enclose the steepsided hilltop, where is situated the akropolis of ancient
Panopeus. It has 3 entrance-gates, on the N., W. and S. sides and several square
interval towers. The walls are well-constructed with big rectangular stones using
oblique joints for greater stability.
Ancient Panopeus was inhabited from the 18th century B.C. During the
Mycenaean period (14th-11th century B.C.) it had strong cyclopean walls, remains
of which are now preserved on the S. slope of the akropolis-hill.In 346 B.C. it
was destructed by the Macedonian troops of Philip II. Because of the Macedonian
threat it was fortified before the final battle against Philip II in Chaironeia
in 338 B.C. In 198 B.C. it was occupied by the Roman army and demolished again
by Archelaos, the leader of Mithradatan troops, in 86 B.C.
In 1907 Soteriades excavated in the immediate vicinity classical tombs.
In 1959 R.Hope Simpson and J.Lazenby collected Mycenaean (14th-11th c. B.C.) sherds
at the site and noted Mycenaean cist graves.