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Listed 73 sub titles with search on: Monuments reported by ancient authors for destination: "ARGOS Ancient city ARGOLIS".


Monuments reported by ancient authors (73)

Ancient oracles

Oracle of Apollo Deiradiotes

Oracle of Apollo Deiradiotes, at Argos. This is stated to have been an offshoot from Delphi (Pausan. ii. 24); but in one point the ceremonies differed remarkably from those of Delphi: the priestess once a month sacrificed a lamb during the night, and tasted the blood, in order to obtain the prophetic ecstasy. This appears to show that the oracle had a higher antiquity than belonged to its Delphic origin, and was in the first instance an oracle of the dead. It was kept alive by the patriotism of the Argives, always mindful of their primaeval renown, and was still active in the time of Pausanias.


Sanctuary of Apollo Lycius (Oracle)

  The most famous building in the city of Argos is the sanctuary of Apollo Lycius (Wolf-god). The modern image was made by the Athenian Attalus, but the original temple and wooden image were the offering of Danaus. I am of opinion that in those days all images, especially Egyptian images, were made of wood. The reason why Danaus founded a sanctuary of Apollo Lycius was this. On coming to Argos he claimed the kingdom against Gelanor, the son of Sthenelas. Many plausible arguments were brought forward by both parties, and those of Sthenelas were considered as fair as those of his opponent; so the people, who were sitting in judgment, put off, they say, the decision to the following day.
  At dawn a wolf fell upon a herd of oxen that was pasturing before the wall, and attacked and fought with the bull that was the leader of the herd. It occurred to the Argives that Gelanor was like the bull and Danaus like the wolf, for as the wolf will not live with men, so Danaus up to that time had not lived with them. It was because the wolf overcame the bull that Danaus won the kingdom. Accordingly, believing that Apollo had brought the wolf on the herd, he founded a sanctuary of Apollo Lycius.
  Here is dedicated the throne of Danaus, and here Is placed a statue of Biton, in the form of a man carrying a bull on his shoulders. According to the poet Lyceas, when the Argives were holding a sacrifice to Zeus at Nemea, Biton by sheer physical strength took up a bull and carried it there. Next to this statue is a fire which they keep burning, calling it the fire of Phoroneus. For they do not admit that fire was given to mankind by Prometheus, but insist in assigning the discovery of fire to Phoroneus.
  As to the wooden images of Aphrodite and Hermes, the one they say was made by Epeus, while the other is a votive offering of Hypermnestra. She was the only one of the daughters of Danaus who neglected his command, and was accordingly brought to justice by him, because be considered that his life was in danger so long as Lynceus was at large, and that the refusal to share in the crime of her sisters increased the disgrace of the contriver of the deed. On her trial she was acquitted by the Argives, and to commemorate her escape she dedicated an image of Aphrodite, the Bringer of Victory.
  Within the temple is a statue of Ladas, the swiftest runner of his time, and one of Hermes with a tortoise which he has caught to make a lyre. Before the temple is a pit with a relief representing a fight between a bull and a wolf, and with them a maiden throwing a rock at the bull. The maiden is thought to be Artemis. Danaus dedicated these, and some pillars hard by and wooden images of Zeus and Artemis.
  Here are graves; one is that of Linus, the son of Apollo by Psamathe, the daughter of Crotopus; the other, they say, is that of Linus the poet. The story of the latter Linus is more appropriate to another part of my narrative, and so I omit it here, while I have already given the history of the son of Psamathe in my account of Megara. After these is an image of Apollo, God of Streets, and an altar of Zeus, God of Rain, where those who were helping Polyneices in his efforts to be restored to Thebes swore an oath together that they would either capture Thebes or die. As to the tomb of Prometheus, their account seems to me to be less probable than that of the Opuntians, but they hold to it nevertheless


Oracle of Apollo Lycius, also at Argos. The prophetess is said to have warned Pyrrhus, just before his death (Plut. Pyrrh. 31). Pausanias, however, does not mention this oracle and some doubt consequently attaches to it. Except the two at Argos, there was no oracle of Apollo in Peloponnesus: the neighbourhood of Delphi overpowered minor establishments.


