian tribes. (Strab. p. 388; Steph. B. s. v. Azania.) During the Peloponnesian war the Mantineians had extended their supremacy over the Parrhasii, but the latter were restored to independence by the Lacedaemonians, B.C. 421. (Thuc. v. 33.) Homer mentions a town Parrhasia, said to have been founded by Parrhasus, son of Lycaon, or by Pelasgus, son of Arestor, which Leake conjectures to be the same as Lycosura. (Hom. Il. ii. 608; Plin. iv. 10; Steph. B. s. v. Parrhasia.) The Roman poets frequently us, the adjectives Parrhasius and Parrhasis as equivalent to Arcadian. (Virg. Aen. viii. 344, xi. 31; Ov. Met. viii. 315.) Thus we find Parrhasides stellae, i. e. Ursa major (Ov. Fast. iv. 577); Parrhasia dea, i. e. Carmenta (Ov. Fast. i. 618); Parrhasia virgo, i. e. Callisto. (Ov. Trist. ii. 190.)...

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


POLICHNA (Ancient city) LEONIDION

Polichna

Polichna. A town of Laconia, mentioned only by Polybius (iv. 36), is placed by Leake in the interior of the country on the eastern slope of Mt. Parnon at Reonda (Ta Hpeonta), where, among the ruins of a fortified town of the lower empire, are some remains of Hellenic walls.


PRASSIES (Ancient city) LEONIDION

Prasiae

  Brasiae, Prasiai, Prasia, Brasiai, Eth. Brasiates, Prasieus. A town on the eastern coast of Laconia, described by Pausanias as the farthest of the Eleuthero-Laconian places on this part of the coast, and as distant 200 stadia by sea from Cyphanta. (Paus. iii. 24. § 3.) Scylax speaks of it as a city and a harbour. The name of the town was derived by the inhabitants from the noise of the waves (Brazein). It was burnt by the Athenians in the second year of the Peloponnesian War, B.C. 430. (Thuc. ii. 56; Aristoph. Pac. 242.) Also in B.C. 414 the Athenians, in conjunction with the Argives, ravaged the coast near Prasiae. (Thuc. vi. 105.) In the Macedonian period Prasiae, with other Laconian towns on this coast, passed into the hands of the Argives (Polyb. iv. 36); whence Strabo calls it one of the Argive towns (viii. p. 368), though in another passage he says that it belonged at an earlier period to the Lacedaemonians (viii. p. 374). It was restored to Laconia by Augustus, who made it one of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns. (Paus. iii. 21. § 7, iii. 24. § 3.) Among the curiosities of Prasiae Pausanias mentions a cave where Ino nursed Dionysus; a temple of Asclepius and another of Achilles, and a small promontory upon which stood four brazen figures not more than a foot in height. (Paus. iii. 24. §§ 4, 5.) Leake places Prasiae at St. Andrew in the Thyreatis; but it more probably stood at Tyro, which is the site assigned to it by Boblaye, Ross, and Curtius.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


RETEES (Ancient city) GORTYS

Rhaeteae

Rhaeteae (Rhaiteai), a place in the Arcadian district of Cynuria, at the confluence of the Gortynius and Alpheius. (Pans. viii. 28. § 3.)


SOUMITIA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Soumatia

Soumetia, Soumateion, Soumeteia . A town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, on the southern slope of Mt. Maenalus. It was probably on the summit of the hill now called Sylimna, where there are some remains of polygonal walls. the southern slope of Mt. Maenalus.


TEFTHIS (Ancient city) DIMITSANA

Teuthis

Teuthis: Eth. Teuthides, a town in the centre of Arcadia, which together with Theisoa and Methydrium belonged to the confederation (sunteleia) of Orchomenus. Its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter. The Paleocastron of Galatas probably represents presents Teuthis.


