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Listed 27 sub titles with search on: Various locations  for wider area of: "GEORGIA Country EAST EUROPE" .

Various locations (27)

Ancient place-names

Cyrus River

ALBANIA (Ancient country) GEORGIA

The Cyrus, which flows through Albania, and the other rivers by which it is supplied, contribute to the excellent qualities of the land; and yet they thrust back the sea, for the silt, being carried forward in great quantities, fills the channel, and consequently even the adjacent isles are joined to the mainland and form shoals that are uneven and difficult to avoid; and their unevenness is made worse by the backwash of the flood tides.
This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo, ed. H. L. Jones, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
Cited Jul 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.

Cambysene Country & Mountain

The pass from Iberia into Albania leads through Cambysene, a waterless and rugged country, to the Alazonius River. Both the people and their dogs are surpassingly fond of hunting, engaging in it not so much because of their skill in it as because of their love for it.

Caspiane territoty

To the country of the Albanians belongs also the territory called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian tribe, as was also the sea; but the tribe has now disappeared.

Abas River

A river of Albania emptying into the Caspian Sea.

Casus River

a river of Albania, that flows into the Caspian Sea

Cambyses River

A river in Albania, which rises on the Caucasus and empties into the Cyrus, now Jora

Alazon River (Alazonius)

a river in Albania, now Alasan

Chobus river

FASSIS (Ancient city) KOLCHIS
(Chobos). A river of Colchis falling into the Euxine, north of the mouth of the Phasis.

Apsarus river

  Apsarus (Apsaros, Apsorros), or Absarum (Plin. vi. 4), a river and a fort, as Pliny calls it, in faucibus, 140 M.P. east of Trapezus (Trebizond). Arrian (Peripl. p. 7) places this military station 1000 stadia from Trapezus, and 450 or 490 stadia south of the Phasis, and about the point where the coast turns north. The distance of 127 miles in the Peutinger Table agrees with Arrian. Accordingly several geographers place Absarum near a town called Gonieh. Its name was connected with the myth of Medea and her brother Absyrtus, and its original name was Absyrtus. (Stephan. s. v. Apsurtides.) Procopius (Bell. Goth. iv. 2) speaks of the remains of its public buildings as proving that it was once a place of some importance.
   Arrian does not mention a river Apsarus. He places the navigable river Acampsis 15 stadia from Absarum, and Pliny makes the Apsarus and Acampsis two different rivers. The Acampsis of Arrian is generally assumed to be the large river Joruk, which rises NW. of Erzerum, and enters the Euxine near Batun. Pliny (vi. 9) says that the Absarus rises in the Paryadres, and with that mountain range forms the boundary in those parts between the Greater and Less Armenia. This description can only apply to the Joruk, which is one of the larger rivers of Armenia, and the present boundary between the Pashalicks of Trebizond and Kars. (Brant, London Geog. Journ. vol. vi. p. 193.) Ptolemy's account of his Apsorrus agrees with that of Pliny, and he says that it is formed by the union of two large streams, the Glaucus and Lyeus ; and the Joruk consists of two large branches, one called the Joruk and the other the Ajerah, which unite at no great distance above Batun. It seems, then, that the name Acampsis and Apsarus has been applied to the same river by different writers. Mithridates, in his flight after being defeated by Cn. Pompeius, came to the Euphrates, and then to the river Apsarus. (Mithrid. c. 101.) It is conjectured that the river which Xenophon (Anab. iv. 8, 1) mentions without a name, as the boundary of the Macrones and the Scythini, may be the Joruk; and this is probable.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited October 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Bathys river

Bathys (Bathus), a small river on the coast of Pontus, 75 stadia north of the Acampsis (Arr. p. 7), and of course between that river and the Phasis. It is also mentioned by Pliny (vi. 4), who places only one stream between it and the Phasis.

Cyrus River

IBERIA (Ancient country) GEORGIA
A large river of Asia, rising in Iberia and falling into the Caspian; now the Kur. This river waters the great valley of Georgia, and is increased by the Aragui; the Iora, probably the Iberus of the ancients; and the Alasan, which is their Alazo.

