Ancient literary sources AYVACIK (District) TURKEY - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

Location information

Listed 12 sub titles with search on: Ancient literary sources  for wider area of: "AYVACIK District TURKEY" .


Ancient literary sources (12)

Perseus Encyclopedia

Antandrus, Antandros

ANTANDROS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Assos

ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Pioniae

PIONIES (Ancient city) TURKEY
Town of Mysia.

Plinius

Sarcophagus

ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY
At Assos in Troas, there is found a stone of a laminated texture, called "sarcophagus." It is a well-known fact, that dead bodies, when buried in this stone, are consumed in the course of forty days, with the sole exception of the teeth. According to Mucianus, too, mirrors, body-scrapers, garments, and shoes, that have been buried with the dead, become transformed into stone. In Lycia, and in the East, there are certain stones of a similar nature, which, when attached to the bodies of the living even, corrode the flesh.

Sarcophagus properly an epithet of lapis, a flesh-eating stone from Assos in the Troad, in which Pliny (H. N. ii. 211; xxxvi. 161) says bodies were buried, and consumed all but the teeth within forty days. The word has come to be commonly used for any coffin (e. g. Juv. x. 172), and especially for a coffin in stone with sculptural decorations. The introduction of these into Greece and Rome was due to foreign influence; and they are not found in either before the period of decline. In Egypt they existed from the earliest period, and they were thence introduced into Phoenicia. But the object among these people, as well as in Greece and Rome, was to preserve the body, not to destroy it; hence the name sarcophagus is peculiarly inappropriate.
  We may distinguish the coffin for the reception of the body, inside the tomb, often plain and sometimes cut in the solid rock, from the ornamental erection of a similar shape placed in a conspicuous position to serve as a monument. But the ornamentation of the one was naturally enough often transferred to the other.
  The Egyptian sarcophagus was, as the dwelling of the deceased, sometimes made in the form of a house; and a similar architectural form is found in Greece and Rome. The earliest sarcophagus showing the influence of Greek style comes from Cyprus (see image); here we see the myth of the Gorgon and a hunting scene, on other sides a banquet and a chariot group. Unfortunately, there is no trustworthy record of its discovery. In Lycia, the tomb often takes the form of a large sarcophagus mounted on a base; scenes of life, such as fights and banquets, are favourite subjects. In Greece we do not find sarcophagi till the Hellenistic period, when foreign influences were common. They were at first, like those of Asia Minor, intended as visible monuments outside the tomb; and accordingly we find that the reliefs are never allowed to interfere with the lines of the architectural form (see image). The subjects are often purely decorative; often children are represented in various employments, perhaps because their short and plump figures best suit the field to be filled. Mythological subjects also occur, such as the combat with the Amazons, and a few other scenes.
  Sarcophagi of stone with architectural decoration were made in Rome as early as the third century (e. g. the famous ones from the tomb of the Scipios); but the marble ones with scenes in relief belong to imperial times, and are not common till the second century A.D. These form by far the most numerous class of sarcophagi, and are usually meant when the word is used. Partly because they were usually inside the tomb, partly from want of artistic feeling, the reliefs are less subordinate to the structural form; they are often crowded with figures, and even the corners are not clear (see image). The back is usually plain. The execution of these varies from fair Graeco-Roman work to the last and worst attempts of classical art; but the style does not rise above that of handicraft, and figures and groups are repeated from conventional models. The variety of subject is such that it can only be touched on here. A most extensive gallery of mythological scenes, Dionysiac and other processions, Muses, and Cupids may be found on them; also scenes from daily life, and sometimes a succession of scenes, often representing the various ages of man. Sometimes the same is represented by mythological or mystical symbolism.
  Here sarcophagus has been taken to mean stone coffin, but the word is often loosely used for a coffin of other material, especially of terracotta. Fine painted terra-cotta coffins, of archaic period, have been found in Asia Minor; and also in Etruria they are frequent, ornamented with painting or reliefs.. A figure of the deceased often reclines on the top, as in the smaller Etruscan urns or boxes for the ashes of the dead, in stone, which may also be regarded as a variety of sarcophagus.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Aug 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Sarcophagus (sarkophagos). Literally, "fleshdevouring." A name given to a kind of limestone quarried at Assos in Troas, and remarkable for possessing the peculiar power of consuming or eating away the flesh and bones, with the exception of the teeth, of a body enclosed within it, in the short period of forty days (Pliny , Pliny H. N.xxxvi. 27). On account of this property it was extensively employed for making coffins, when the corpse was buried entire without burning; and thence the term came to be used in a general sense for any kind of coffin or tomb, without regard to the materials of which it was made.