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Tegea

  (Ion. Tegee: Eth. Tegeates). One of the most ancient and powerful towns of Arcadia, situated in the SE. of the country. Its territory, called TEGEATIS (Tegeatis), was bounded by Cynuria and Argolis on the E., from which it was separated by Mt. Parthenium, by Laconia on the S., by the Arcadian district of Maenalia on the W., and by the territory of Mantineia on the N. The Tegeatae are said to have derived their name from Tegeates, a son of Lycaon, and to have dwelt originally in eight, afterwards nine, demi or townships, the inhabitants of which were incorporated, by Aleus in the city of Tegea, of which this hero was the reputed founder. The names of these nine townships, which are preserved by Pausanias, are: Gareatae (Gareatai), Phylaceis (Phulakeis), Caryatae (Karuatai), Corytheis (Korutheis), Potachidae (Potachidai), Oeaatae (Oiatai); Manthyreis (manthureis), Echeuetheis (Echeuethheis), to which Apheidantes (Apheidantes was added as the ninth in the reign of king Apheidas. (Paus. viii. 3. § 4, viii. 45. § 1; Strab. viii. p. 337.) The Tegeatae were early divided into 4 tribes (phulai), called respectively Clareotis (Klareotis, in inscriptions Krariotis), Hippothoitis (Hippothoitis), Apolloneatis (Apolloneatis), and Athoneatis (Athaneatis), to each of which belonged a certain number of metoeci (metoikoi) or resident aliens. (Paus. viii. 53. § 6; Bockh, Corp. lnscr. no. 1513.)
  Tegea is mentioned in the Iliad (ii. 607), and was probably the most celebrated of all the Arcadian towns in the earliest times. This appears from its heroic renown, since its king Echemus is said to have slain Hyllus, the son of Hercules, in single combat. (Herod. ix. 26; Paus. viii. 45. § 3.) The Tegeatae offered a long-continued and successful resistance to the Spartans, when the latter attempted to extend their dominion over Arcadia. In one of the wars between the two people, Charilaus or Charillus, king of Sparta, deceived by an oracle which appeared to promise victory to the Spartans, invaded Tegeatis, and was not only defeated, but was taken prisoner with all his men who had survived the battle. (Herod. i. 66; Paus. iii. 7. § 3, viii. 5. § 9, viii. 45. § 3, 47. § 2, 48. § 4.) More than two centuries afterwards, in the reign of Leon and Agesicles, the Spartans again fought unsuccessfully against the Tegeatae; but in the following generation, in the time of their king Anaxandrides, the Spartans, having obtained possession of the bones of Orestes in accordance with an oracle, defeated the Tegeatae and compelled them to acknowledge the supremacy of Sparta, about B.C. 560. (Herod. i. 65, 67, seq.; Paus. iii. 3. § 5, seq.) Tegea, however, still retained its independence, though its military force was at the disposal of Sparta; and in the Persian War it appears as the second military power in the Peloponnesus, having the place of honour on the left wing of the allied army. Five hundred of the Tegeatae fought at Thermopylae, and 3000 at the battle of Plataea, half of their force consisting of hoplites and half of light-armed troops. (herod. vii. 202, ix. 26, seq., 61.) As it was not usual to send the whole force of a state upon a distant march, we may probably estimate, with Clinton, the force of the Tegeatae on this occasion as not more than three-fourths of their whole number. This would give 4000 for the military population of Tegea, and about 17,400 for the whole free population. (Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 417.)
  Soon after the battle of Plataea, the Tegeatae were again at war with the Spartans, of the causes of which, however, we have no information. We only know that the Tegeatae fought twice against the Spartans between B.C. 479 and 464, and were each time defeated; first in conjunction with the Argives, and a second time together with the other Arcadians, except the Mantineians at Dipaea, in the Maenalian district. (Herod. ix. 37; Paus. iii. 11. § 7.) About this time, and also at a subsequent period, Tegea, and especially the temple of Athena Alea in the city, was a frequent place of refuge for persons who had rendered themselves obnoxious to the Spartan government. Hither fled the seer Hegesistratus (Herod. ix. 37) and the kings Leotychides, and Pausanias, son of Pleistoanax. (Herod. vi. 72; Xen. Hell, iii. 5. 25; Paus. iii. 5. § 6.)
  In the Peloponnesian War the Tegeatae were the firm allies of the Spartans, to whom they remained faithful both on account of their possessing an aristocratical constitution, and from their jealousy of the neighbouring democratical city of Mantineia, with which they were frequently at war. Thus the Tegeatae not only refused to join the Argives in the alliance formed against Sparta in B.C. 421, but they accompanied the Lacedaemonians in their expedition against Argos in 418. (Thus. v. 32, 57.) They also fought on the side of the Spartans in the Corinthian War, 394. (Xen. Hell. iv. 2. 13) After the battle of Leuctra, however (371), the Spartan party in Tegea was expelled, and the city joined the other Arcadian towns in the foundation of Megalopolis and in the formation of the Arcadian confederacy. (Xen. hell. vi. 5. § 6, seq.) When Mantineia a few years afterwards quarrelled with the supreme Arcadian government, and formed an alliance with its old enemy Sparta, Tegea remained faithful to the new confederacy, and fought under Epaminondas against the Spartans at the great battle of Mantineia, 362. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. 36, seq., vii. 5. § 5, seq.)
