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Ομηρικός κόσμος (31)



Νησί των Κυκλάδων (Οδ. ζ 162), τόπος γέννησης του Απόλλωνα και της Αρτεμης.

The Homer's (Odyss. 5.123) legend about Orion serves to confirm the identity of Ortygia and Delos. The name Ortygia occurs in several localities, but it is always connected with the worship of Artemis (cp. Soph. Trachin. 214); and the existence of a Syracusan Ortygia (which Volcker understands to be alluded to in this passage) seems only to mean that the Syracusan colonists (B. C. 734) introduced into their new home the cult of the Delian Artemis. In Od.15. 403 the island Surie is described as being Ortugies kathuperthen, which would sufficiently mark the position of the Cyclad Syros, west of Rhenaea, and this is confirmed by the statement in v. 410, that the island was under the joint protection of Artemis and Apollo. There is a further doubt whether Ortygia be a twin island to Delos, or identical with it. Strabo (10. 5. 5) identifies Ortygia with Rhenaea, onomazeto de (Rhenaia) kai Ortugia proteron, the confusion probably arising from the fact that originally Delos and Rhenaea (which was separated from it by a narrow channel about half a mile in breadth) were included under the same name. See Schol. on Theocr. 17. 10 nesos houto Rhenaia legomene hen kai Delon phasi. Ortygia and Delos are spoken of separately (h. Hom. Ap. 16) as the birth-places of Artemis and Apollo respectively, Leto having brought them forth, ten men en Ortugiei, ton de kranaei eni Deloi, see also Od.6. 162.The name Ortygia comes from ortux, ‘a quail;’ and Welcker mentions that from May to September large flights of these birds are seen in the islands of the Archipelago.

Θεοί & ημίθεοι


Ηταν μητέρα του Απόλλωνα και της Αρτεμης από το Δία (Ιλ. Α 9, Οδ. λ 318). Στο Ε 447 της Ιλιάδας παρουσιάζεται να θεραπεύει μαζί με την κόρη της Αρτεμη τον Αινεία. Εξαιτίας της ζηλοτυπίας της Ηρας δεν έβρισκε πουθενά τόπο να γεννήσει. Τελικά κατάφερε να γεννήσει στη Δήλο , που τότε στερεώθηκε πάνω σε τέσσερεις κίονες, ενώ μέχρι τότε επέπλεε στη θάλασσα.

