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Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Florentia

FLORENCE (Town) TOSCANA
  Florentia (Phlorentia, Ptol.: Eth. Florentinus: Florence; in Italian, Firenze, but in old writers Fiorenza), a city of Etruria, situated on the river Arnus, about 3 miles S. of Faesulae. Though celebrated in modern times as the capital of Tuscany, and in the middle ages as an independent republic, it was not a place of much note in antiquity. No trace of its existence is found in Etruscan times; and it is probable that it derived its first origin as a town from the Roman colony. The date of the establishment of this is not quite clear. We learn from the Liber Coloniarum that a colony was settled there by the triumvirs after the death of Caesar (Lib. Colon. p. 213); but there seems some reason to believe that one had previously been established there by Sulla. There is indeed no direct authority for this fact, any more than for that of the new town having been peopled by emigrants who descended from the rocky heights of Faesulae to the fertile banks of the Arnus; but both circumstances are in themselves probable enough, and have a kind of traditionary authority which has been generally received by the Florentine historians. (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 135.) A passage of Florus also (iii. 21. § 27), in which he enumerates Florentia (or, as some MSS. give the name, Fluentia) among the towns sold by auction by order of Sulla, is only intelligible on the supposition that its lands were divided among new colonists. (Zumpt, de Colon. p. 253.) But he is certainly in error in reckoning Florentia at this time among the municipia Italiae splendidissima: it could not have been a municipal town at all; and from the absence of all notice of it during the campaign of the consul Antonius against Catiline, in the immediate neighbourhood of Faesulae, it is evident that it was not even then a place of any importance. But from the period of the colony of the triumvirs it seems to have rapidly become a considerable and flourishing town, though not retaining the title of a colony. The Florentini are mentioned by Tacitus in the reign of Tiberius among the municipia which sent deputies to Rome to remonstrate against the project of diverting the course of the Clanis from the Tiber into the Arnus; a proceeding which they apprehended, probably not without reason, would have the effect of flooding their town and territory. (Tac. Ann. i. 79.) We subsequently find the Florentini noticed by Pliny among the municipal towns of Etruria; and the name of Florentia is found in Ptolemy, as well as in the Itineraries. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Ptol. iii. 1. § 48; Itin. Ant. pp. 284, 285; Tab. Peut.) These scanty notices are all that we hear of it previous to the fall of the Western empire; but its municipal consideration during this period is further attested by inscriptions (Orell. 686, 3711, 3713; Gori, Inscr. Etrur. vol. i.), as well as by the remains of an amphitheatre still visible near the church of Sta. Croce. It is probable that its favourable position in the centre of a beautiful and fertile plain on the banks of the Arnus, and on the line of the great high road through the N. of Tuscany, became the source of its prosperity; and it is clear that it rapidly came to surpass its more ancient neighbour of Faesulae. In the Gothic Wars Florentia already figures as a strong fortress, and one of the most important places in Tuscany. (Procop. B. G. iii. 5, 6.)
  The remains of the amphitheatre already noticed, which are in themselves of little importance, are the only vestiges of Roman buildings remaining in the city of Florence.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Cortona