Strabo

Antandrus

ANTANDROS (Ancient city) TURKEY
To the Assians and the Gargarians now belong all the parts as far as the sea off Lesbos that are surrounded by the territory of Antandrus and that of the Cebrenians and Neandrians and Hamaxitans; for the Antandrians are situated above Hamaxitus, like it being situated inside Lectum, though farther inland and nearer to Ilium, for they are one hundred and thirty stadia distant from Ilium. Higher up than these are the Cebrenians, and still higher up than the latter are the Dardanians, who extend as far as Palaescepsis and Scepsis itself. Antandrus is called by Alcaeus "city of the Leleges":
     First, Antandrus, city of the Leleges
but it is placed by the Scepsian among the cities adjacent to their territory, so that it would fall within the territory of the Cilicians; for the territory of the Cilicians is continuous with that of the Leleges, the former, rather than the latter, marking off the southern flank of Mt. Ida. But still the territory of the Cilicians also lies low and, rather than that of the Leleges, joins the part of the coast that is near Adramyttium... Inside is Antandrus, above which lies a mountain called Alexandreia, where the Judgment of Paris is said to have taken place, as also Aspaneus, the market for the timber from Mt. Ida; for here people bring it down and sell it to those who want it. (Strabo 13.1.1)

Chrysa

CHRYSSI (Ancient city) TURKEY
Chrysa was a small town on the sea, with a harbor; and near by, above it, lies Thebe. Here too was the temple of the Sminthian Apollo; and here lived Chryseis. But the place is now utterly deserted; and the temple was transferred to the present Chrysa near Hamaxitus when the Cilicians were driven out, partly to Pamphylia and partly to Hamaxitus.

Gargara

GARGARA (Ancient city) TURKEY
Now while Homer thus describes Lectum and Zeleia as the outermost foothills of Mt. Ida in either direction, he also appropriately distinguishes Gargarus from them as a summit, calling it "topmost." And indeed at the present time people point out in the upper parts of Ida a place called Gargarum, after which the present Gargara, an Aeolian city, is named. Now between Zeleia and Lectum, beginning from the Propontis, are situated first the parts extending to the straits at Abydus, and then, outside the Propontis, the parts extending to Lectum.(Strabo 13.1.5)
To the Assians and the Gargarians now belong all the parts as far as the sea off Lesbos that are surrounded by the territory of Antandrus and that of the Cebrenians and Neandrians and Hamaxitans; for the Antandrians are situated above Hamaxitus, like it being situated inside Lectum, though farther inland and nearer to Ilium, for they are one hundred and thirty stadia distant from Ilium. Higher up than these are the Cebrenians, and still higher up than the latter are the Dardanians, who extend as far as Palaescepsis and Scepsis itself. Antandrus is called by Alcaeus "city of the Leleges":
     First, Antandrus, city of the Leleges
but it is placed by the Scepsian among the cities adjacent to their territory, so that it would fall within the territory of the Cilicians; for the territory of the Cilicians is continuous with that of the Leleges, the former, rather than the latter, marking off the southern flank of Mt. Ida. But still the territory of the Cilicians also lies low and, rather than that of the Leleges, joins the part of the coast that is near Adramyttium. For after Lectum one comes to a place called Polymedium, at a distance of forty stadia; then, at a distance of eighty, to Assus, slightly above the sea; and then, at a distance of one hundred and twenty, to Gargara, which lies on a promontory that forms the Adramyttene Gulf, in the special sense of that term; for the whole of the coast from Lectum to Canae is also called by this same name, in which is also included the Elaitic Gulf. In the special sense of the term, however, only that part of it is called Adramyttene which is enclosed by that promontory on which Gargara lies and the promontory called Pyrrha, on which the Aphrodisium231 is situated. The breadth of the mouth across from promontory to promontory is a distance of one hundred and twenty stadia. (Strabo 13.1.51)
Myrsilus says that Assus was founded by the Methymnaeans; and Hellanicus too calls it an Aeolian city, just as also Gargara and Lamponia belonged to the Aeolians. For Gargara was founded by the Assians; but it was not well peopled, for the kings brought into it colonists from Miletopolis when they devastated that city, so that instead of Aeolians, according to Demetrius of Scepsis, the inhabitants of Gargara became semi-barbarians. According to Homer, however, all these places belonged to the Leleges, who by some are represented to be Carians, although by Homer they are mentioned apart:
     Towards the sea are the Carians and the Paeonians of the curved bow and the Leleges and the Cauconians. They were therefore a different people from the Carians; and they lived between the people subject to Aeneias and the people whom the poet called Cilicians, but when they were pillaged by Achilles they migrated to Caria and took possession of the district round the present Halicarnassus. (Strabo 13.1.58)

Pioniae

PIONIES (Ancient city) TURKEY
After Scepsis come Andeira and Pioniae and the territory of Gargara. (Strab. 13.1.56)

POLYMEDION (Ancient city) AYVACIK
After Lectum one comes to a place called Polymedium, at a distance of forty stadia; then, at a distance of eighty,228 to Assus, slightly above the sea; and then, at a distance of one hundred and twenty,229 to Gargara, which lies on a promontory230 that forms the Adramyttene Gulf, in the special sense of that term; for the whole of the coast from Lectum to Canae is also called by this same name, in which is also included the Elaitic Gulf. (Strab. 13.1.51)

You are able to search for more information in greater and/or surrounding areas by choosing one of the titles below and clicking on "more".


GTP Headlines

Receive our daily Newsletter with all the latest updates on the Greek Travel industry.

Subscribe now!

Ferry Departures

Promotions