Leto, called by the Romans Latona. According to Hesiod, a daughter of the Titan Coeus and Phoebe, a sister of Asteria. She was the mother of Apollo and Artemis by Zeus, to whom she was married before Here. Homer likewise calls her the mother of Apollo and Artemis by Zeus; he mentions her in the story of Niobe, who paid so dearly for her conduct towards Leto, and he also describes her as the friend of the Trojans in the war with the Greeks. In later writers these elements of her story are variously embellished, for they do not describe her as the lawful wife of Zeus, but merely as his mistress, who was persecuted by Here during her pregnancy. All the world being afraid of receiving Leto on account of their dread of Here, she wandered about till she came to Delos, which was then a floating island, and bore the name of Asteria or Ortygia. When Leto arrived there, Zeus fastened it by adamantine chains to the bottom of the sea, that it might be a secure resting-place for his beloved, and here she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis. The tradition is also related with various other modifications. Some said that Zeus changed Leto into a quail (ortux), and that in this state she arrived in the floating island, which was hence called Ortygia. Others related that Zeus was enamoured of Asteria, but that she, being metamorphosed into a bird, flew across the sea; that she was then changed into a rock, which, for a long time, lay under the surface of the sea; and that this rock arose from the waters and received Leto when she was pursued by Python. Leto was generally worshipped only in conjunction with her children. Delos was the chief seat of her worship, and in the sanctuary devoted to her honour she was represented by a shapeless wooden image.
    It is probable that the name of Leto belongs to the same class of words as the Greek lethe and the lateo, as typifying night. Leto would therefore signify “the obscure” or “concealed,” not as a physical power, but as a divinity yet quiescent and invisible, from whom issued the visible divinity with all his splendour and brilliancy. This view is supported by the account of her genealogy given by Hesiod.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Leto, in Latin Latona, according to Hesiod (Theog. 406, 921), a daughter of the Titan Coeus and Phoebe, a sister of Asteria, and the mother of Apollo and Artemis by Zeus, to whom she was married before Hera. Homer, who likewise calls her the mother of Apollo and Artemis by Zeus (Il. i. 9, xiv. 327, xxi. 499, Od. xi. 318, 580), mentions her as the friend of the Trojans in the war with the Greeks, and in the story of' Niobe, who paid so dearly for her conduct towards Leto (Il. v. 447, xx. 40, 72, xxiv. 607; comp. xxi. 502, Od. xi. 580, Hymn. in Apoll. 45, &c., 89, &c.). In later writers these elements of her story are variously worked out and embellished, for they do not describe her as the lawful wife of Zeus, but merely as a concubine, who was persecuted during her pregnancy by Hera (Apollod. i. 4, 1; Callim. Hymn. in Del. 61, &c.; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 232, &c.; Hygin. Fab. 140). All the world being afraid of receiving her on account of Hera, she wandered about till she came to the island of Delos, which was then a floating island, and bore the name Asteria (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 35, 37, 191); but when Leto touched it, it suddenly stood still upon four pillars (Pind. Fragm. 38; Strab. xi.). According to Hyginus (Fab. 93,140), Delos was previously called Ortygia, while Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. Korissos) mentions a tradition, according to which Artemis was not born in Delos, but at Corissus. Servius (ad Aen. iii. 72) relates the following legends: Zeus changed Leto into a quail (ortux), and in this state she arrived in the floating island, which was hence called Ortygia; or, Zeus was enamoured with Asteria, but she being metamorphosed, through her prayers, into a bird, flew across the sea; she was then changed into a rock, which, for a long time, lay under the surface of the sea; but, at the request of Leto, it rose and received Leto, who was pursued by Python. Leto then gave birth to Apollo, who slew Python (Comp. Anton. Lib. 35; Ov. Met. vi. 370; Aristot. Hist. Anim. vi. 35; Athen. xv. 701; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 707; Iamblich. Vit. Pyth. 10; Strab. xiv.: in each of these passages we find the tradition modified in a particular way). But notwithstanding the many discrepancies, especially in regard to the place where Leto gave birth to her children, most traditions agree in describing Delos as the place (Callim. Hymn. in Apoll. init. 59, in Del. 206, 261; Aeschyl. Eum. 9; Herod. ii. 170). After the birth of Apollo, his mother not being able to nurse him, Themis gave him nectar and ambrosia; and by his birth the island of Delos became sacred, so that henceforth it was not lawful for any human being to be born or to die on the island; and every pregnant woman was conveyed to the neighbouring island of Rheneia, in order not to pollute Delos (Strab. x.).
  We shall pass over the various speculations of modern writers respecting the origin and nature of this divinity, and shall mention only the most probable, according to which Leto is " the obscure" or "concealed", not as a physical power, but as a divinity yet quiescent and invisible, from whom is issued the visible divinity with all his splendour and brilliancy. This view is supported by the account of her genealogy given by Hesiod; and her whole legend seems to indicate nothing else but the issuing from darkness to light, and a return from the latter to the former. Leto was generally worshipped only in conjunction with her children, as at Megara (Paus. i. 44. 2), at Argos (ii. 21. 10), at Amphigeneia (Strab. viii.), in Lycia (ibid. xiv.), near Lete in Macedonia (Steph. Byz. s. v. Lete), in a grove near Calynda in Caria (Strab. xiv.), and other places. (Comp. Hirt. Mythol. Bilderb. Tab. v. 4)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Κόρη του Διός και της Λητούς, αδελφή του Απόλλωνος. Είναι θεά του κυνηγιού (Ιλ. Ε 52, Οδ. ζ 102) αλλά και θεά του θανάτου των γυναικών (Ιλ. Ζ 205 & 428, Οδ. λ 172 & 324, ο 410 & 478). Στην Ιλιάδα, τόσο αυτή όσο και ο αδελφός της τάσσονται στο πλευρό των Τρώων. Κατά την παράδοση γεννήθηκε στη Δήλο.