Sanctuary of Amphiaraus

   Very near to the temple of Dionysus you will see the house of Adrastus, farther on a sanctuary of Amphiaraus, and opposite the sanctuary the tomb of Eriphyle. (Paus. 2.23.2)


Asclepieum

Temple of Asclepius

...we come to the tomb of Cerdo, the wife of Phoroneus, and to a temple of Asclepius. (Paus. 2.21.1)


  The most famous sanctuary of Asclepius at Argos contains at the present day a white-marble image of the god seated, and by his side stands Health. There are also seated figures of Xenophilus and Straton, who made the images. The original founder of the sanctuary was Sphyrus, son of Machaon and brother of the Alexanor who is honored among the Sicyonians in Titane. (Paus. 2.23.4)


Ancient sanctuaries

Sanctuary of Nemean Zeus

  Opposite them (Cleobis and Biton carved in relief) is a sanctuary of Nemean Zeus, and an upright bronze statue of the god made by Lysippus.(Paus.2.20.3)


Sanctuary of the Seasons

nbsp; A little farther on (from the tomb of the maenad Chorea) is a sanctuary of the Seasons.(Paus.2.20.5)


Sanctuary of Zeus the Saviour

  Here (near the tomb of Danaus) there is also a sanctuary of Zeus the Saviour.(Paus.2.20.6)


Soter, the saviour (Lat. Servator or Sospes), occurs as the surname of several divinities: 1.Zeus in Argos (Paus. ii. 20.5), at Troezene (ii. 31.14), in laconia (iii. 23.6), at Messene (iv. 31.5), at Mantineia (viii. 9.l), at Megalopolis (viii. 30.5; comp. Aristoph. Ran. 1433 ; Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8). The sacrifices offered to him were called ooteria (Plut. Arat. 53). 2. Of Helios (Paus. viii. 31.4), and 3. of Bacchus (Lycoph. 206).


Sanctuary of the river Cephisus

  On the right of the entrance(of Adonis building) is the sanctuary of Cephisus. It is said that the water of this river was not utterly destroyed by Poseidon, but that just in this place, where the sanctuary is, it can be heard flowing under the earth.(Paus.2.20.6)


Sanctuary of Aphrodite

  Above the theater is a sanctuary of Aphrodite, and before the image is a slab with a representation wrought on it in relief of Telesilla, the lyric poetess. (Paus.+ 2.20.8)


Sanctuary of Artemis, surnamed Persuasion

  The sanctuary of Artemis, surnamed Persuasion, is another offering of Hypermnestra after winning the trial to which she was brought by her father because of Lynceus. Here there is also a bronze statue of Aeneas, and a place called Delta. I intentionally do not discuss the origin of the name, because I could not accept the traditional accounts (Paus. 2.21.1)


Sanctuary of Leto

  Not far from the trophy (of victory over Laphaes) is the sanctuary of Leto; the image is a work of Praxiteles. The statue of the maiden beside the goddess they call Chloris (Pale), saying that she was a daughter of Niobe, and that she was called Meliboea at the first. When the children of Amphion were destroyed by Apollo and Arternis, she alone of her sisters, along with Amyclas, escaped; their escape was due to their prayers to Leto. Meliboea was struck so pale by her fright, not only at the time but also for the rest of her life, that even her name was accordingly changed from Meliboea to Chloris.
  Now the Argives say that these two built originally the temple to Leto, but I think that none of Niobe's children survived, for I place more reliance than others on the poetry of Homer, one of whose verses bears out my view:
    Though they were only two, yet they gave all to destruction. (Hom. Il. 24.609)
So Homer knows that the house of Amphion was utterly overthrown.(Paus. 2.21.8-10)


Sanctuary of Demeter Pelasgian

  Facing the tomb of the women (Haliae) is a sanctuary of Demeter, surnamed Pelasgian from Pelasgus, son of Triopas, its founder, and not far from the sanctuary is the grave of Pelasgus. (Paus. 2.22.1)


Pelasgia or Pelasgis

Pelasga or Pelasgis, i. e. the Pelasgian (woman or goddess), occurs as a surname of the Thessalian Hera (Apollon. Rhod. i. 14, with the Schol.; Propert. ii. 28. 11), and of Demeter, who, under this name, had a temple at Argos, and was believed to have derived the surname from Pelasgus, the son of Triopas, who had founded her sanctuary. (Paus. ii. 22.2)


Sanctuary of Poseidon Prosclystius (Flooder)