KORTON (Ancient city) TOSCANA
  Cortona (Kortona, Ptol.: Eth. Cortonensis: Cortona), one of the most ancient and powerful of the inland cities of Etruria, situated on a lofty hill between Arretium and Clusium. It was distant only about 9 miles from the Lacus Trasimenus. There is great confusion about its ancient name. The Greek legend which represented it as founded by Dardanus, called it Corythus, a form frequently used in consequence by the Latin poets. (Virg. Aen. iii. 167-170, vii. 206-210, &c.; Sil. Ital. iv. 721, v. 122.) But there is little doubt that this was a mere transplanting of a Greek tradition (Muller, Etrusker, vol. i. p. 277), and the native name seems to have been Cortona, or some form closely resembling it. Dionysius writes the name Croton, and says it was changed to Cortona (which he writes Kothornia, probably an error of the MSS. for Korthonia), when it received a Roman colony. Livy, however, calls it Cortona at a much earlier period, without any allusion to its having changed its name. The confusion between Cor and Cro is so natural that it is no wonder the Greeks should write it Kroton, even if the Roman form was the correct one: but it is not improbable that the Etruscans, who did not use the letter o, would have written the name Krvtvna, as they wrote Pupluna for Populonium. (Dionys. i. 26; Steph. Byz. s. v. Kroton; Muller, l. c. pp. 268, 277.) Polybius, however (iii. 82), writes the name Kurtonion, and there can be no doubt that the Gortunaia, in Tyrrhenia, of Lycophron and Theopompus, the foundation of which was ascribed by the latter to Ulysses, is merely a corruption of the same name. (Lycophr. Alex. 806; Theopomp. ap. Tzetz. ad loc.)
  All accounts agree in representing Cortona as one of the most ancient cities of Etruria, and at a very early period one of the most powerful of the confederation. Dionysius expressly tells us that it was originally an Umbrian city, and was wrested from that people by the Pelasgians. (Dionys. i. 20.) It is evidently to the Pelasgic city only that the legend of its foundation by Dardanus, to which so prominent a place has been assigned by Virgil, can be referred: various other legends also appear to point to the same connection, and may be considered as proving that the Pelasgic character of the inhabitants was strongly marked and recognised by the Greeks. But, notwithstanding the high authority of Niebuhr, it seems impossible to admit the view of Dionysius, who refers to this city and not to Creston in Thrace, the statement of Herodotus concerning the language spoken by the Pelasgians in his day. (Herod. i. 57; Dionys. i. 29. On this much disputed question compare Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 34, note 89; Muller, Etrusker, vol. i. p. 94-98; Lepsius, Tyrrhenische Pelasger, p. 18, &c.) Dionysius represents Cortona as having been made by the Pelasgians a stronghold and centre of operations from whence they gradually extended their arms over the rest of Etruria: and it is, doubtless, with reference to this statement that Stephanus of Byzantium terms it the metropolis of the Tyrrhenians. (Dionys. i. 20; Steph. Byz. s. v. Kroton.) There are, indeed, circumstances which would lead us to infer that the dominion of the Etruscans, properly so called (the Rasena), was also extended from Cortona, or its neighbourhood, over the more southern parts of Etruria; and it would be a natural surmise that Dionysius had made a confusion between the Pelasgian Tyrrhenians and the Etruscans proper: but it seems more probable that both conquests may really have emanated from the same quarter.
  Important as is the part which Cortona bears in these early traditions, it is singular how little we subsequently hear of it. There can be no doubt that it was one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan confederation: and hence in B.C. 310 Livy speaks of Perusia, Cortona, and Arretium, as at that period. among the chief cities of Etruria (ferme capita Etruriae populorum. Liv. ix. 37.) They on this occasion obtained a peace for 30 years, which was soon broken; but the name of Cortona is not again mentioned: and we have no account of the time at which it fell under the subjection of Rome. In the Second Punic War it is incidentally mentioned: Hannibal having marched beneath its walls, and laid waste its territory just before the battle of the Thrasymenian Lake (Pol. iii. 82; Liv. xxii. 4), but the inaccessible position of the city itself rendered it secure from attack. At the same time the broad and fertile valley beneath it offered no obstacles to the march of an army, and it is probably for this reason that we hear so little of Cortona in history successive swarms of invaders having swept past it, without caring to attack its almost impregnable position. We learn incidentally from Dionysius (i. 26) that Cortona had received a Roman colony not long before his time: there can be no doubt that this must be referred to the times of Sulla, and that it was one of the cities of Etruria, which he repeopled after his devastation of that country. (Zumpt, de Colon. p. 252.) It was not subsequently renewed, and therefore does not figure in the lists either of Pliny or Ptolemy as a colony. Both those authors, however, mention it among the towns of Etruria (Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Ptol. iii. 1. § 48): but this is the last notice of its existence in ancient times, though inscriptions prove it to have continued to subsist under the Roman Empire. (Gori, Inscr. Etr. vol. ii. pp. 361-398.) It became an episcopal see in the early ages of Christianity, and probably never ceased to exist, though no trace of it is again found in history till the 13th century.
  The modern city of Cortona (which is still the see of a bishop, with about 5000 inhabitants) retains the site of the ancient one, on the summit of a high hill, almost deserving to be termed a mountain, and extending from its highest point down a steep slope facing towards the W., so that the gate at its lowest extremity is about half way down the hill. The ancient city was of oblong form, and about two miles in circumference; the circuit of its walls may be easily traced, as the modern ones are for the most part based upon them, though at the higher end of the city they enclosed a considerably wider space. They may be traced in fragments more or less preserved almost entirely round the city, and are composed of rectangular blocks of great size, arranged without much regularity, though with more regard to horizontality and distinct courses than is observable in the walls of Volterra or Populonia, and often joined with great nicety like the masonry of Fiesole. The finest relic of this regular masonry at Cortona, and perhaps in all Italy, is at a spot called Terra Mozza, outside the Fortress, at the highest part of the city, where is a fragment 120 feet in length, composed of blocks of enormous magnitude. They vary from 2 1/2 to 5 feet in height, and from 6 or 7 feet or 11 and 12 in length; and are sometimes as much or more in depth. The material of which they are composed is a grey sandstone much resembling that of Fiesole. (Dennis, Etruria, vol. ii. p, 436.) A few other fragments of Etruscan construction similar to the above, are found within the walls of the city: but only one trifling remnant of a Roman building. Outside the lower gate, on the slope of the hill, is a curious monument called the Tanella di Pitagora (from the confusion commonly made between Cortona and Crotona), which was in reality an Etruscan tomb, constructed of vast blocks and slabs of stone, instead of being excavated in the rock, as was their more common practice. A remarkable mound, commonly called Il Melone, which stands at the foot of the hill near Camuscia, has been also proved by excavation to be sepulchral. Numerous minor relics of antiquity have been discovered at Cortona, and are preserved in the Museum there: this is more rich in bronzes than pottery, and among the former is a bronze lamp of large size, which for beauty of workmanship is considered to surpass all other specimens of this description of Etruscan art. (Dennis, l. c. p. 442: who has given a full account of all the ancient remains still visible at Cortona.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Luca