Artemis. The virgin daughter of Zeus and Leto (Latona), by the common account born a twin-sister of Apollo, and just before him, at Delos. The Ortygia (see Asteria) named in another tradition as her birthplace was interpreted to mean Delos, though several other places where the worship of Artemis had long prevailed put forward pretensions to that name and its mythological renown, especially the well-known island of Ortygia off Syracuse. She, as well as her mother, was worshipped jointly with her brother at Delos, Delphi, and all the most venerable spots where Apollo was honoured. She is armed, as he is, with bow and arrows, which, like him, and often together with him, she wields against monsters and giants; hence the paean was chanted to her as well as to him. Like those of Apollo, the shafts of Artemis were regarded as the cause of sudden death, especially to maidens and wives. But she was also a beneficent and helpful deity. As Apollo is the luminous god of day, she with her torch is a goddess of light by night, and in course of time becomes identified with all possible goddesses of moon and night. Her proper domain is that of nature, with its hills and valleys, woods, meadows, rivers, and fountains; there, amid her nymphs, herself the fairest and tallest, she is a mighty huntress, sometimes chasing wild animals, sometimes dancing, playing, or bathing with her companions. Her favourite haunt was thought to be the mountains and forests of Arcadia, where, in many spots, she had sanctuaries, consecrated hunting-grounds, and sacred animals. To her, as goddess of the forest and the chase, all beasts of the woods and fields--in fact, all game--were dear and sacred; but her favourite animal was held all over Greece to be the hind. From this sacred animal and the hunting of it, the month which the other Greeks called Artemision or Artemisios (March-April) was named by the Athenians Elaphebolion (Elaphebolion), and her festival as goddess of game and hunting, at which deer or cakes in the shape of deer were offered up, Elaphebolia. As goddess of the chase, she had also some influence in war, and the Spartans before battle sought her favour by the gift of a she-goat. Miltiades, too, before the battle of Marathon, had vowed to her as many goats as there should be enemies fallen on the field; but the number proving so great that the vow could not be kept, five hundred goats were sacrificed at each anniversary of the victory in the month of Boedromion. Again, she was much worshipped as the goddess of the moon. At Amarynthus in Euboea the whole island kept holiday to her with processions and prize-fights. At Munychia in Attica, at full moon in the month of Munychion (April-May), large round loaves or cakes, decked all around with lights as a symbol of her own luminary, were borne in procession and presented to her; and at the same time was solemnized the festival of the victory of Salamis in Cyprus, because on that occasion the goddess had shone in her full glory on the Greeks. An ancient shrine of the Moon-goddess at Brauron in Attica was held in such veneration that the Brauronia, originally a merely local festival, was afterwards made a public ceremony, to which Athens itself sent deputies every five years, and a precinct was dedicated to "Artemis of Brauron" on the Acropolis itself. At this feast the girls between five and ten years of age, clad in saffron-coloured garments, were conducted by their mothers in procession to the goddess and commended to her care; for Artemis is also a protectress of youth, especially those of her own sex. As such she patronized a nurses' festival at Sparta in a temple outside the town, to which little boys were brought by their nurses; while the Ionians at their Apaturia presented her with the hair of boys. Almost everywhere young girls revered the virgin goddess as the guardian of their maiden years, and before marriage they offered up to her a lock of their hair, their girdle, and their maiden garment. She was also worshipped in many parts as the goddess of good repute, especially in youths and maidens, and was regarded as an enemy of all disorderly doings. With her attributes as the goddess of the moon, and as the promoter of healthy development, especially in the female frame, is connected the notion of her assisting in childbirth. In early times human sacrifices had been offered to Artemis. A relic of this was the yearly custom observed at Sparta of flogging the boys till they bled at the altar of a deity not unknown elsewhere and named Artemis Orthia (the upright), probably from her stiff posture in the antiquated wooden image. At Sparta, as in other places, the ancient image was looked upon as the same which Iphigenia and Orestes brought away from Tauris (the Crimea)--viz., that of the Tanric Artemis, a Scythian deity who was identified with Artemis because of the human sacrifices common in her worship. The Artemis of Ephesus, too, so greatly honoured by all the Ionians of Asia, is no Greek divinity, but Asiatic. Ancient Representation of the Ephesian Artemis. This is sufficiently shown by the fact that eunuchs were employed in her worship-- a practice quite foreign to Greek ideas. The Greek colonists identified her with their own Artemis, because she was goddess of the moon and a power of nature, present in mountains, woods, and marshy places, nourishing life in plants, animals, and men. But, unlike Artemis, she was not regarded as a virgin, but as a mother and foster-mother, as is clearly shown by the multitude of breasts in the effigy. Her worship, frantic and fanatical after the manner of Asia, was traced back to the Amazons. A number of other deities native to Asia were also worshipped by the Greeks under the name of Artemis.
    Artemis appears in works of art as the ideal of austere maiden beauty--tall of stature, with bow and quiver on her shoulder, or torch in her hand, and generally leading or carrying a hind, or riding in a chariot drawn by hinds. Her commonest character is that of a huntress. In earlier times the figure is fuller and stronger and the clothing more complete; in later works she is represented as more slender and lighter of foot, the hair loose, the dress girt high, the feet protected by the Cretan shoe. The most celebrated of her existing statues is the Diana of Versailles, from Hadrian's villa at Tibur.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Artemis, one of the great divinities of the Greeks. Her name is usually derived from artemes, uninjured, healthy, vigorous; according to which she would be the goddess who is herself inviolate and vigorous, and also grants strength and health to others (Plat. Cratyl.; Strab. xiv.). According to the Homeric account and Hesiod (Theog. 918) she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, whence Aeschylus (Sept. 148) calls her letogeneia. She was the sister of Apollo, and born with him at the same time in the island of Delos. According to a tradition which Pausanias (viii. 37.3) found in Aeschylus, Artemis was a daughter of Demeter, and not of Leto, while according to an Egyptian story (Herod. ii. 156) she was the daughter of Dionysus and Isis, and Leto was only her nurse. But these and some other legends are only the results of the identification of the Greek Artemis with other local or foreign divinities. The place of her birth is for the same reason not the same in all traditions: some say that it was the grove of Ortygia near Ephesus (Tacit. Annal. iii. 61), others that it was Crete (Diod. v. 72), and others again, that she was the sister of Apollo, but born somewhat earlier, so that she was able to assist Leto in giving birth to Apollo (Orph Hymn. 34. 5). In the description of the nature and character of this goddess, it is necessary to distinguish between the different points of view from which the Greeks regarded her, and also between the really Greek Artemis and certain foreign divinities, who for some resemblance or another were identified by the Greeks with their own Artemis,