  Here is a sanctuary of Poseidon, surnamed Prosclystius (Flooder), for they say that Poseidon inundated the greater part of the country because Inachus and his assessors decided that the land belonged to Hera and not to him. Now it was Hera who induced Poseidon to send the sea back, but the Argives made a sanctuary to Poseidon Prosclystius at the spot where the tide ebbed. (Paus. 2.22.4)


Sanctuary of Eilethyia

  Near the Lords is a sanctuary of Eilethyia, dedicated by Helen when, Theseus having gone away with Peirithous to Thesprotia, Aphidna had been captured by the Dioscuri and Helen was being brought to Lacedaemon. For it is said that she was with child, was delivered In Argos, and founded there the sanctuary of Eilethyia, giving the daughter she bore to Clytaemnestra, who was already wedded to Agamemnon, while she herself subsequently married Menelaus. And on this matter the poets Euphorion of Chalcis and Alexander of Pleuron, and even before them, Stesichorus of Himera, agree with the Argives in asserting that Iphigenia was the daughter of Theseus. (Paus. 2.22.6-7)


Sanctuary of Baton

... after the precinct of Asclepius a sanctuary of Baton. Now Baton belonged to the same family as Amphiaraus, to the Melampodidae, and served as his charioteer when he went forth to battle. When the rout took place at the wall of Thebes, the earth opened and received Amphiaraus and his chariot, swallowing up this Baton at the same time.(Paus. 2.23.2)


Baton, the charioteer of Amphiaraus. Both belonged to the house of Melampus, and both were swallowed up by the earth after the battle of Thebes. Baton was afterwards worshipped as a hero, and had a sanctuary at Argos. He was represented on the chest of Cypselus, and at Delphi his statue stood by the side of that of Amphiaraus, both having been dedicated there by the Argives. (Apollod. iii. 6.8; Paus. ii. 23.2, v. 17.4, x. 10.2.) Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. Harpuia) states that, after the disappearance of Amphiaraus, Baton emigrated to the town of Harpyia in Illyria; but Stephanus seems to confound here the mythical Baton with the historical person, the son of Longarus, a Dalmatian chief, who joined the Romans in their war with Philip of Macedon, B. C. 200. (Liv. xxxi. 28.)


Sanctuary of Hera of the Height

  The citadel they call Larisa, after the daughter of Pelasgus. After her were also named two of the cities in Thessaly, the one by the sea and the one(see Larisa) on the Peneus. As you go up the citadel you come to the sanctuary of Hera of the Height. (Paus. 2.24.1)


Sanctuary of Athena Oxyderces

  Adjoining the temple of Apollo Deiradiotes is a sanctuary of Athena Oxyderces (Sharp-sighted), dedicated by Diomedes, because once when he was fighting at Troy the goddess removed the mist from his eyes. (Paus. 2.24.2)


Ancient temples

Temple of Fortune

  Over against the (sanctuary) Nemean Zeus is a temple of Fortune, which must be very old if it be the one in which Palamedes dedicated the dice that he had invented.(Paus.+2.20.3)


Temple of Hera Anthea (Flowery)

  The temple of Hera Anthea (Flowery) is on the right of the sanctuary of Leto.(Paus. 2.22.1)


Temple of the Dioscuri

  After these comes a temple of the Dioscuri. The images represent the Dioscuri themselves and their sons, Anaxis and Mnasinous, and with them are their mothers, Hilaeira and Phoebe. They are of ebony wood, and were made by Dipoenus and Scyllis. The horses, too, are mostly of ebony, but there is a little ivory also in their construction.(Paus. 2.22.5)


Temple of Hecate


Temple of Dionysus

   As you go from here (the gymnasium along a road called Hollow there is on the right a temple of Dionysus; the image, they say, is from Euboea. For when the Greeks, as they were returning from Troy, met with the shipwreck at Caphereus, those of the Argives who were able to escape to land suffered from cold and hunger. Having prayed that someone of the gods should prove himself a saviour in their present distress, straightway as they advanced they came upon a cave of Dionysus; in the cave was an image of the god, and on this occasion wild she-goats had gathered there to escape from the storm. These the Argives killed, using the flesh as food and the skins as raiment. When the storm was over and the Argives, having refitted their ships, were returning home, they took with them the wooden image from the cave, and continue to honor it to the present day. (Paus. 2.23.1)


