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Listed 5 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for destination: "ALIKARNASSOS Ancient city TURKEY".


Archaeological sites (5)

Perseus Site Catalog

Halikarnassos

Region: Caria
Periods: Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine
Type: Fortified city and port
Summary: Capital of the Carian king and satrap Mausolus.

Physical Description:
   
In the 4th century B.C. Halikarnassos was a well fortified large city arranged in ampitheater form around its natural harbor. The city was laid out on a grid with major streets leading N from the harbor to the heights of the acropolis. The harbor was enclosed by moles and a canal led to a second, secret harbor which is believed to have been to the E of the main harbor. The palace of Mausolus was located on the peninsula to the E of the harbor and the Mausoleum was at the center of the city, N of the agora and the harbor. Additional graves of the Hellenistic and Roman period are located within the city walls on the S slope of the acropolis, beyond the theater.
Description:
    According to tradition, Dorian colonists from Troezen settled at Halikarnassos early in the Iron Age. They apparently occupied the territory peacefully and intermarried with the local Carian population. Halikarnassos was one of the three mainland cities of the Dorian Hexapolis. By the 5th century B.C., however, it had come under the cultural influence of Ionia to the N and no longer belonged to the Dorian Hexapolis. The city was a composit of Carian and Ionian elements and the earliest inscriptions from the city show no remaining traces of a Dorian dialect. After the Persian conquest in the 6th century B.C., Halikarnassos was ruled by a Carian dynasty centered at Mylasa. In 480 B.C. queen Artemisia I, of Carian and Greek descent, personally led her forces on the side of the Persians at the battle of Salamis and was one of Xerxes' most trusted advisors. Halikarnassos became a member of the Delian League as a result of the Persian defeat. It again came under Persian control after the King's Peace of 386 B.C. Mausolus became satrap and king of Caria in 377 B.C. and was one of the most notable of the Carian rulers. He moved the capital of Caria from Mylasa to Halikarnassos on the N shore of the gulf of Kos, extended and strengthened the borders of Carian territory and began a program to Hellenize his subjects. Halikarnassos itself was enclosed by over 5 km of fortification walls and the population greatly enlarged by the forced depopulation of other towns on the Myndos peninsula. The monumental building program of Mausolus included a marble palace on the east side of the harbor and the erection of his tomb in the center of the city. After the death of Mausolus in 353 B.C., his wife-sister, Artemisia II, completed the tomb and defeated the city of Rhodes. Halikarnassos was one of the few Anatolian cities to resist the advance of Alexander the Great. In 334 B.C. Alexander sacked the city and appointed Ada, an exiled member of the ruling Carian dynasty as the new queen. During the Hellenistic period Caria was ruled in turn by the Ptolemies, the Seleucids, the Macedonians, and the Rhodians. Under Roman rule the city was independent, but not exceptionally prosperous. The city suffered under Verres in 80 B.C. and again under Brutus and Cassius ca. 40 B.C. During the peace of the Roman Empire Halikarnassos again prospered and it remained an important port into the medieval period. Halikarnassos is most noted for the tomb of Mausolus The Mausoleum was enhanced by the leading Greek sculptors of the century and was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Halikarnassos was also the birthplace of Herodotus, the "father of history" and the historian Dionysius.
Exploration:
   
The Mausoluem remained intact until the medieval period when, perhaps following an earthquake, the stones of the structure were reused in the construction of the castle of the Knights of St. John in the 15th century A.D. The location of the tomb was rediscovered and investigated by Sir Charles Newton in 1856. Modern excavations at the Mausoleum began in 1966 by a Danish archaeological mission.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 26 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Building Catalog

Halikarnassos, Maussolleion

Site: Halikarnassos
Type: Mausoleum
Summary: Monumental tomb structure with interior tomb chamber, tall podium, peristyle, and pyramidal roof.
Date: ca. 355 B.C. - 340 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
The Maussolleion was rectangular in ground plan, and was designed to be situated in a walled temenos enclosure entered through a propylon in the east wall. Recent reconstructions of the tomb show a two- or three-stepped podium supporting a pteron of nine by eleven columns. The roof of the Maussolleion consisted of a pyramid of twenty-four steps, surmounted by a statue base supporting the crowning element of quadriga and statuary. The building was decorated with much free-standing and relief sculpture, carried out by Skopas, Bryaxis, Leochares and Timotheos, and was known as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