LUCCA (Town) TOSCANA
Luca (Louka, Strab., Ptol.: Eth. Lucensis: Lucca), a city of Etruria, situated in a plain at the foot of the Apennines, near the left bank of the Ausar (Serchio) about 12 miles from the sea, and 10 NE. of Pisae. Though Luca was included within the limits of Etruria, as these were established in the time of Augustus (Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Ptol. iii. 1. § 47), it is very doubtful whether it was ever an Etruscan town. No mention of it is found as such, and no Etruscan remains have been discovered in its neighbourhood. But it is probable that the Etruscans at one time extended their power over the level country at the foot of the Apennines, from the Arnus to the Macra, leaving the Ligurians in possession only of the mountains,--and at this period, therefore, Luca was probably subject to them. At a later period, however, it had certainly fallen into the hands of the Ligurians, and being retaken from them by the Romans, seems to have been commonly considered (until the reign of Augustus) a Ligurian town. For this reason we find it comprised within the province assigned to Caesar, which included Liguria as well as Cisalpine Gaul. (Suet. Caes. 24.) The first mention of Luca in history is in B.C. 218, when Livy tells us that the consul Sempronius retired there after his unsuccessful contest with Hannibal. (Liv. xxi. 59.) It was, therefore, at this period certainly in the hands of the Romans, though it would seem to have subsequently fallen again into those of the Ligurians; but it is strange that during the long protracted wars of the Romans with that people, we meet with no mention of Luca, though it must have been of importance as a frontier town, especially in their wars with the Apuani. The next notice of it is that of the establishment there of a Roman colony in B.C. 177. (Vell. Pat. i. 15 ; Liv. xli. 13.) There is, indeed, some difficulty with regard to this; the MSS. and editions of Livy vary between Luca and Luna; but there is no such discrepancy in those of Velleius, and there seems at least no reason to doubt the settlement of a Latin colony at Luca; while that mentioned in Livy being a colonia civium, may, perhaps, with more probability, be referred to Luna. (Madvig, de Colon. p. 287; Zumpt, de Colon. p. 349 ) That at Luca became, in common with the other Latin colonies, a municipal town by virtue of the Lex Julia (B.C. 49), and hence is termed by Cicero municipium Lucense. (Cic. ad Fam. xiii. 1. 3) It appears to have been at this time a considerable town, as we find it repeatedly selected by Caesar during his administration of Gaul as the frontier town of his province, to which he repaired in order to consult with his friends, or with the leaders of political parties at Rome. (Suet. Caes. 24 ; Plut. Caes. 21, Crass. 14, Pomp. 51; Cic. ad Fam. i. 9. 9). On one of these occasions (in B.C. 56) there are said to have been more than 200 senators assembled at Luca, including Pompey and Crassus, as well as Caesar himself. (Plut. l. c.; Appian, B.C. ii. 17.) Luca would seem to have received a fresh colony before the time of Pliny, probably under Augustus. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Zumpt, de Colon. p. 349.) We hear little of it under the Roman Empire; but it seems to have continued to be a provincial town of some consideration: it was the point where the Via Clodia, proceeding from Rome by Arretium, Florentia, and Pistoria, was met by other roads from Parma and Pisae. (Plin. l. c.; Ptol. iii. 1. § 47; Itin. Ant. pp. 283, 284, 289; Tab. Peut.) During the Gothic wars of Narses, Luca figures as an important city and a strong fortress (Agath. B. G. i. 15), but it was not till after the fall of the Lombard monarchy that it attained to the degree of prosperity and importance that we find it enjoying during the middle ages. Lucca is still a flourishing city, with 25,000 inhabitants: the only relics of antiquity visible there are those of an amphitheatre, considerable part of which may still be traced, now converted into a market-place called the Piazza del Mercato, and some small remains of a theatre near the church of Sta. Maria di Corte Landini.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Massa