Artemis as the sister of Apollo, is a kind of female Apollo, that is, she as a female divinity represented the same idea that Apollo did as a male divinity. This relation between the two is in many other cases described as the relation of husband and wife, and there seems to have been a tradition which actually described Artemis as the wife of Apollo. In the character of sister of Apollo, Artemis is like her brother armed with a bow, quiver, and arrows, and sends plague and death among men and animals: she is a Dea apollousa. Sudden deaths, but more especially those of women, are described as the effect of her arrows (Hom. Il. vi. 205, 427, &c., xix. 59, xxi. 483, &c.; Od. xi. 172, &c., 324, xv. 478, xviii. 202, xx. 61, &c., v. 124, &c.). She also acts sometimes in conjunction with her brother (Od. xv. 410; Il. xxiv. 606). As Apollo was not only a destructive god, but also averted the evils which it was in his power to inflict, so Artemis was at the same time a Dea soteira; that is, she cured and alleviated the sufferings of mortals. Thus, for instance, she healed Aeneas, when he was wounded and carried into the temple of Apollo (Il. v. 447). In the Trojan war she sided, like Apollo, with the Trojans. The man whom she looked graciously upon was prosperous in his fields and flocks, his household was thriving, and he died in old age (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 129, &c.). She was more especially the protectress of the young, whence the epithets paidotrophos, kourotrophos, and philomeirax (comp. Diod. v. 73); and Aeschylus (Agam. 142) calls her the protectress of young sucking-animals, and of the game ranging through the forests of the mountains. Artemis thus also came to be regarded as the goddess of the flocks and the chase: she is the huntress among the immortals; she is called the stag-killer (elaphebolos), the lover of the tumult connected with the chase (keladeine), and agrotera (Il. xxi. 511, 485, &c.; Hom. Hymn. in Dian. 10). Artemis is moreover, like Apollo, unmarried; she is a maidendivinity never conquered by love (Soph. Elect. 1220). The priests and priestesses devoted to her service were bound to live pure and chaste, and trangressions of their vows of chastity were severely punished (Paus. vii. 19.1. viii. 13.1). She was worshipped in several places together with her brother; and the worship of both divinities was believed to have come from the Hyperboreans, and Hyperborean maidens brought sacrifices to Delos (Herod. ii. 32, 35). The laurel was sacred to both divinities, and both were regarded as the founders and protectors of towns and streets (Paus. i. 38.6, iii. 24.6, viii. 36, in fin.; Aeschyl. Sept. 450; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 34).
  There are, however, some points also, in which there is no resemblance between Artemis and Apollo: she has nothing to do with music or poetry, nor is there any trace of her having been regarded as an oracular divinity like Apollo. Respecting the real and original character of Artemis as the sister of Apollo, we encounter the same difficulties as those mentioned in the article Apollo, viz. as to whether she was a purely spiritual and ethical divinity, as Mueller thinks, or whether she was the representative of some power in physical nature; and the question must be decided here in the same manner as in the case of Apollo. When Apollo was regarded as identical with the sun or Helios, nothing was more natural than that his sister should be regarded as Selene or the moon, and accordingly the Greek Artemis is, at least in later times, the goddess of the moon. Buttmann and Hermann consider this idea of Artemis being the moon as the fundamental one from which all the others are derived. But, at any rate, the idea of Artemis being the goddess of the moon, must be confined to Artemis the sister of Apollo, and is not applicable to the Arcadian, Taurian, or Ephesian Artemis.