History:
The Maussolleion was the burial location of the Carian dynast Mausolus, who died in 353/2 B.C. Literary sources attribute the construction of the tomb to Mausolus' wife and sister Artemisia (Strabo 14.2.16; Pliny, NH 36.30). Since, however, Artemisia ruled for only two years after Mausolus' death and was dead herself by 351/0 B.C., this does not allow enough time for such a monumental undertaking, and suggests that the Maussolleion was begun during Mausolus' lifetime. The tomb also fits comfortably into the city plan of Halikarnassos, which may have been reshaped by Mausolus in the mid-fourth century B.C. The tomb was still incomplete when Artemisia died, and it is unclear who was responsible for completing it, although it is generally accepted that Mausolus' brother Idreus and Idreus' sister/wife Ada may have continued work on the Maussolleion after Artemisia's death. Some scholars believe that the Maussolleion, like the surrounding temenos wall and its propylon, was never finished; others have suggested that Alexander the Great contributed to the construction of the monument, although this seems unlikely given the nature of the structure and Alexander's animosity towards the citizens of Halikarnassos for their failure to support him. It is generally considered that construction of the tomb came to a standstill in ca. 340 B.C. The Maussolleion remained undamaged at least until the 12th c. A.D. By the early 15th c., however, it had been substantially destroyed, perhaps by an earthquake, and the Knights of St. John removed much of the building stones to construct the Castle of St. Peter nearby. In the sixteenth century, a burial chamber was discovered by the Knights as they sought additional building material. The site was excavated in 1857 by Charles Newton, who removed much of the sculpture to the British Museum. Excavation resumed under Danish direction in 1966.

Other Notes:
The sculptural display of the Maussolleion is restored as follows (in broad outline): on the lower parapet or step of the podium stood life-size groups and single figures representing fighting warriors on horseback and on foot; on the upper parapet of the podium were represented hunting scenes and a sacrificial procession. Crowning the podium was a marble relief frieze representing an Amazonomachy. In the intercolumniations of the cella were free-standing sculptures; a relief depicting a Centauromachy may have been placed at the top of the cella wall. Above the sima of the cella, on the lowest step of the pyramidal roof, were lions in confronting rows. The crowning element of the structure was a statue group consisting of a quadriga containing colossal figures of either Mausolus (in the guise of Helios?) and Artemisia, or representing ancestors of the dynast (for the interpretation, see Waywell 1978, 40-43). Architecturally, the Maussolleion displays affinities to Egyptian pyramids, not only in the form of its roof with definite apex, but also in its monumental scale; Egypt and Caria had long-standing connections. The tomb of the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great, at Pasargadae, a rectangular gabled tomb on a tall stepped substructure, is also cited as a possible influence on the Maussolleion. Close to home, the Nereid Monument at Xanthos (Lycia) and the Heroon of Perikles at Limyra (Lycia) may also have provided inspiration. The incorporation, however, of elements commonly found in Greek temple architecture, for example the Ionic pillars and relief friezes, suggests that the Greek sculptors and craftsmen who worked on the Maussolleion were trained in the area of religious architecture, and that precedents for such a monumental tomb structure were few.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Ancient tombs

Mausoleum, (Mausoleion)

   A splendid sepulchre at Halicarnassus, built in honour of King Mausolus of Caria, who died B.C. 353, by his wife Artemisia, and reckoned by the ancients one of the seven wonders of the world. It consisted of an oblong substructure surrounded by thirty-six columns, with a circuit of 440 feet, crowned by a pyramid diminishing by twenty-four steps to its summit, on which stood a marble quadriga, the work of Pythis. The height of the whole building, gorgeous with the most varied colours, was 140 feet. Satyrus and Pythius were the architects, and the sculptures on the four sides were executed by Scopas, Bryaxis, Timotheus, and Leochares. In the twelfth century after Christ the work was still in a good state of preservation; in succeeding centuries it fell to pieces more and more, until the Knights of St. John used it as a quarry from the time when they built their castle on the site of the old Greek acropolis in 1402, down to the repair of their fortifications in 1522, when they made lime of its marble sculptures. In 1845, a number of reliefs were extracted from the walls of the castle and placed in the British Museum. In 1857 the site was discovered by Newton, acting under a commission from the English government, and the sculptures thus unearthed, including the statue of Mausolus and important fragments of the marble quadriga, were removed to the British Museum.
    The Romans gave the name of Mausoleum to all sepulchres which approached that of Mausolus in size and grandeur of execution, as, for instance, (1) that erected by Augustus for himself and his family, the magnificence of which is attested by the still extant walls inclosing it, on the Via de' Pontefici in Rome; and (2) the sepulchre of Hadrian, which is in part preserved in the Castle of S. Angelo, a circular building of 220 feet in diameter and 72 feet high, resting on a square base, the sides of which are almost 100 yards long. It was originally covered with Parian marble, and profusely ornamented with colonnades and statues, and probably had a pyramid on the top.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Ancient towns

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