MASSA (Town) TOSCANA
Massa surnamed Massa Veternensis, a town of Etruria, situated about 12 miles from the sea on a hill overlooking the wide plain of the Maremma: hence it is now called Massa Marittima. In the middle ages it was a considerable city and the see of a bishop; but it is not mentioned by any ancient author earlier than Ammianus Marcellinus (xiv. 11. § 27), who tells us that it was the birthplace of the emperor Constantius Gallus. From the epithet Veternensis, it would seem probable that there was an Etruscan city of the name of Veternum in its neighbourhood; and, according to Mr. Dennis, there are signs of an Etruscan population on a hill called the Poggio di Vetreta, a little to the SE. of the modern town. (Dennis, Etruria, vol. ii. p. 218.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Pisae

PISA (Ancient city) TOSCANA
  Pisae (Pisai, Strab. Pol.; Pissai, Ptol.; Pissa, Lycophr.; Eth. Pisanus: Pisa), an important city of Etruria, situated on the N. bank of the river Arnus, a few miles from its mouth. All authors agree in representing it as a very ancient city, but the accounts of its early history are very confused and uncertain. The identity of its name with that of the city of Elis naturally led to the supposition that the one was derived from the other; and hence the foundation of the Italian Pisae was ascribed by some authors to Pelops himself (Plin. iii. 5. s. 8), while others assigned it to a body of settlers from the Peloponnesian Pisa who had accompanied Nestor to Troy, and on their return wandered to this part of Italy. (Strab. v. p. 222; Serv. ad Aen. x. 179.) Epeius, the reputed founder of Metapontum, was, according to some writers, that of Pisae also. (Serv. l. c.) The Elean, or Alphean, origin of the city is generally adopted by the Roman poets. (Virg. Aen. x. 179; Claudian, B. Gild. 483; Rutil. Itin. i. 565.) Cato, however, followed a different tradition, and represented the city as founded by the Etruscans under Tarchon, though the site was previously possessed by a people called the Teutanes, who spoke a Greek dialect. (Cato, ap. Serv. l. c.) Virgil also calls it distinctly an Etruscan city, though he derives its more remote origin from Elis; and the tradition reported by Cato seems to prove at least that it was one of the cities of which the Etruscans claimed to be the founders, and which must therefore have been at one period a genuine Etruscan city. On the other hand, Dionysius mentions it among the cities founded or occupied by the Pelasgi in conjunction with the Aborigines (Dionys. i. 20); and there seems to be some reason to regard it as one of the early Pelasigc settlements on the coast of Etruria, which fell at a later period under the power of the Etruscans.
  We know almost nothing of Pisae as an Etruscan city, nor are there any remains of this period of its history. But Strabo still found vestiges of its past greatness, and the tradition of its foundation by Tarchon seems to point to it as one of the principal cities of Etruria. Its inhabitants were trained to arms by frequent contests with their neighbours the Ligurians, while they appear to have been one of the principal maritime powers among the Etruscans, and, like most of their countrymen, combined the pursuits of commerce and piracy. (Strab. v. p. 223.) We have no account of the period at which it became a dependency of Rome; but the first historical mention of its name is in B.C. 225, when the consul C. Atilius landed there with two legions from Sardinia, with which he shortly after attacked and defeated the Gaulish army near Telamon. (Pol. ii. 27.) It is clear therefore that Pisae was at this time already in alliance with Rome, and probably on the same footing as the other dependent allies of the republic. Its port seems to have been much frequented, and became a favourite point of departure for the Roman fleets and armies whose destination was Gaul, Spain, or Liguria. Thus it was from thence that the consul P. Scipio sailed to Massilia at the outbreak of the Second Punic War (B.C. 218), and thither also that he returned on finding that Hannibal had already crossed the Alps. (Pol. iii. 43, 56; Liv. xxi. 39.) The long-continued wars of the Romans with the Ligurians added greatly to the importance of Pisae, which became the frontier town of the Roman power, and the customary head-quarters of the generals appointed to carry on the war. (Liv. xxxiii. 43, xxxv. 22, xl. 1, &c.) It was not, however, exempt from the evil consequences incident to such a position. In B.C. 193 it was suddenly attacked and besieged by an army of 40,000 Ligurians, and with difficulty rescued by the arrival of the consul Minucius (Liv. xxxv. 3); and on several other occasions the Ligurians laid waste its territory. Hence in B.C. 180 the Pisans themselves invited the Romans to establish a colony in their territory, which was accordingly carried out, the colonists obtaining Latin rights. (Liv. xl. 43.) From this time we hear but little of Pisae; its colonial condition became merged like that of the other coloniae Latinae, in that of a municipium by virtue of the Lex Julia (Fest. v. Municipium): but it seems to have received a fresh colony under Augustus, as we find it bearing the colonial title in a celebrated inscription which records the funeral honours paid by the magistrates and senate of Pisae to the deceased grandchildren of Augustus, C. and L. Caesar. (Orell. Inscr. 642, 643.) It is here termed Colonia Obsequens Julia Pisana: Pliny also gives it the title of a colony (Plin. iii. 5 s. 8), and there seems no doubt that it was at this period one of the most flourishing towns of Etruria. Strabo speaks of it as carrying on a considerable trade in timber and marble from the neighbouring mountains, which were sent to Rome to be employed there as building materials. Its territory was also very fertile, and produced the fine kind of wheat called siligo, as well as excellent wine. (Strab. v. p. 223; Plin. xiv. 3. s. 4, xviii. 9. s. 20.) We have no account of the fortunes of Pisae during the declining period of the Roman empire, but during the Gothic wars of Narses it is still mentioned as a place of importance (Agath. B. G. i. 11), and in the middle ages rose rapidly to be one of the most flourishing commercial cities of Italy.