  Tegea at a later period joined the Aetolian League, but soon after the accession of Cleomenes III. to the Spartan throne it formed an alliance with Sparta, together with Mantineia and Orchomenus. It thus became involved in hostilities with the Achaeans, and in the war which followed, called the Cleomenic War, it was taken by Antigonus Doson, the ally of the Achaeans, and annexed to the Achaean League, B.C. 222. (Pol. ii. 46, 54, seq.) In 218 Tegea was attacked by Lycurgus, the tyrant of Sparta, who obtained possession of the whole city with the exception of the acropolis. It subsequently fell into the hands of Machanidas, but was recovered by the Achaeans after the defeat of the latter tyrant, who was slain in battle by Philopoemen. (Pol. v. 17, xi. 18.) In the time of Strabo Tegea was the only one of the Arcadian towns which continued to be inhabited (Strab. viii. p. 388), and it was still a place of importance in the time of Pausanias, who has given us a minute account of its public buildings. (Paus. viii. 45 - 48, 53.) Tegea was entirely destroyed by Alaric towards the end of the 4th century after Christ. (Claud. B. Get. 576; comp. Zosim. v. 6.)
  The territory of Tegea formed the southern part of the plain of Tripolitza...Tegea was about 10 miles S. of the latter city, in a direct line, and about 3 miles SE. of the modern town of Tripolitza. Being situated in the lowest part of the plain, it was exposed to inundations caused by the waters flowing down from the surrounding mountains; and in the course of ages the soil has been considerably raised by the depositions brought down by the waters. Hence there are scarcely any remains of the city visible, and its size can only be conjectured from the broken pieces of stone and other fragments scattered on the plain, and from the foundations of walls and buildings discovered by the peasants in working in the fields. It appears, however, that the ancient city extended from the hill of Aio Sostis (St. Saviour on the N., over the hamlets Ibrahim-Effendi and Paleo--Episkopi, at least as far as Akhuria and Piali. This would make the city at least 4 miles in circumference. The principal remains are at Piali. Near the principal church of this village Leake found the foundations of an ancient building, of fine squared stones, among which were two pieces of some large columns of marble; and there can be little doubt that these are the remains of the ancient temple of Athena Alea. This temple was said to have been originally built by Aleus, the founder of Tegea; it was burnt down in B.C. 394, and the new building, which was erected by Scopas, is said by Pausanias to have been the largest and most magnificent temple in the Peloponnesus (Paus. viii. 45. §4, seq.) Pausanias entered the city through the gate leading to Pallantium, consequently the south-western gate, which must have been near Piali. He begins his description with the temple of Athena Alea, and then goes across the great agora to the theatre, the remains of which Ross traces in the ancient foundations of the ruined church of Paleo--Episkopi. Perhaps this theatre was the splendid marble one built by Antiochus IV. Epiphanes in B.C. 175. (Liv. xli. 20.) Pausanias ends his description with the mention of a height (chorion hupselon, viii. 53. § 9), probably the hill Aio Sostis in the N. of the town, and apparently the same as that which Pausanias elsewhere calls the Watch-Hill (lophos Phulaktris, viii. 48. § 4), and Polybius the acropolis (akra, v. 17). None of the other public buildings of Tegea mentioned by Paulsanias can be identified with certainty; but there can be no doubt if excavations were made on its site many interesting remains would be discovered, since the deep alluvial soil is favourable to their preservation...
  There were five roads leading from Tegea. One led due N. across the Tegeatic plain to Mantineia. A second led due S. by the valley of the Alpheius to Sparta, following the same route as the present road from Tripolitza to Mistra. A third led west to Pallantium. It first passed by the small mountain Cresium (Kresion), and then ran across the Manthyric plain along the side of the Taki. Mount Cresium is probably the small isolated hill on which the modern village of Vuno stands, and not the high mountain at the end of the plain, according to the French map. Upon reaching the Choma (Choma), the road divided into two, one road leading direct to Pallantium, and the other SW. to Megalopolis through Asea. (Paus. viii. 44. § 1, seq.; Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 9, hai epi to Pallantion Pherousai pulai. This choma separated the territories of Pallantium and Tegea, and extended as far south as Mount Boreium (Krauori), where it touched the territory of Megalopolis. There are still remains of this choma running NE. to SW. by the side of the marsh of Taki. These remains consist of large blocks of stone, and must be regarded as the foundations of the choma, which cannot have been a chaussee or causeway, as the French geographers call it, since Choma always signifies in Greek writers an artificial heap of earth, a tumulus, mound, or dyke. (Ross, p. 59.) A fourth road led SE. from Tegea, by the sources of the Garates to Thyreatis. (Paus. viii. 54. § 4.) A fifth road led NE. to Hysiae and Argos, across the Corythic plain, and then across Mt. Parthenium, where was a temple of Pan, erected on the spot at which the god appeared to the courier Pheidippides. This road was practicable for carriages, and was much frequented. (Paus. viii. 54. § 5, seq.; Herod. vi. 105, 106)
  The Roman poets use the adjective Tegeeus or Tegeaeus as equivalent to Arcadian: thus it is given as an epithet to Pan (Virg. Georg. i. 18), Callisto, daughter of Lycaon (Ov. Ar. Am. ii. 55, Fast. ii. 167), Atalanta (Ov. Met. viii. 317, 380), Carmenta (Ov. Fast. i. 627), and Mercury (Stat. Silv. i. 54)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


