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Listed 7 sub titles with search on: Information about the place  for wider area of: "CAGLIARI Town SARDINIA" .

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Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)


  Caralis or Carales (the plural form is used by the best Latin writers: Karalis: Eth. Caralitanus: Cagliari), a city of Sardinia, the most considerable in the whole island, situated on the S. coast, on the extensive gulf which derived from it the name of Sinus Caralitanus (Karalitanos kolpos, Ptol. iii. 3. § 4). Its foundation is expressly assigned to the Carthaginians (Paus. x. 17. § 9; Claudian, B. Gild. 520); and from its opportune situation for communication with Africa as well as its excellent port, it doubtless assumed under their government the same important position which we find it occupying under the Romans. No mention of it is found on the occasion of the Roman conquest of the island; but during the Second Punic War, it was the head-quarters of the praetor, T. Manlius, from whence he carried on his operations against Hampsicora and the Carthaginians (Liv. xxiii. 40, 41), and appears on other occasions also as the chief naval station of the Romans in the island, and the residence of the praetor (Id. xxx. 39). Florus calls it the urbs urbiumn, or capital of Sardinia, and represents. it as taken and severely punished by Gracchus (ii. 6. § 35), but this statement is wholly at variance with the account given by Livy, of the wars of Gracchus, in Sardinia, according to which the cities were faithful to Rome, and the revolt was confined to the mountain tribes (xli. 6, 12, 17). In the Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, the citizens of Caralis were the first to declare in favour of the former, an example soon followed by the other cities of Sardinia (Caes. B.C. i. 30); and Caesar himself touched there with his fleet on his return from Africa. (Hirt. B. Afr. 98.) A few years later, when Sardinia fell into the hands of Menas, the lieutenant of Sex. Pompeius, Caralis was the only city which offered any resistance, but was taken after a short siege. (Dion Cass. xlviii. 30.) No mention of it occurs in history under the Roman Empire, but it continued to be regarded as the capital of the island, and though it did not become a colony, its inhabitants obtained the rights of Roman citizens. (Plin. iii. 7. s. 13; Strab. v. p. 224; Mela, ii. 7; Itin. Ant. pp. 80, 81, 82, &c.) After the fall of the Western Empire it fell, together with the rest of Sardinia, into the hands of the Vandals, but appears to have retained its importance throughout the middle ages, and is still, under the name of Cagliari, the capital of the island.
  Claudian describes the ancient city as extending to a considerable length towards the promontory or headland, the projection of which sheltered its port: the latter affords good anchorage for large vessels; but besides this, which is only a well-sheltered road-stead, there is adjoining the city a large salt-water lake, or-lagoon, called the Stagno di Cagliari, comnmunicating by a narrow channel with the bay, which appears from Claudian to have been used in ancient times as an inner harbour or basin. (Claud. B. Gild. 520-524.) The promontory adjoining the city is evidently that noticed by Ptolemy (Karalis polis kai akra), but the Caralitanum Promontorium of Pliny can be no other than the headland, now called Capo Carbonara, which forms the eastern boundary of the Gulf of Cagliari, and the SE. point of the whole island. Immediately off it lay the little island of Ficaria (Plin. l. c.; Ptol. iii. 3. § 8), now called the Isola dei Cavoli.
  Considerable remains of the ancient city are still visible at Cagliari, the most striking of which are those of the amphitheatre (described as extensive, and in good preservation), and of an aqueduct; the latter a most important acquisition to the city, where fresh water is at the present day both scarce and bad. There exist also ancient cisterns of vast extent: the ruins of a small circular temple, and nutmerous sepulchres on a hill outside the modern town, which appears to have formed the Necropolis of the ancient city. (Smyth's Sardinia, pp. 206, 215; Valery, Voyage en Sardaigne, c. 57.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Perseus Project index