Temple of Cretan Dionysus

  For they say that the god, having made war on Perseus, afterwards laid aside his enmity, and received great honors at the hands of the Argives, including this precinct set specially apart for himself. It was afterwards called the precinct of the Cretan god, because, when Ariadne died, Dionysus buried her here. But Lyceas says that when the temple was being rebuilt an earthenware coffin was found, and that it was Ariadne's. He also said that both he himself and other Argives had seen it. (Paus. 2.23.7-8)


Temple of Heavenly Aphrodite

  Near the temple of (Cretan) Dionysus is a temple of Heavenly Aphrodite. (Paus. 2.23.8)


Τemple of Zeus Larisaean

  On the top of Larisa is a temple of Zeus, surnamed Larisaean, which has no roof; the wooden image I found no longer standing upon its pedestal. (Paus. 2.24.3)


Temple of Athena (on Larisa citadel)

  On the top of Larisa ... There is also a temple of Athena worth seeing. Here are placed votive offerings, including a wooden image of Zeus, which has two eyes in the natural place and a third on its forehead. This Zeus, they say, was a paternal god of Priam, the son of Laomedon, set up in the uncovered part of his court, and when Troy was taken by the Greeks Priam took sanctuary at the altar of this god. When the spoils were divided, Sthenelus, the son of Capaneus, received the image, and for this reason it has been dedicated here. The reason for its three eyes one might infer to be this. That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men. As for him who is said to rule under the earth, there is a verse of Homer which calls him, too, Zeus:
    Zeus of the Underworld, and the august Persephonea.(Hom. Il. 9.457)
The god in the sea, also, is called Zeus by Aeschylus, the son of Euphorion. So whoever made the image made it with three eyes, as signifying that this same god rules in all the three ?allotments? of the Universe, as they are called. (Paus. 2.24.3-4)


Ancient altars

Altar of Zeus Phyxius (God of Fight)

  In front of it (sanctuary of Artemis) stands an altar of Zeus Phyxius (God of Fight). (Paus. 2.21.2)


Zeus Meilicius

Meilicius (Meilichios), i. e. the god that can be propitiated, or the gracious, is used as a surname of several divinities. 1. Of Zeus, as the protector of those who honoured him with propitiatory sacrifices. At Athens cakes were offered to him every year at the festival of the Diasia. (Thucyd. i. 126; Xenoph. Anab. vii. 7. § 4.) Altars were erected to Zeus Meilichius on the Cephissus (Paus. i. 37. § 3),at Sicyon (ii.9. § 6), and at Argos (ii. 20. § 1; Plut. De cohib. Ir. 9). 2. Of Dionysus in the island of Naxos. (Athen. iii. p. 78.) 3. Of Tyche or Fortune. (Orph. Hymn. 71. 2.) The plural theoi meilichioi is also applied to certain divinities whom mortals used to propitiate with sacrifices at night, that they might avert all evil, as e. g. at Myonia in the country of the Ozolian Locrians. (Pans. x. 38. § 4; comp. Orph. E. 30.)


Ancient theatres

Ancient Theatre

  Not far from this (the Place of Judgment) is a theater. In it are some noteworthy sights, including a representation of a man killing another, namely the Argive Perilaus, the son of Alcenor, killing the Spartan Othryadas. Before this, Perilaus had succeeded in winning the prize for wrestling at the Nemean games.(Paus. 2.20.7)


Ancient stadiums

Stadion

  Adjoining it (ithe anctuary of Athena Oxyderces) is the race-course, in which they hold the games in honor of Nemean Zeus and the festival of Hera. (Paus. 2.24.2)


Ancient gymnasium

Gymnasium of Cylarabes

  In the gymnasium of Cylarabes is an Athena called Pania; they show also the graves of Sthenelus and of Cylarabes himself. (Paus. 2.22.9)


Ancient villas & houses

The house of Adrastus

   Very near to the temple of Dionysus you will see the house of Adrastus. (Paus. 2.23.2)


Monuments

Adonis' building

  Beyond (the sanctuary of Zeus the Saviour) it is a building where the Argive women bewail Adonis.(Paus. 2.20.6)