The Arcadian Artemis is a goddess of the nymphs, and was worshipped as such in Arcadia in very early times. Her sanctuaries and temples were more numerous in this country than in any other part of Greece. There was no connexion between the Arcadian Artemis and Apollo, nor are there any traces here of the ethical character which is so prominent in Artemis, the sister of Apollo. These circumstances, together with the fact, that her surnames and epithets in Arcadia are nearly all derived from the mountains, rivers, and lakes, shew that here she was the representative of some part or power of nature. In Arcadia she hunted with her nymphs on Taygetus, Erymanthus, and Maenalus; twenty nymphs accompanied her during the chase, and with sixty others, daughters of Oceanus, she held her dances in the forests of the mountains. Her bow, quiver, and arrows, were made by Hephaestus, and Pan provided her with dogs. Her chariot was drawn by four stags with golden antlers (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 13, 81, 90, &c.; Apollod. ii. 5.3; Pind. Ol. iii. 51). Her temples and sanctuaries in Arcadia were usually near lakes or rivers, whence she was called limnetis or limnaia (Paus. ii. 7.6, iii. 23.6, iv. 4.2, 31.3, viii. 53.5). In the precincts of her sanctuaries there were often sacred wells, as at Corinth (Paus. ii. 3.5, iii. 20.7). As a nymph, Artemis also appears in connexion with river gods, as with Alpheius, and thus it is intelligible why fish were sacred to her (Diod. v. 3).