THELPOUSSA (Ancient city) TROPEA

Thelpusa

Thelpusa (Thelpousa, Telphousa: Eth. Thelpousios, Telphousios), a town in the west of Arcadia, situated upon the left or eastern bank of the river Ladon. Its territory was bounded on the north by that of Psophis, on the south by that of Heraea, on the west by the Eleia and Tisatis, and on the east by that of Cleitor, Tripolis, and Theisoa. The town is said to have derived its name from a nymph, the daughter of the river Ladon, which nymph was probably the stream flowing through the lower part of the town into the Ladon. It is first mentioned in history in B.C. 352, when the Lacedaemonians were defeated in its nieghbourhood by the Spartans. (Diod. xvi. 39.) In B.C. 222 it was taken by Antigonus Doson, in the war against Cleomenes, and it is also mentioned in the campaigns of Philip. (Polyb. ii. 54, iv. 60, 73, 77; Steph. B. s. v. Telphousa; Plin. iv. 6. s. 20.) Its coins show that it belonged to the Achaean League. (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 206.) When Pausanias visited Thelpusa, the city was nearly deserted, so that the agora, which was formerly in the centre of the city, then stood at its extremity. He saw a temple of Asclepius, and another of the twelve gods, of which the latter was nearly levelled with the ground. (Paus. viii. 25 § 3.) Pausanias also mentions two temples of some celebrity in the neighbourhood of Thelpusa, one above and the other below the city. The one above was the temple of Demeter Eleusinia, containing statues of Demeter, Persephone and Dionysus, made of stone, and which probably stood at the castle opposite to Spathari (viii. 25. § § 2, 3). The temple below the city was also sacred to Demeter, whom the Thelpusians called Erinnys. This temple is alluded to by Lycophron (1038) and Callimachus (Fr. 107). It was situated at a place called Onceium, where Oncus, the son of Apollo, is said once to have reigned (viii. 25. § 4, seq.; Steph. B. s. v. Onkeion). Below this temple stood the temple of Apollo Oncaeates, on the left bank of the Ladon, and on the right bank that of the boy Asclepius, with the sepulchre of Trygon, said to have been the nurse of Asclepius (viii. 25. § 11). The ruins of Thelpusa stand upon the slope of a considerable hill near the village of Vanena (Banena). There are only few traces of the walls of the city. At the ruined church of St. John, near the rivulet, are some Hellenic foundations and fragments of columns. The saint is probably the successor of Asclepius, whose temple, as we learn from Pausanias, stood longest in the city. There are likewise the remains of a Roman building, about 12 yards long and 6 wide, with the ruins of an arched roof. There are also near the Ladon some Hellenic foundations, and the lower parts of six columns. Below Vanena there stands upon the right bank of the Ladon the ruined church of St. Athanasius the Miraculous, where Leake found the remains of several columns. Half a mile below this church is the village of Tumbiki, where a promontory projects into the river, upon which there is a mound apparently artificial. This mound is probably the tomb of Trygon, and Tumbiki is the site of the the temple of Asclepius. Pausanias, in describing the route from Psophis to Thelpusa, after mentioning the boundaries between the territories of the two states, first crosses the river Arsen, and then, at the distance of 25 stadia, arrives at the ruins of a village Caus and a temple of Asclepius Causius, erected upon the roadside. From this plaee the distance to Thelpusa was 40 stadia.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