Monument of Pyrrhus

  The building of white marble in just about the middle of the marketplace is not, as the Argives declare, a trophy in honor of a victory over Pyrrhus of Epeirus, but it can be shown that his body was burnt here, and that this is his monument, on which are carved in relief the elephants and his other instruments of warfare. This building then was set up where the pyre stood, but the bones of Pyrrhus lie in the sanctuary of Demeter, beside which, as I have shown in my account of Attica, his death occurred. At the entrance to this sanctuary of Demeter you can see a bronze shield of Pyrrhus hanging dedicated over the door. (Paus. 2.20.4)


Monument of the Gorgon

  Not far from the building in the market-place of Argos is a mound of earth, in which they say lies the head of the Gorgon Medusa. I omit the miraculous, but give the rational parts of the story about her. After the death of her father, Phorcus, she reigned over those living around Lake Tritonis, going out hunting and leading the Libyans to battle. On one such occasion, when she was encamped with an army over against the forces of Perseus, who was followed by picked troops from the Peloponnesus, she was assassinated by night. Perseus, admiring her beauty even in death, cut off her head and carried it to show the Greeks. But Procles, the son of Eucrates, a Carthaginian, thought a different account more plausible than the preceding. It is as follows. Among the incredible monsters to be found in the Libyan desert are wild men and wild women. Procles affirmed that he had seen a man from them who had been brought to Rome. So he guessed that a woman wandered from them, reached Lake Tritonis, and harried the neighbours until Perseus killed her; Athena was supposed to have helped him in this exploit, because the people who live around Lake Tritonis are sacred to her. (Paus. 2.20.5)


A small bronze vessel with the bones of Tantalus

Opposite the grave (of Pelasgus) is a small bronze vessel supporting ancient images of Artemis, Zeus, and Athena. Now Lyceas in his poem says that the image is of Zeus Mechaneus (Contriver), and that here the Argives who set out against Troy swore to hold out in the war until they either took Troy or met their end fighting. Others have said that in the bronze vessel lie the bones of Tantalus. Now that the Tantalus is buried here who was the son of Thyestes or Broteas (both accounts are given) and married Clytaemnestra before Agamemnon did, I will not gainsay; but the grave of him who legend says was son of Zeus and Pluto--it is worth seeing--is on Mount Sipylus. I know because I saw it. Moreover, no constraint came upon him to flee from Sipylus, such as afterwards forced Pelops to run away when Ilus the Phrygian launched an army against him. But I must pursue the inquiry no further. The ritual performed at the pit hard by they say was instituted by Nicostratus, a native. Even at the present day they throw into the pit burning torches in honor of the Maid who is daughter of Demeter. (Paus. 20.2.2-3)


Temple of Apollo Deiradiotes

  As you go up the citadel you come ... also to a temple of Apollo, which is said to have been first built by Pythaeus when he came from Delphi. The present image is a bronze standing figure called Apollo Deiradiotes, because this place, too, is called Deiras (Ridge). Oracular responses are still given here, and the oracle acts in the following way. There is a woman who prophesies, being debarred from intercourse with a man. Every month a lamb is sacrificed at night, and the woman, after tasting the blood, becomes inspired by the god. (Paus. 2.24.1)


Ancient tombs

Grave of Phoroneus

  Going forward from this (Sanctuary of Nemean Zeus) you see on the right the grave of Phoroneus, to whom even in our time they bring offerings as to a hero.(Paus.2.20.3)


Tomb of the maenad Chorea

  The tomb near this (temple of the Fortune) they call that of the maenad Chorea, saying that she was one of the women who joined Dionysus in his expedition against Argos, and that Perseus, being victorious in the battle, put most of the women to the sword. To the rest they gave a common grave, but to Chorea they gave burial apart because of her high rank.(Paus. 2.20.4)


Tomb of Danaus

  Not far from the statues (of those killed in the battles against Thebes) are shown the tomb of Danaus.(Paus.2.20.6)


Cenotaph for those killed in the War of Troy

Not far from (the statues of those killed in the battles against Thebes) is shown a cenotaph of the Argives who met their death at Troy or on the journey home.(Paus. 2.20.6)


Tomb of Cerdo, the wife of Phoroneus

  Having descended thence (from the sanctuary of Aphrodite), and having turned again to the market-place, we come to the tomb of Cerdo, the wife of Phoroneus, and to a temple of Asclepius. (Paus. 2.21.1)