Aragus River

   Aragus, Aragon, Arrhabon (Aragos, Aragon, Arrhabon: Aragui, or Arak), a river of Iberia, in Asia, flowing from the Caucasus into the Cyrus. It is the only tributary of the Cyrus in Iberia, which Strabo mentions by name. (Strab. xi. p. 500, where the MSS. have Aragona, Arrhalona, and Arrhabona.)
  The same river is evidently meant a little further on, where Strabo, in describing the four mountain passes into Iberia, says that that on the N. from the country of the Nomades is a difficult ascent of three days' journey (along the Terek); after which the road passes through the defile of the river Aragus, a journey of four days, the pass being closed at the lower end by an impregnable wall. This is the great central pass of the Caucasus, the Caucasiae, or Sarmaticae Pylae, now the Pass of Dariel. But Strabo adds, as the text stands, that another of the four Iberian passes, namely, the one leading from Armenia, lay upon the rivers Cyrus and Aragus, near which, before their confluence, stood fortified cities built on rocks, at a distance of 16 stadia from each other, namely, Harmozica on the Cyrus, and Seumara on the other river. Through this pass Pompey and Canidius entered Iberia (pp. 500, 501). According to this statement, we must seek the pass near Misketi, N. of Tiflis; but it is supposed, by Groskurd and others, that the name Aragus in this last passage is an error (whether of Strabo himself, or of the copyists), and that the pass referred to is very much further westward, on the great high road from Erzeroum, through Kars, to the N., and that the river wrongly called Aragus is the small stream falling into the Cyrus near Akhaltsik, where the ruined castles of Horum Ziche (or Armatsiche) and Tsumar are thought to preserve the names, as well as sites, of Strabo's Harmozica and Seumara. (Reinegg, Beschreib. d. Cauc. vol. ii. p. 89; Klaproth, Voyage au Cauc. vol. i. p. 518.) The river spoken of is supposed to be the Pelorus of Dion Cassius (xxxvii. 2).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited October 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Abas river

Abas, a river of Iberia in Asia, mentioned by Plutarch (Pomp. 35) and Dion Cassius (xxxvii. 3) as crossed by Pompey, on his expedition into the Caucasian regions. Its course was E. of the Cambyses; and it seems to be the same as the Alazonius or Alazon of Strabo and Pliny (Alasan, Alacks) which fell into the Cambyses just above its confluence with the Cyrus.

Artanissa town

Artanissa (*artanissa Telawe?), a city of Iberia, in Asia, between the Cyrus and M. Caucasus (Ptol. v. 1 § 3). It was one of Ptolemy's points of recorded astronomical observations, having the longest day 15 hrs. 25 min., and being one hour E. of Alexandria (viii. 19. § 5).

Penius (Penios) river

KOLCHIS (Ancient country) GEORGIA

Anthemus river

Surius river

Phasis River

Phasis, has been made passable by one hundred and twenty bridges because of the windings of its course, flows down into Colchis with rough and violent stream, the region being cut into ravines by many torrents at the time of the heavy rains. The Phasis rises in the mountains that lie above it, where it is supplied by many springs; and in the plains it receives still other rivers, among which are the Glaucus and the Hippus. Thus filled and having by now become navigable, it issues forth into the Pontus; and it has on its banks a city bearing the same name; and near it is a lake.