The Catholic Encyclopedia

Archdiocese of Cagliari


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites


  A city in S Sardinia on the gulf of the same name. It is mentioned by Pausanias (10.17.9), by Claudianus (De Bello Gild. 521), in the Itineraries (It. Ant. 80; Rav. Cosm. 5.26), and in the Peutinger Table. From prehistoric times the hills that encircle the gulf were occupied by villages whose economy was based mainly on hunting and fishing in the nearby pools. Little is known of the Phoenician invasion of the area (7th c. B.C.), or of the Punic period. During the Roman domination of Sardinia, Cagliari was at first only a fortified center. Under Sulla it became a municipium, gaining full citizenship under Caesar (Auct. Bell. Afr. 98) when it was inscribed in the Quirina tribe and became the most important city on the island (Floro 1.22.35), a position which it still holds. The city was occupied and partly destroyed by the Vandals, but regained vigor in Christian and Byzantine times.
  Evidence of Punic civilization is still visible in the upper part of the city, in the Castello and Stampace districts. There are large cisterns excavated in the rock, and a sanctuary of the Hellenistic age dating to the beginning of the 3d c. B.C. in the Via Malta. The latter is one of the earliest examples of the association of a temple with a theater. That the city's commercial and civic life must have been concentrated around the pool of S. Gilla, which at that time was still navigable and included in the port area, is evidenced by the ruins of Punic houses and Roman houses from the 3d c. B.C. in the Scipione section and by a deposit of terracotta figurines now preserved in the National Museum of Cagliari. The necropoleis, situated to the E and W of the city on the hills of Bonaria and S. Avendrace, contain pit tombs dug into the rock. In the Roman epoch the city spread along the shore from Bonaria to S. Gilla. The acropolis was on the highest level of the upland, now the Castello district. An aqueduct of the 1st c. A.D. still carries drinking water to Cagliari from the mountain above Silliqua, passing through Elmas, Assemini, and Decimo. Late necropoleis have been found between the E slope of the Castello hill and the upland of Bonaria. In this area religious communities were concentrated at the time of the Vandal and Byzantine incursions, and here the nucleus of the basilica of S. Saturno was erected in the 5th c. A.D. Important public monuments have been noted in the region of Bonaria. There is a bath building, of which the caldarium with two pools is visible. It has mosaic pavements in opus vermiculatum and the interior walls are faced with marble. An amphitheater of the 2d c. A.D. is oriented NE-SW and dug into the rocky W flank of the Castello hill.
  Other remains include those of a fuller's shop in Viale R. Margherita with a mosaic pavement from the Republican period; a section of the city wall in Via XX Settembre; and cisterns in Via Ospedale, Via Oristano, and Viale Trieste; as well as dwellings. There is a Roman house with a diningroom at Campo Viale, and another (Villa de Tigellio) with a tetrastyle atrium and remains of mosaics and architectural decorations. A large tomb excavated in the limestone bedrock on Viale S. Avendrace is attributed to Atilia Pomptilla and dates to the 1st c. A.D. The objects from the excavations are presently preserved in the National Museum of Cagliari.

D. Manconi, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

Antas (Metalla)

  In SW Sardinia in the territory of Fluminimaggiore, to the N of Iglesias, on the Rio Antas. Surrounded by limestone quarries and lead and iron mines worked since antiquity, the site seems identifiable with Metalla on the Tibula-Sulcis road (It. Ant. 85; Ptol. 3.3.2.).
  The most important monument has been completely uncovered. It is a Roman temple, datable in its final form to the beginning of the 3d c. A.D., oriented SE-NW and rectangular in plan. It is on a low podium and is entered by means of a flight of steps on the SE. On the exterior, large square blocks of limestone masonry are accurately worked and laid in perfectly regular courses. On the interior, enough remains of the upper level to permit reconstruction of its plan. The pronaos has four columns on the front and two on each side; the cella, in antis, has a limestone pavement covered by mosaic in white tesserae with a band of turquoise-colored tesserae delimiting a narrow quadrangular area in the center. The cella has two symmetrical lateral entrances reached by steps; large squared blocks constitute the foundation of pilasters built against the interior walls to support the roof beams. From the back wall of the cella open two smaller cellae. The architectural decoration includes Doric and Ionic capitals and carved antefixes and gutters with leonine heads. The temple was dedicated to Sardus Pater, who according to the literary sources was considered the son of Hercules and colonizer of the island to which his name was given. In an earlier phase the temple honored a Phoenician god sd, to whom, toward the end of the 6th c. or the beginning of the 5th c. B.C. was dedicated a sanctuary. The principal nucleus consists of an altar open to the sky, surrounded by a series of courtyards and a large external enclosure entered from the SE.
  A few hundred meters to the SW of the temple are the ruins of a nuraghic village whose modest dwellings, circular in plan, were later reused by the Romans. Tombs from the Imperial age have been found in the locality called S. Marinedda. The limestone quarries that provided the stone for the temple are at the N extremity of the Antas valley on the slopes of Mount Conca S' Omu. A short distance from the quarries is a rectangular room where fragments of votive sculpture have been found. The material from the excavations is in the National Museum at Cagliari.

D. Manconi, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

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