Tomb of Hypermnestra, the mother of Amphiaraus

...near (the altar of Zeus Phyxius) is the tomb of Hypermnestra, the mother of Amphiaraus, the other tomb being that of Hypermnestra, the daughter of Danaus, with whom is also buried Lynceus. (Paus. 2.21.2)


Tomb of Hypermnestra the daughter of Danaus

(see previous text)


The grave of Talaus

  Opposite (the tomb of Hypermnestra) is the grave of Talaus, the son of Bias; the history of Bias and his descendants I have already given. (Paus. 2.21.2)


The grave of Epimenides

  Before the temple of Athena is, they say, the grave of Epimenides. The Argive story is that the Lacedaemonians made war upon the Cnossians and took Epimenides alive; they then put him to death for not prophesying good luck to them, and the Argives taking his body buried it here.


Grave of Gorgophone

  In Argos, by the side of this monument of the Gorgon, is the grave of Gorgophone (Gorgon-kilIer), the daughter of Perseus. As soon as you hear the name you can understand the reason why it was given her. On the death of her husband, Perieres, the son of Aeolus, whom she married when a virgin, she married Oebalus, being the first woman, they say, to marry a second time; for before this wives were wont, on the death of their husbands, to live as widows. (Paus. 2.21.7)


Grave of women Haliai

...before it (the temple of Hera Anthea ) is a grave of women. They were killed in a battle against the Argives under Perseus, having come from the Aegean Islands to help Dionysus in war; for which reason they are surnamed Haliae (Women of the Sea). (Paus. 2.22.1)


Grave of Pelasgus


Grave of Argus

  Going on a little further (from thesanctuary of Poseidon Prosclystius) you see the grave of Argus, reputed to be the son of Zeus and Niobe, daughter of Phoroneus.(Paus. 2.22.5)


Grave of Licymnius

  As you go along a straight road to a gymnasium, called Cylarabis after the son of Sthenelus, you come to the grave of Licymnius, the son of Electryon, who, Homer says, was killed by Tleptolemus, the son of Heracles for which homicide Tleptolemus was banished from Argos. (Paus. 2.22.8)


Tomb of Sacadas

  On turning a little aside from the road to Cylarabis and to the gate there, you come to the tomb of Sacadas, who was the first to play at Delphi the Pythian flute-tune; the hostility of Apollo to flute-players, which had lasted ever since the rivalry of Marsyas the Silenus, is supposed to have stayed because of this Sacadas. (Paus. 2.22.8-9)


Grave of the Argives sailed to Sicily

  Not far from the gymnasium has been built a common grave of those   Not far from the gymnasium has been built a common grave of those Argives who sailed with the Athenians to enslave Syracuse and Sicily. (Paus. 2.22.9) who sailed with the Athenians to enslave Syracuse and Sicily. (Paus. 2.22.9)


Tomb of Eriphyle

   Very near to the temple of Dionysus you will see the house of Adrastus, farther on a sanctuary of Amphiaraus, and opposite the sanctuary the tomb of Eriphyle. (Paus. 2.23.2)


Grave of Hyrnetho

  Returning from Hollow Street, you see what they say is the grave of Hyrnetho. If they allow that it is merely a cenotaph erected to the memory of the lady, their account is likely enough but if they believe that the corpse lies here I cannot credit it, and leave anyone to do so who has not learnt the history of Epidaurus. (Paus. 2.23.3)


Tomb of Crotopus

  The Argives have other things worth seeing; for instance, an underground building over which was the bronze chamber which Acrisius once made to guard his daughter. Perilaus, however, when he became tyrant, pulled it down. Besides this building there is the tomb of Crotopus. (Paus. 2.23.6)


Tomb of the children of Aegyptus

  As you go to the citadel there is on the left of the road another tomb of the children of Aegyptus. For here are the heads apart from the bodies, which are at Lerna. For it was at Lerna that the youths were murdered, and when they were dead their wives cut off their heads, to prove to their father that they had done the dreadful deed. (Paus. 2.24.2)


Shrines

Precinct of Asclepius

   Next (the sanctuary of Amphiaraus) is a precinct of Asclepius. (Paus. 2.23.2)