THISSOA (Ancient city) DIMITSANA

At the time of the foundation of Megalopolis, we find the Orchomenians exercising supremacy over Theisoa, Methydrium, and Teuthis; but the inhabitants of these cities were then transferred to Megalopolis, and their territories assigned to the latter.


THOKNIA (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Thocnia

  Thoknia, Thokneia: Eth. Thokneus. A town of Arcadia in the district Parrhasia, situated upon a height on the river Aminius, which flows into the Helisson, a tributary of the Alpheius. The town was said to have been founded by Thocnus, the son of Lycaon, and was deserted in the time of Pausanias, as its inhabitants had been removed to Megalopolis. It is placed by Leake in the position of Vromosela.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


THYREON (Ancient city) TRIKOLONES

Thyraeum

Thyraeum (Thuraion: Eth. Thuraios), a town of Arcadia in the district Cynuria, said to have been founded by Thyraeus, a son of Lycaon. It is placed by Leake at Palamari.


TRAPEZOUS (Ancient city) GORTYS

Trapezus

  Trapezus (Trapezous,-ountos: Eth. Trapezountios), a town of Arcadia, in the district Parrhasia, a little to the left of the river Alpheius, is said to have derived its name from its founder Trapezeus, the son of Lycaon, or from trapeza (trapeza), a table, because Zeus here overturned the table on which Lycaon offered him human food. (Paus. viii. 3. § § 2, 3; Apollod. iii. 8. § 1.) It was the royal residence of Hippothous, who transferred the seat of government from Tegea to Trapezus. On the foundation of Megalopolis, in B.C. 371, the inhabitants of Trapezus refused to remove to the new city; and having thus incurred the anger of the other Arcadians, they quitted Peloponnesus, and took refuge in Trapezus on the Pontus Euxeinus, where they were received as a kindred people. The statues of some of their gods were removed to Megalopolis, where they were seen by Pausanias. Trapezus stood above the modern Mavria. (Paus. viii. 5. § 4, 27. § § 4-6, viii. 29. § 1, 31. § 5; Herod. vi. 127; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 292; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 90.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


VASSILIS (Ancient city) GORTYS

Basilis

Basilis: Eth. Basilites, a town of Arcadia in the district Parrhasia, on the Alpheius, said to have been founded by the Arcadian king Cypselus, and containing a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter. It is identified by Kiepert in his map with the Cypsela mentioned by Thucydides. There are a few remains of Basilis near Kyparissia.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