The Taurian Artemis. The legends of this goddess are mystical, and her worship was orgiastic and connected, at least in early times, with human sacrifices. According to the Greek legend there was in Tauris a goddess, whom the Greeks for some reason identified with their own Artemis. and to whom all strangers that were thrown on the coast of Tauris, were sacrificed (Eurip. Iph. Taur. 36). Iphigeneia and Orestes brought her image from thence, and landed at Brauron in Attica, whence the goddess derived the name of Brauronia (Paus. i. 23.9, 33.1, iii. 16, in fin). The Brauronian Artemis was worshipped at Athens and Sparta, and in the latter place the boys were scourged at her altar in such a manner that it became sprinkled with their blood. This cruel ceremony was believed to have been introduced by Lycurgus, instead of the human sacrifices which had until then been offered to he. (Dict. of Ant. s. v. Brauronia and Diamastigosis). Her name at Sparta was Orthia, with reference to the phallus, or because her statue stood erect. According to another tradition, Orestes and Iphigeneia concealed the image of the Taurian goddess in a bundle of brushwood, and carried it to Aricia in Latium. Iphigeneia, who was at first to have been sacrificed to Artemis, and then became her priestess, was afterwards identified with the goddess (Herod. iv. 103; Paus. i. 43.1), who was worshipped in some parts of Greece, as at Hermione, under the name of Iphigeneia (Paus. ii. 35.1). Some traditions stated, that Artemis made Iphigeneia immortal, in the character of Hecate, the goddess of the moon. A kindred divinity, if not the same as the Taurian Artemis, is Artemis tauropolos, whose worship was connected with bloody sacrifices, and who produced madness in the minds of men, at least the chorus in the Ajax of Sophocles, describes the madness of Ajax as the work of this divinity. In the legends about the Taurian Artemis, it seems that separate local traditions of Greece are mixed up with the legends of some Asiatic divinity, whose symbol in the heaven was the moon, and on the earth the cow.

The Ephesian Artemis was a divinity totally distinct from the Greek goddess of the same name. She seems to have been the personification of the fructifying and all-nourishing powers of nature. It is an opinion almost universally adopted, that she was an ancient Asiatic divinity whose worship the Greeks found established in Ionia, when they settled there, and that, for some resemblance they discovered, they applied to her the name of Artemis. As soon as this identity of the Asiatic goddess with the Greek Artemis was recognised, other features, also originally peculiar to the Greek Artemis, were transferred to her; and thus she is called a daughter of Leto, who gave birth to her in the neighbourhood of Ephesus. Her original character is sufficiently clear from the fact, that her priests were eunuchs, and that her image in the magnificent temple of Ephesus represented her with many breasts (polumastos). The whole figure of the goddess resembled a mummy: her head was surmounted with a mural crown (corona muralis), and the lower part of her body, which ended in a point, like a pyramid upside down, was covered with figures of mystical animals (Strab. xiv.; Paus. iv. 31.6, vii. 5.2). The symbol of this divinity was a bee, and her highpriest bore the name of king (essen). Her worship was said to have been established at Ephesus by the Amazons (Paus. ii. 7.4, viii. 12.1; Hesych. and Suid. s. v. essen).