  There is no doubt that the ancient city stood on the same site with the modern Pisa, but natural causes have produced such great changes in the locality, that it would be difficult to recognise the site as described by Strabo, were not the identity of the modern and ancient cities fully established. That author (as well as Rutilius and other writers) describes the ancient city as situated at the confluence of the rivers Arnus and Auser (Serchio), and distant only 20 stadia (2 1/2 miles) from the sea. (Strab. v. p. 222; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Rutil. Itin. i. 565-570.) At the present day it is more than 6 miles from the sea, while the Serchio does not flow into the Arno at all, but has a separate channel to the sea, the two rivers being separated by a tract of 5 or 6 miles in width, formed partly by the accumulation of alluvial soil from the rivers, partly by the sand heaped up by the sea. There are no remains of the Etruscan city visible; it is probable that all such, if they still exist, are buried to a considerable depth by the alluvial soil. The only vestiges of Roman antiquity which remain are some mean traces of baths, and two marble columns with composite capitals, probably belonging to the vestibule of a temple of the age of the Antonines, now embedded in the wall of the ruined church of S. Felice. (Dennis, Etruria, vol. ii. p. 89.) But numerous sarcophagi of Roman date, some of them of very superior workmanship, and some fragments of statues are preserved in the Campo Santo, as well as numerous inscriptions, of which the most interesting are those already alluded to, recording the honours paid by the colony to the deceased grandsons of Augustus. These have been published with a learned and elaborate commentary by Cardinal Noris (Cenotaphia Pisana, fol. Venet. 1681); as well as by Gori (Inscript. Etruriae, vol. ii. p. 10, &c.), and more recently by Haubold (Monumenta Legalia, p. 179) and Orelli (l. c.).
  The Maritime Itinerary mentions the Portus Pisanus as distinct from Pisae itself, from which it was no less than 9 miles distant. (Itin. Marit. p. 501.) Rutilius also describes the port of Pisae, which was in his day still much frequented and the scene of an active commerce, as at some distance from the city itself. (Rutil. Itin. i. 531-540, 558-565, ii. 12.) But the exact site has been a subject of much controversy. Cluverius and other writers placed it at the mouth of the Arno, while Mannert and Mr. Dennis would transfer it to the now celebrated port of Leghorn or Livorno. But this latter port is distant 10 miles from the mouth of the Arno, and 14 from Pisa, which does not agree with the distance given in the Maritime Itinerary; while the mouth of the Arno is too near Pisa, and it is unlikely that the entrance of the river could ever have been available as a harbour. Rutilius also describes the port (without any mention of the river) as formed only by a natural bank of sea-weed, which afforded shelter to the vessels that rode at anchor within it. Much the most probable view is that advocated by a local writer (Targioni Tozzetti), that the ancient Portus Pisanus was situated at a point between the mouth of the Arno and Leghorn, but considerably nearer the latter city, near an old church of St. Stefano. The distance of this spot agrees with that of the Itinerary, and it is certain from mediaeval documents that the Porto Pisano, which in the middle ages served as the port of Pisa, when it was a great and powerful republic, was situated somewhere in this neighbourhood. (Targioni Tozzetti, Viaggi in Toscana, vol. ii. pp. 225-240, 378-420; Zumpt, ad Rutil. i. 527.) Roman remains have also been found on the spot, and some ruins, which may very well be those of the villa called Triturrita, described by Rutilius as adjoining the port, designated in the Tabula as Turrita. (Rutil. Itin. i. 527; Tab. Peut.) There is every probability that the Porto Pisano of the middle ages occupied the same site with the Roman Portus Pisanus, which is mentioned by P. Diaconus as still in use under the Lombard kings, and again by a Frankish chronicler in the days of Charlemagne (P. Diac. Hist. Lang. vi. 61; Amoin. Rer. Franc. iv. 9); and there is no doubt that the mediaeval port was quite distinct from Livorno. The latter city, which is now one of the most important trading places in Italy, was in the 13th century an obscure village, and did not rise to consideration till after the destruction of the Porto Pisano. But it seems probable that it was occasionally used even in ancient times, and is the Labro noticed by Cicero (ad Q. Fr. ii. 6) as a seaport near Pisae. It has been supposed also to be already mentioned by Zosimus (v. 20) under the name of Liburnum; but there is really no authority for this, or for the names of Portus Liburni, and Portus Herculis Liburni employed by modern writers on ancient geography. The Antonine Itinerary, however, gives a station Ad Herculem, which, as it is placed 12 miles from Pisae, could not have been far from Leghorn. (Itin. Ant. p. 293.)
  Pliny alludes to the existence of warm springs in the territory of Pisae (ii. 103. s. 106). These are evidently the same now called the Bagni di S. Giuliano, situated about 4 miles from the city, at the foot of the detached group of Apennines, which divide the territory of Pisa from that of Lucca.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Florentia