VELEMINA (Ancient city) FALESSIA

Belemina

  Belmina, Belbina: Eth. Belbinetes (Steph. B.). A town in the NW. frontier of Laconia, the territory of which was called Belminatis. (Belminatis, Polyb. ii. 54; Strab. viii. p. 343.) It was originally an Arcadian town, but was conquered by the Lacedaemonians at an early period, and annexed to their territory; although Pausanias does not believe this statement. (Paus. viii. 35. § 4.) After the battle of Leuctra Belbina was restored to Arcadia; most of its inhabitants were removed to the newly founded city of Megalopolis; and the place continued to be a dependency of the latter city. (Paus. viii. 27. § 4; Plut. Cleom. 4; Polyb. ii. 54.) In the wars of the Achaean league, the Belminatis was a constant source of contention between the Spartans and Achaeans. Under Machanidas or Nabis, the tyrants of Sparta, the Belminatis was again annexed to Laconia; but upon the subjugation of Sparta by Philopoemen in B.C. 188, the Belminatis was once more annexed to the territory of Megalopolis. (Liv. xxxviii. 34.) The Belminatis is a mountainous district, in which the Eurotas takes its rise from many springs. (Strab. l. c.; Paus. iii. 21. § 3.) The mountains of Belemina, now called Tzimbaru, rise to the height of 4108 feet. Belemina is said by Pausanias to have been 100 stadia from Pellana, and is plated by Leake on the summit of Mount Khelmos, upon which there are Hellenic remains.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


VOUFASSION (Ancient city) GORTYS

Buphagium

Bouphagion. A town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, situated near the sources of the river Buphagus (Bouphagos), a tributary of the Alpheius, which formed the boundary between the territories of Heraea and Megalopolis. It is placed by Leake at Papadha, and by Boblaye, near Zula-Sarakini.


VRENTHI (Ancient city) GORTYS

Brenthe

Brenthe: Brenthaios, Brenthieus, a town of Arcadia in the district Cynuria, near the right bank of the river Alpheius, and on a small tributary called Brentheates (Brentheates), only 5 stadia in length. It corresponds to the modern Karitena.


YPSOUS (Ancient city) TRIKOLONES

Hypsus

Hypsus (Hupsous,--ountos), a town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, situated upon a mountain of the same name, said to have been founded by Hypsus, a son of Lycaon. It is placed by the French Commission at Stemnitza.


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

ARKADIA (Ancient area) PELOPONNISOS

Arcadia

   A country in the middle of the Peloponnesus, surrounded on all sides by mountains, the Switzerland of Greece. The Achelous, the greatest river of the Peloponnesus, rises in Arcadia. The northern and eastern parts of the country were barren and unproductive; the western and southern were more fertile, with numerous valleys where corn was grown. The Arcadians regarded themselves as the most ancient people in Greece: the Greek writers call them indigenous and Pelasgians. They were chiefly employed in hunting and in the tending of cattle, whence their worship of Pan, who was especially the god of Arcadia, and of Artemis. They were passionately fond of music, and cultivated it with success. The Arcadians experienced fewer changes than any other people in Greece, and retained possession of their country upon the conquest of the rest of the Peloponnesus by the Dorians. After the Second Messenian War the different towns became independent republics, of which the most important were Mantinea, Tegea, Orchomenus, Psophis, and Pheneus. Like the Swiss, the Arcadians frequently served as mercenaries. The Lacedaemonians made many attempts to obtain possession of parts of Arcadia, but these attempts were finally frustrated by the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371); and in order to resist all future aggressions on the part of Sparta, the Arcadians, upon the advice of Epaminondas, built the city of Megalopolis. They subsequently joined the Achaean League, and finally became subject to the Romans.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FALESSIE (Ancient city) FALESSIA

Phalaesiae

A town in Arcadia, south of Megalopolis, on the road to Sparta, twenty stadia from the Laconian frontier.


LADON (River) ARCADIA

Ladon

A river in Arcadia, rising near Clitor, and falling into the Alpheus, between Heraea and Phrixa.


MARATHA (Ancient city) GORTYS

Maratha

A town of Arcadia at the source of the Buphagus.