Respecting some other divinities, or attributes of divinities, which were likewise regarded as identical with Artemis in Greece, see Britomaris, Dictynna, and Eileithyia. The Romans identified their goddess Diana with the Greek Artemis, and at a comparatively early time they transferred to their own goddess all the peculiar features of the Greek Artemis. The worship of Artemis was universal in all Greece, in Delos, Crete, Sicily, and southern Italy, but more especially in Arcadia and the whole of the Peloponnesus. The sacrifices offered to the Brauronian Artemis consisted of stags and goats; in Thrace dogs were offered to Artemis. Among the animals sacred to the Greek Artemis we may mention the stag, boar, dog, and others; the fir-tree was likewise sacred to her.
  It is impossible to trace the various relations in which Artemis appears to us to one common source, or to one fundamental idea : the very manner in which such a complicated mythus was formed renders the attempt futile, or, to say the least, forced. In the case of Artemis, it is evident, that new elements and features were added in various places to the ancient local mythus; the worship of one divinity is identified with that of another, and the legends of the two are mixed up into one, or those of the one are transferred to the other, whose legends then sink into oblivion.
  The representations of the Greek Artemis in works of art are different accordingly as she is represented either as a huntress, or as the goddess of the moon; yet in either case she appears as a youthful and vigorous divinity, as becomes the sister of Apollo. As the huntress, she is tall, nimble, and has small hips; her forehead is high, her eyes glancing freely about, and her hair tied up behind in such a manner, that some locks float down her neck; her breast is covered, and the legs up to the knees are naked, the rest being covered by the chlamys. Her attributes are the bow, quiver, and arrows, or a spear, stags, and dogs. As the goddess of the moon, she wears a long robe which reaches down to her feet, a veil covers her head, and above her forehead rises the crescent of the moon. In her hand she often appears holding a torch.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Artemis Locheia

Locheia, the protectress of women in childbed, occurs as a surname of Artemis. (Plut. Sympos. iii. 10; Orph. Hymn. 35. 3.)

Artemis Lygodesma

Lygodesma (Lugodesma), a surname of Artemis whose statue had been found by the brothers Astrabacus and Alopecus under a bush of willows (lugos), by which it was surrounded in such a manner that it stood upright. (Paus. iii. 16. 7.)


Θεός του φωτός,γιος του Διός και της Λητούς και αδελφός της Αρτέμιδος. Ηταν σύμμαχος των Τρώων και πολιούχος του Ιλίου και άλλων τρωικών πόλεων, όπως της Κίλλας και της Χρύσης (Ιλ. Α 37, Δ 507). Στον Ομηρο εμφανίζεται ως τιμωρός κι εκδικητής, που με τα βέλη του σκορπούσε το θάνατο και έστελνε λοιμό στους ανθρώπους, καθώς και ως θεός της μαντικής τέχνης (Ιλ. Α 72 & 86, Ι 405, Οδ. θ 79, ο 252) και της ποιήσεως, ο οποίος με την κιθάρα του έτερπε τους θεούς (Ιλ. Α 602) και δίδασκε τους αοιδούς όπως οι Μούσα (Οδ. θ 488). Κατά την παράδοση γεννήθηκε στη Δήλο.