Ancient statues

Image of Zeus Meilichius (Gracious),

  Image of Zeus Meilichius (Gracious), made of white marble by Polycleitus. I discovered that it was made for the following reason. Ever since the Lacedaemonians began to make war upon the Argives there was no cessation of hostilities until Philip, the son of Amyntas, forced them to stay within the original boundaries of their territories. Before this, if the Lacedaemonians were not engaged on some business outside the Peloponnesus, they were always trying to annex a piece of Argive territory; or if they were busied with a war beyond their borders it was the turn of the Argives to retaliate. When the hatred of both sides was at its height, the Argives resolved to maintain a thousand picked men. The commander appointed over them was the Argive Bryas. His general behavior to the men of the people was violent, and a maiden who was being taken to the bridegroom he seized from those who were escorting her and ravished. When night came on, the girl waited until he was asleep and put out his eyes. Detected in the morning, she took refuge as a suppliant with the people. When they did not give her up to the Thousand for punishment both sides took up arms; the people won the day, and in their anger left none of their opponents alive. Subsequently they had recourse to purifications for shedding kindred blood; among other things they dedicated an image of Zeus Meilichius.(Paus.2.20.1)

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Statues of those killed in the battle of Thebes

  On coming back from here (the sanctuary of the Seasons) you see statues of Polyneices, the son of Oedipus, and of all the chieftains who with him were killed in battle at the wall of Thebes. These men Aeschylus has reduced to the number of seven only, although there were more chiefs than this in the expedition, from Argos, from Messene, with some even from Arcadia. But the Argives have adopted the number seven from the drama of Aeschylus, and near to their statues are the statues of those who took Thebes: Aegialeus, son of Adrastus; Promachus, son of Parthenopaeus, son of Talaus; Polydorus, son of Hippomedon; Thersander; Alcmaeon and Amphilochus, the sons of Amphiaraus; Diomedes, and Sthenelus. Among their company were also Euryalus, son of Mecisteus, and Adrastus and Timeas, sons of Polyneices.(Paus.2.20.5)

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Head of Medusa

Beside the sanctuary of Cephisus is a head of Medusa made of stone, which is said to be another of the works of the Cyclopes.(Paus. 2.20.7)


Image of Artemis Pheraea

  The Argives, like the Athenians and Sicyorians, worship Artemis Pheraea, and they, too, assert that the image of the goddess was brought from Pherae in Thessaly. (Paus. 2.23.5)


Pheraea (Pheraia). A surname of Artemis at Pherae in Thessaly, at Argos and Sicyon, where she had temples. (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 259 ; Pans. ii. 10.6, 23.5)


Image of Athena from Troy (Palladium)

  I cannot agree with them when they say that in Argos are the tombs of Deianeira, the daughter of Oeneus, and of Helenus, son of Priam, and that there is among them the image of Athena that was brought from Troy, thus causing the capture of that city. For the Palladium, as it is called, was manifestly brought to Italy by Aeneas. As to Deianeira, we know that her death took place near Trachis and not in Argos, and her grave is near Heraclea, at the foot of Mount Oeta. The story of Helenus, son of Priam, I have already given: that he went to Epeirus with Pyrrhus, the son of. Achilles; that, wedded to Andromache, he was guardian to the children of Pyrrhus and that the district called Cestrine received its name from Cestrinus, son of Helenus. Now even the guides of the Argives themselves are aware that their account is not entirely correct. Nevertheless they hold to their opinion, for it is not easy to make the multitude change their views. (Paus. 2.23.5-6)


Reliefs

Relief of Cleobis & Biton

  Hard by (the image of Zeus Meilichius) are Cleobis and Biton carved in relief on stone, themselves drawing the carriage and taking in it their mother to the sanctuary of Hera.(Paus.2.20.3)


Various

Place of Judgment

  The ground behind (the head of Medusa) it is called even at the present time the Place of Judgment, because it was here that they say Hypermnestra was brought to judgment by Danaus.(Paus. 2.20.7)


Trophy of victory over Laphaes

  In front of the grave (of Gorgophone) is a trophy of stone made to commemorate a victory over an Argive Laphaes. When this man was tyrant I write what the Argives themselves say concerning themselves--the people rose up against him and cast him out. He fled to Sparta, and the Lacedaemonians tried to restore him to power, but were defeated by the Argives, who killed the greater part of them and Laphaes as well. (Paus. 2.21.8)


Delphi, Exedra of the Kings of Argos


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