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Listed 12 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for destination: "ASSOS Ancient city TURKEY".


Archaeological sites (12)

Perseus Site Catalog

Assos

Region: Troad
Periods: Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman
Type: Fortified city
Summary: Important fortified city in the Troad.

Physical Description:
   
Located on a low volcanic hill on the S coast of the Troad and ca. 11 km E of Lesbos, the fortified city of ca. 55 had occupied terraces extending steeply down to its 2 artificial harbors. N of the acropolis more gradual slopes lead down to the river Santioeis (modern Tuzla) and a large plain.
Description:
   
The acropolis of Assos was occupied in the Bronze Age, but first began to expand in the 8th and 7th centuries B.C. when Aeolian colonists from Methymna on Lesbos replaced the Carian inhabitants. In the 6th century B.C. the city fell under Lydian and then Persian domination until it acquired independence when, following the Persian Wars, it became a member of the Delian League. The oldest extant architectural remains of the city date to the mid 6th century B.C. and include the Doric temple of Athena on the acropolis, traces of domestic buildings, and sections of fortification walls. The impressive and well preserved fortification walls at Assos are ca. 5 km in circumference with many square and round towers, 2 major gateways and 7 smaller gates. The walls, which date to the mid 4th century enclosed a large area to the N of the acropolis and all of the civic establishments (gymnasium, theater, agora and stoas, bouleuterion) of the lower town, S of the acropolis and extending down to the shore. The acropolis was separately fortified and the city's S walls protected the 2 small artificial harbors. At the harbors were facilities to transport ships overland in order to avoid the rough seas off the Troad. From the city's main NW gate a broad paved road lead through the principal necropolis to a 4th century B.C. stone bridge at the Satnioeis River, ca. 1 km to the N. Assos reached its peak of fame in the 4th century B.C. In 365 B.C., under the banker-ruler Eubulus, it defended against a combined land and sea attack launched by the Persian satrap Autophradates and King Mausolus of Halicarnassus. In ca. 355-340 B.C., Hermias, the former eunuch-slave of Eubulus, ruled Assos and invited his former fellow students from Plato's Academy (including Aristotle, Xenocrates, Callisthenes, and Theophrastus) to join him in founding a philosophical school at Assos. The city became, for a short period, one of the main centers of culture in the Greek world. this came to an end in 341 B.C. when Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians. After the death of Alexander, Assos fell under the control of the Seleucids, then Pergamon, and finally in 133 B.C. Rome. The city suffered commercial competition from Alexander Troas, but continued to prosper through the Roman period. Later, its fortifications served to deter Gaul and barbarian attacks.
Exploration:
   
Excavations: 1881-83, J. Clarke and F. Bacon, Archaeological Institute of America.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 89 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Ancient towns

Bouleuterion

Bouleuterion

Square structure at the northeastern corner of the Agora. According to its architectural morphology and typology, the building was probably erected during the first half of the 2nd century BC, when the city of Assos belonged to the kingdom of Pergamos. The architecture followed the standards of the classical period. The main facade, facing the Agora, consisted of five pillars between ante. The main hall was a plain square room with wooden seats along the three walls. Four massive ionic colunms, also arranged in a square, supported the roof. The Bouleuterion at Assos, along with those at Miletus, Athens, and Heracleia belongs to an innovative group of buildings with wide inner space covered by roofs resting on a reduced number of columns. Τhe foundation, the northern column of the facade, the bases of the inner columns and part of the superstructure are still preserved on the site today.


Perseus Building Catalog

Assos, Bouleuterion

Site: Assos
Type: Bouleuterion
Summary: Doric council house; located at the east end of the agora.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Square building with front wall opening west, 5 columns in antis and 4 inner columns arranged in a square.

History:
Dated 3rd century B.C. to 2nd century B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Fortifications

Site: Assos
Type: Fortification
Summary: Well-preserved Hellenistic system of walls and towers
Date: Unknown
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
The fortifications of Assos enclosed an area of some 55 ha., including the acropolis and the harbor of the city. Two major gateways and seven smaller gates led into the city. One round and many square towers, some still standing to a height of up to 20 m., defended the circuit walls.

History:
The standing portions of the city walls mostly date to the Hellenistic period, but earlier phases are visible in places; some of these probably date back to the Archaic period.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 42 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Gymnasium

Site: Assos
Type: Gymnasium
Summary: Colonnaded courtyard with rooms; inside the main city gate immediately to the east, between the propylon and the agora.
Date: ca. 200 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Paved courtyard with Doric colonnade. Three rooms adjoining on northeast and a 4th room touching the easternmost of the 3 rooms on its eastern corner. Cistern in southwest corner. Entrance on south of courtyard. Attached triangular court outside of south wall.

History:
Columns of courtyard had no entasis. Remains of Byzantine church in northwest corner of the colonnade, with apse showing on the east.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 5 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, North Stoa (Lower Story)

Site: Assos
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-storied Doric stoa; on the north side of the agora.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Exterior and interior colonnade of unfluted Doric columns in both stories. Exterior colonnade of upper story composed of double half-columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, South Stoa

Site: Assos
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-aisled stoa; on the south side of the agora.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
(The plan accompanying this card is of the agora level.) First story (lowest), cisterns; 2nd, 13 shops opening south onto a gallery; 3rd, two-aisled gallery; 4th, (agora level) two-aisled with a Doric outer colonnade, opened north; fifth story, two-aisled with Doric outer colonnade of double half-columns and inner colonnade with palm-capitals.

History:
Coulton lists the 5 levels described above in Plan description. Akurgal and PECS cite this stoa as three-storied.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Temple in the Agora

Site: Assos
Type: Temple
Summary: Small prostyle temple; located at the west end of the agora, midway between the North and South stoas.
Date: ca. 200 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Cella opening east, onto a pronaos having 4 prostyle columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Temple of Athena

Site: Assos
Type: Temple
Summary: Peripteral temple; on the city acropolis, north of the agora.
Date: ca. 540 B.C. - 530 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Doric peripteral temple, 6 x 13 columns. Cella opening east onto a pronaos distyle in antis.

History:
The architrave was decorated with a frieze, adding to the Doric order a feature usually seen only in the Ionic order. Excavation in the cella revealed a pebble mosaic of Hellenistic date, but this is no longer visible.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Theater

Site: Assos
Type: Theater
Summary: Theater; on the slope to the south of the agora.
Date: ca. 250 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Horseshoe shaped orchestra, cavea with 6 cunei (sectors) facing the stage building.

History:
In Hellenistic times a wooden fence in front of the 1st row of seats kept the audience off the orchestra. Probably in Roman times a low podium (top of the 2nd row of seats) and a parapet at orchestra level made the orchestra more of an arena.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Propylon

i>Site: Assos
Type: Gate
Summary: Gate; in the western city wall.
Date: ca. 400 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Rectangular, opening northwest. Guard tower to the east.

History:
The fortifications of Assos are very well preserved, with the east guard tower of this gate missing only its battlements. Portions of early polygonal masonry remain in the mostly 4th century B.C. walls. A corbelled arch is used in the main gate, not a true arch as employed elsewhere at Assos.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 11 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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