FLORENCE (Town) TOSCANA
The modern Firenze, or Florence; a town in Etruria, sprung from the ancient Fiesole, and subsequently a Roman colony, situated on the Arnus (Arno). The Florentini are mentioned by Tacitus as sending a deputation to Rome in A.D. 16. Its greatness as a city dates from the Middle Ages.

Pisae

PISA (Ancient city) TOSCANA
   Now Pisa. An ancient city of Etruria, and one of the twelve cities of the confederation. It was situated at the confluence of the Arnus and Ausar (Serchio), about six miles from the sea. According to some traditions, Pisae was founded by the companions of Nestor , the inhabitants of Pisa, in Elis, who were driven upon the coast of Italy on their return from Troy; whence the Roman poets give the Etruscan town the surname of Alphea. In B.C. 180 it was made a Latin colony. Its harbour, called Portus Pisanus, at the mouth of the Arnus (Arno), was much used by the Romans.

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Arretium

AREZZO (Town) TOSCANA
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City of Florence

FLORENCE (Town) TOSCANA

Comune di Livorno

LIVORNO (Town) TOSCANA

Provincia di Livorno

Municipality of Pisa

PISA (Town) TOSCANA

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SIENA (Town) TOSCANA

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Arretium

AREZZO (Town) TOSCANA
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Cortona, Corythus

KORTON (Ancient city) TOSCANA
Total results on 25/4/2001: 24 for Cortona, 9 for Corythus.