MEGALOPOLIS (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Megalopolis

   The most recent but the most important of the cities of Arcadia, was founded on the advice of Epaminondas after the battle of Leuctra, B.C. 371, and was formed out of the inhabitants of thirty-eight villages. It was situated in the district Maenalia, near the frontiers of Messenia, on the river Helisson, which flowed through the city. It became afterwards one of the chief cities of the Achaean League. Philopoemen and the historian Polybius were natives of Megalopolis.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ORESTHION (Ancient city) VALTETSI

Oresteum

(Oresteion) or Orestheum (Orestheion), also called Oresthasium (Oresthasion) by Pausanias. A town of Arcadia, southeast of Megalopolis, in the district of Oresthis. Its ruins, according to Pausanias, were to be seen to the right of the road leading from Megalopolis to Tegaea. Orestes died here.


PALLANTION (Ancient city) TRIPOLI

Pallantium

   (Pallantion). An ancient town of Arcadia, near Tegea, said to have been founded by Pallas, son of Lycaon. Evander is said to have come from this place, and to have called the town which he founded on the banks of the Tiber Pallanteum (afterwards Palantium and Palatium), after the Arcadian town. Hence Evander is called Pallantius heros.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PARASSIA (Ancient area) ARKADIA

Parrhasia

A district in the south of Arcadia. The adjective Parrhasius is frequently used by the poets as equivalent to Arcadian.


PARORIA (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Parorea

A town in Southern Arcadia, founded by Paroreus, the grandson of Lycaon.


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Tegea

   Now Piali; an important city of Arcadia, the capital of the district Tegeatis, which was bounded on the east by Argolis and Laconica, on the south by Laconia, on the west by Maenalia, and on the north by the territory of Mantinea. It was one of the most ancient towns of Arcadia, and is said to have been founded by Tegeates, the son of Lycaon. The Tegeatae sent 3000 men to the battle of Plataea, in which they were distinguished for their bravery. They remained faithful to Sparta in the Peloponnesian War; but after the battle of Leuctra they joined the rest of the Arcadians in establishing their independence. During the wars of the Achaean League, Tegea was taken both by Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia, and the ally of the Achaeans.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


THYREA (Ancient city) ASTROS

Thyrea

The chief town in Cynuria, the district on the borders of Laconia and Argolis, was situated upon a height on the bay of the sea called after it Sinus Thyreates. The territory of Thyrea was called Thyreatis.


TRAPEZOUS (Ancient city) GORTYS

Trapezous

   A city of Arcadia, on the Alpheus, the name of which was mythically derived from the trapeza, or altar, on which Lycaon was said to have offered human sacrifices to Zeus. At the time of the building of Megalopolis, the inhabitants of Trapezus, as was alleged, rather than be transferred to the new city, migrated to the shores of the Euxine, and their city fell to ruin.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Individuals' pages

ASSEA (Village) VALTETSI

Asea

  Position
  Situated in Arcadia, almost in the middle of Peloponese, 20 km (13 miles)from both cities of Tripoli and Megalopoli and 190 km (120 miles) from Athens, Asea has become one of the most well positioned and attractive places in Greece. A village with few permanent inhabitants but with great prospects because it becomes the municipal center of the region. Asea attracts many visitors because of its natural beauty, during the weekends and the summer, so it's a place worth visiting.
  Short History
  The name comes from Aseatis, son of the Spartan king Lykaon. The ancient city of Asea, whose ruins can be seen until today, stands with its Acropolis near Kato Asea. Its cultural presence starts since 6000 BC and becomes more intensive during the following years. Many cultural treasures of that period can be seen at Tripoli, Nafplio and Athens Archeological museums.The two marvellous doric temples, of Poseidon (Neptune) and Athena (Minerva) show a prosperous city. The habitants of Asea took place in the historical battles of Plataies (479 BC) and Mantinia (362 BC). Coins of the city were cut at 196 BC. Asea took part in the foundation of the city of Megalopoli.Much later, under the turkish occupation the village had the name "Kandreva" and took back its ancient name at the 1920's. It's the village of Nikos Gatsos, one of the most well known contemporary greek poets.
  Catering
  In Asea you can stop for coffee in the following traditional cafes: "Elvetia" and "O Barba Semis" In Kato Asea you can have lunch or dinner in "Mantinia" restaurant, for a cup of coffee or food in "Platanos" and at "B.Gatsos" cafe.


KASTRI (Village) ASTROS

KOSMAS (Village) KYNOURIA

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