  Phasis (Phasis), a navigable river in Colchis, on the east of the Euxine, which was regarded in ancient times as forming the boundary between Europe and Asia, and as the remotest point in the east to which a sailer on the Euxine could proceed. (Strab. xi. p. 497; Eustath. ad Dionys. Per. 687; Arrian, Peripl. Pont. Eux. p. 19; Herod. iv. 40; Plat. Phaed. p. 109; Anonym. Peripl. Pont. p. 1; Procop. Bell. Goth. iv. 2, 6.) Subsequently it came to be looked upon as forming the boundary line between Asia Minor and Colchis. Its sources are in the southernmost part of the Montes Moschici (Plin. vi. 4; Solin. 20); and as these mountains were sometimes regarded as a part of Mount Caucasus, Aristotle and others place its sources in the Caucasus. (Strab. xi. p. 492, xii. p. 548; Aristot. Met. i. 13; Procop. l. c.; Geogr. Rav. iv. 20.) Strabo (xi. p. 497; comp. Dionys. Per. 694; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 401) makes the Phasis in a general way flow from the mountains of Armenia, and Apollonius specifies its sources as existing in the country of the Amaranti, in Colchis. For the first part of its course westward it bore the name Boas (Procop. Bell. Pers. ii. 29), and after receiving the waters of its tributaries Rhion, Glaucus, and Hippus, it discharges itself as a navigable river into the Euxine, near the town of Phasis. (Strab. xi. pp. 498, 500; Plin. l. c.) Some of the most ancient writers believed, that the Phasis was connected with the Northern Ocean. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv. 259; Pind. Pyth. iv. 376, Isthm. ii. 61.) The length of its course was also erroneously estimated by some at 800 Roman miles (Jul. Honor. p. 697, ed. Gronov.), but Aethicus (Cosmogr. p. 719) states it more correctly to be only 305 miles. The fact is that its course is by no means very long, but rapid, and of such a nature as to form almost a semicircle; whence Agathemerus (ii. 10) states that its mouth was not far from its sources. (Comp. Strab. xi. p. 500; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 401; Ov. Met. vii. 6; Amm. Marc. xxii. 8; Prise. 673.) The water of the Phasis is described as very cold, and as so light that it swam like oil on the Euxine. (Arrian, Peripl. Pont. Eux. p. 7, &c.; Procop. Bell. Pers. ii. 30; comp. Hesiod. Theog. 340; Hecat. Fragm. 187; Herod. iv. 37, 45, 86; Scylax, p. 25; Polyb. iv. 56, v. 55; Ptol. v. 10. § § 1, 2.) The different statements of the ancients respecting the sources and the course of this river probably arose from the fact that different rivers were understood by the name Phasis; but the one which in later times was commonly designated by it, is undoubtedly the modern Rioni or Rion, which is sometimes also mentioned under the name Fachs, a corruption of Phasis. It has been conjectured with great probability that the river called Phasis by Aeschylus (ap. Arrian, l. c.) is the Hypanis; and that the Phasis of Xenophon (Anab. iv. 6. § 4) is no other than the Araxes, which is actually mentioned by Constantine Porphyr. (de Admin. Imp. 45) under the two names Erax and Phasis.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Sarapana fortress

a fortress capable of admitting the population even of a city.

Moschici Montes

(ta Moschika ore). A range of mountains forming the boundary between Colchis and Iberia. They were named from the Moschi who dwelt among them.


Archaeopolis (Archaiopolis), a city of Colchis, on the borders of Iberia, in a very strong position on a rock near the river Phasis. At the time of the Byzantine empire, it was the capital of the Lazic kingdom. (Procop. B. G. iv. 13; Agath. iii. 5, 8,17.)

Astelephus river

Astelephus (Astelephos), one of the small rivers of Colchis, rising in the Caucasus, and falling into the Euxine 120 stadia S. of Dioscurias or Sebastopolis, and 30 stadia N. of the river Hippus. (Arrian. Perip. Pont. Eux. 9, 10; Plin. vi. 4.) It is also called Stelippon (Geogr. Rav.) and Stempeo (Tab. Peut.). Different modern writers attempt to identify it with different streams of the many on this coast: namely; the Markhoula or Tamusch, the Mokri or Aksu, the Shijam or Keleuhol, and the Kodor. (Ukert, vol. iii. pt. 2, p. 204; Mannert, vol. iv. p. 394; Forbiger, vol. ii. p. 443.)


Cyaneus river

  Cyaneus (Kuaneos, Ptol. v. 10. § 2; Plin. vi. 3. 4), a river of Colchis, a little to the south of Dioscurias. According to Pliny, it must have been a river of some size; and he designates both it and the Hippus, which fell into the Euxine near it, as vasti amnes. It has been conjectured that it is the same river which Scylax called the Gyenus (or, according to Gail's reading, Tyenus). Ritter (Erdk. vol. ii. p. 915) speaks of a castle called Gonieh in the neighbourhood, which perhaps confirms the original form of the word Gyenus.

Surius river

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