The Catholic Encyclopedia

Leghorn, Livorno

LIVORNO (Town) TOSCANA
Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn (Italian Livorno), in Tuscany, is the capital of the smallest of the provinces of Italy. The city is situated on marshy ground, and is in consequence intersected by many canals, hence it has been called "Little Venice". A larger canal puts it in communication with Pisa. It has two ports, the old, or Medici, port, and the new port constructed in 1854. In former times Leghorn was the most important port in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; even now it is outranked only by Genoa and Naples.
  Among its numerous teaching establishments are a naval academy, and an observatory erected in 1881. The public library is important, and the prehistoric museum contains many Etruscan and Roman antiquities. The town likewise possesses a gallery of paintings, and its archives have an historical interest. Among the more important industries are shipbuilding, ironworks, and trade in alabaster and coral. The cathedral dates from the sixteenth century; there are also churches belonging to the Greek, the Maronite, and the Armenian Rites. The Synagogue (1603) is second only to that at Amsterdam. The royal palace was erected by Cosimo I. Of note also are the Torre del Marzocco, now used as a signal station, and the Torre della Meloria, near which, in 1241, the Pisans surprised and defeated the Genoese fleet on its way to Rome with the French bishops who were going to the council summoned against Frederick II.
  Among the ancients Leghorn was known as Portus Liburni, and was of small importance until the sixteenth century. It belonged to the Pisans, and was captured from them by the Genoese. In 1421 the Florentines bought it for 100,000 florins, and thus Leghorn came to be the main outlet for Florentine commerce, to the detriment of Pisa, which from that time began to wane. The Medici family took great interest in the prosperity of this stronghold; Alessandro de' Medici built the old fortress; Cosmo I, under the supervision of Vasari, built a breakwater and a new canal. But the real author of its greatness was Ferdinand I, who called Leghorn "his mistress". To increase its population he showered his favours on it and on those who went to live there, and made it a town of refuge for men from every nation, so that there flocked to it not only outlaws from all over Italy, but even Greeks, Jews, and Moors driven out of Spain. Exiled English Catholics found a home there. Cosmo II erected a monument to Ferdinand, the work of Giovanni dell' Opera. Owing to the bombardment (by the English in 1651, and by the French in 1671) of the Dutch fleet stationed in the harbour, Ferdinand II caused Leghorn to be declared a neutral port by international treaty (1691). This neutrality was violated for the first time in 1796 by Bonaparte, whose idea of a "Continental blockade" did immense damage to the commerce of the town. In 1848 Leghorn was the hotbed of the Tuscan revolution.
  The episcopal see was created by Pius VII in 1806. Its first bishop was Filippo Canucci. The diocese has 32 parishes with 170,000 souls. The number of religious houses for men is 9, and for women, 12. It has 3 educational institutions for boys, and 7 for girls.

U. Benigni, ed.
Transcribed by: Douglas J. Potter
This text is cited October 2004 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Arretium

AREZZO (Town) TOSCANA
  An Etruscan town, perhaps called Peithesa, on the height of Castelsecco (Poggio di San Cornelio), a height well fortified by ashlar stone walls, 3 km SE of Arezzo. The Arretines, according to Dion. Hal. (AntRom. 3.51), joined other Etruscans in offering aid to the Latins against Tarquinius Priscus (fl. 616-579 B.C.) and must have been included in the Etruscan decapolis, living there in probable political dependence upon Clusium. The date and circumstances of the migration to Arretium are unknown, but the new citadel was a low eminence now occupied by the Cathedral, public gardens, and Fortezza Medicea above the Castro, a small tributary of the Chiana and Arno. The city wall composed partly of stone, partly of lightly fired brick, and partly of rock escarpment, has been found at points in the E section of the upper modern town, the cemetery, and N outskirts. The cardo of this Arretium was the modern Via Pelliceria and Via San Lorenzo. Whether the brick represents repairs or the stone represents constructional reinforcement at selected points is debated; Vitruvius (2.8, 9), and Pliny (HN 13.13 and 35.19), considered Arretium's "vetustus murus" as essentially constructed "e latere." The date of the wall is assigned to ca. 300 B.C., the approximate period of a 30-year treaty (321 B.C.) and a treaty of peace and alliance with Rome in 294, the year in which a Roman relieving army was beaten at Arretium by the besieging Senones. Tombs near Poggio del Sole, outside the Etruscan town but just inside the Medicean wall, and the famous 5th c. bronze Chimera, the red-figure krater by Euphronios, the 4th c. bronze Minerva, and fictile revetments of various temples show that Arezzo had acquired and perhaps actually produced considerable evidence of prosperity and culture long before the imminence of Roman expansion.
  Arretium's advanced industrialization in the 3d c. B.C. permitted the furnishing of large quantities of bronze (and iron?) weapons and agricultural implements, as well as 120,000 modii of wheat, to Scipio's African expedition in 205 B.C., at which time there must also have been a lively production of Etrusco-Campanian black-surfaced ceramics.
  Arretium supported Marius and was punished in territory, civil status, the imposition of a veterans' colony (Arretini fidentiores, contrasted with the native Arretini veteres; Julius Caesar later settled the Arretini Iulienses as well), and, on the evidence of plentiful black pottery but no red Arretine, the dismantling of the city wall and various finely decorated public buildings within it, and perhaps the blocking of the cisterns of the citadel. Later, Arretium (sc. Sulla's veterans) espoused Catiline's conspiracy. Arretium's inhabited and industrial area must always have exceeded the fortified perimeter, but with the colonizations and under the Empire the expansion and reorientation must have been considerable; the new cardo was apparently the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and the forum has been conjectured as near Fonte Pozzolo N of the citadel. Nine roads radiated from the hilltop, and there are traces of a 1st-2d c. aqueduct entering the city at Fonte Veneziana on the F.
  Etruscan and Roman graves, mosaics, inscriptions, and minor objects are common in Arretium, but its importance in mediaeval and Renaissance Italy has militated against the preservation and excavation of conspicuous architectural monuments except for those already noted and a large late cistern 23.5 m square in the Giardino Pubblico, a theater and several baths of which remains are scanty, and the 1st-2d c. amphitheater of ca. 7500 sq. m, well-preserved because of its conversion into the Orti and Convento di S. Bernardo, part of which is now the Museo Archeologico.
  Already in Augustan times Arretium was famous for its plain and molded red-surfaced pottery of the late Republic and early Empire, superposing manufacturing techniques and artistic themes, imported from the Hellenistic East by a great influx of Greek-named workmen, upon vase shapes of Etrusco-Campanian ancestry. Within the present town numerous factories have been found and their operators identified, most notably the factory of M. Perennius and his successors at the church of S. Maria in Gradi, but also at Carciarelle and Orciolaia, 1 km from town, and as far away as Cincelli and Ponte a Buriano 7 km distant on the Arno. To what extent Maecenas, a native Arretine, was responsible for this artistic and industrial upsurge is not known. Excavations of the 1880s and 1890s produced vast amounts of Arretine ware, now partly in the Museo Archeologico, partly in private hands, partly dispersed to foreign museums; the vases of Ateius found in 1954-57 are at Florence, as is much else from the site. Further, Arretine ware was exported to military and civilian consumers throughout the Roman world and beyond (Britain, India), enriching many local museums of Western and Central Europe and North Africa. Arretium's primacy was Augustan and Tiberian, but even under Augustus an emigration of potters was under way, and by Flavian times Arretium had lost its significance to imitators elsewhere in Italy and in the provinces.

H. Comfort, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Cortona

KORTON (Ancient city) TOSCANA
  Probably a member of the Etruscan League and identical with Vergil's Gorythus (after its legendary founder and father of Dardanus of Troy: Aen. 3.170; 7.209), Cortona's earliest remains date to the 7th c. B.C. After it was absorbed by Rome in the 4th c., it rarely appears in the sources.
  Important among the 7th-6th c. remains are a group of funerary tumuli (meloni) near the town. The melone di Camucia contained gold and bronze objects and, besides imported Greek pottery, local impasto, bucchero, and painted ware from the 7th-6th c. A stone funerary bed with weeping women in low relief, now in Florence, was found inside. The 6th c. meloni del Sodo I and II and the 4th c. so-called tumulus of Pythagoras (who never resided here but at Kroton) are dated by their respective vault construction. All are built of great blocks.
  The 5th c. Etruscan wall, made of roughly squared blocks of local stone, is still visible, especially near Porta Colonia. Its double gate is later. There is a Roman reservoir 18 m square.
  The Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca houses Greek and Roman items with a fine Etruscan collection. A sarcophagus depicting lapiths and centaurs is in the Duomo of S. Maria.
  About 16 km to the S is Lake Trasimene. Today the malpasso, the defile hemmed in by cliffs, scene of Hannibal's entrapment of the Romans in 217 B.C., lies 1.2 km from the shrunken NE shore line; the old shore line is still visible from the air. To the E near Tuoro are ditches in which the dead were cremated.

D. C. Scavone, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Pisae

PISA (Ancient city) TOSCANA
  A settlement of debated origin (Greek, Ligurian, Etruscan) situated between an E-W bend in the Serchio (ancient Auser) and the Arno. A flourishing Etruscan town with port by the 5th c. B.C., its prosperity continued down to its occupation by Rome as an outpost against the Ligurians in 225 B.C. (Polyb. 2.16f; Livy 21.39). By this time Pisan territory reached Castiglioncello to the S and Luna to the N (Livy 34.56). After the Ligurians were subdued (ca. 177 B.C.), Luna was made a citizen colony while Pisae's importance diminished, and though later an Augustan colony, it is seldom mentioned in the sources.
  The ancient city was roughly rectangular. The Piazza dei Cavalieri is probably the site of its forum, with an Augusteum. There are remains of a theater (on Via S. Zeno), the so-called Baths of Nero, an octagonal apsidal room of the 2d c. B.C., near the Lucca gate, an amphitheater N of the Serchio, and a Temple of Vesta. Of the Portus Pisanus, connected to the town by a road, some Augustan and Imperial traces remain. Archaic necropoleis existed near Porta a Mare (to the W) and the Lucca Gate.
  Both the Camposanto and the adjacent Museo dell'Opera della Cattedrale contain fine Classical collections.

D. C. Scavone, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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