Apollo (Apollon). Son of Zeus by Leto (Latona), who, according to the legend most widely current, bore him and his twin-sister Artemis at the foot of Mt. Cynthus, in the island of Delos. Apollo appears originally as a god of light, both in its beneficent and its destructive effects; and of light in general, not of the sun only, for to the early Greeks the deity that brought daylight was Helios, with whom it was not till afterwards that Apollo was identified. While the meaning of his name Apollo is uncertain, his epithets of Phoebus and Lycius clearly mark him as the bright, the life-giving, the former also meaning the pure, the holy; for, as the god of pure light, he is the enemy of darkness, with all its unclean, unhallowed brood. Again, not only the seventh day of the month, his birthday, but the first day of the month, i. e. of each new-born moon, was sacred to him, as it was to Ianus, the Roman god of light; and according to the view that prevailed in many seats of his worship, he withdrew in winter time either to Lycia, or to the Hyperboreans who dwell in perpetual light in the utmost north, and returned in spring to dispel the powers of winter with his beams. When the fable relates that immediately after his birth, with the first shot from his bow he slew the dragon Python (or Delphyne), a hideous offspring of Gaea and guardian of the Delphic oracle, what seems to be denoted must be the spring-god's victory over winter, that filled the land with marsh and mist. As the god of light, his festivals are all in spring or summer, and many of them still plainly reveal in certain features his original attributes. Thus the Delphinia, held at Athens in April, commemorated the calming of the wintry sea after the equinoctial gales, and the consequent reopening of navigation. As this feast was in honour of the god of spring, so was the Thargelia, held at Athens the next month, in honour of the god of summer. That the crops might ripen, he received first-fruits of them, and at the same time propitiatory gifts to induce him to avert the parching heat, so hurtful to fruits and men. About the time of the sun's greatest altitude (July and August), when the god displays his power, both for good and for harm, the Athenians offered him hecatombs, whence the first month of their year was named Hecatomboeon, and the Spartans held their Hyacinthia. In autumn, when the god was ripening the fruit of their gardens and plantations, and preparing for departure, they celebrated the Pyanepsia, when they presented him with the first-fruits of harvest.
    Apollo gives the crops prosperity, and protection not only against summer heat, but against blight, mildew, and the vermin that prey upon them, such as field-mice and grasshoppers. Hence he was known by special titles in some parts of Asia. He was also a patron of flocks and pastures, and was worshipped in many districts under a variety of names referring to the breeding of cattle. In the story of Hermes stealing his oxen, Apollo is himself the owner of a herd, which he gives up to his brother in exchange for the lyre invented by him. Other ancient legends speak of him as tending the flocks of Laomedon and Admetus, an act afterwards represented as a penalty for a fault. As a god of shepherds he makes love to the nymphs, to Daphue, to Coronis, and to Cyrene, the mother of Aristaeus, likewise a god of herds. Some forms of his worship and some versions of his story imply that Apollo, like his sister Artemis, was regarded as a protector of tender game and a slayer of rapacious beasts, especially of the wolf, the enemy of flocks, and himself a symbol of the god's power, that now sends mischief, and now averts it. Apollo promotes the health and well-being of man himself. As a god of prolific power, he was invoked at weddings; and as a nurse of tender manhood and trainer of manly youth, to him (as well as the fountain-nymphs) were consecrated the first offerings of the hair of the head. In gymnasia and palaestrae he was worshipped equally with Hermes and Heracles; for he gave power of endurance in boxing, with adroitness and fleetness of foot. As a warlike god and one helpful in fight, the Spartans paid him peculiar honours in their Carneia, and in a measure the Athenians in their Boedromia. Another Athenian festival, the Metageitnia, glorified him as the author of neighbourly union. In many places, but above all at Athens, he was worshipped as Agyieus, the god of streets and highways, whose rude symbol, a conical post with a pointed ending, stood by streetdoors and in court-yards, to watch men's exit and entrance, to let in good and keep out evil, and was loaded by the inmates with gifts of honour, such as ribbons, wreaths of myrtle or bay, and the like.
    At sea, as well as on land, Apollo was a guide and guardian, and there especially under the name Delphinius, taken from his friend and ally the dolphin, the symbol of the navigable sea. Under this character he was widely worshipped, for the most part with peculiar propitiatory rites, in seaports and on promontories, as that of Actium, and particularly at Athens, being also regarded as a leader of colonies. While he was Alexikakos (averter of ills) in the widest sense, he proved his power most especially in times of sickness; for, being god of the hot season, and himself the sender of most epidemics and the dreaded plague, sweeping man swiftly away with his unerring shafts, he could also lend the most effectual aid; so that he and his son Asclepius were revered as the chief gods of healing. As a saviour from epidemics mainly, but also from other evils, the paean was sung in his honour.
    In a higher sense also, Apollo was a healer and preserver. From an early time an ethical tinge was given to his purely physical attributes, and the god of light became a god of mental and moral purity, and therefore of order, justice, and legality in human life. As such, he, on the one hand, smote and spared not the insolent offender, Tityus, for instance, the Aloidae, the presumptuous Niobe, and the Greeks before Troy; but, on the other hand, to the guilt-laden soul, turning to him in penitence and supplication, he granted purification from the stain of crime (which was regarded as a disease clouding the mind and crushing the heart), and so he healed the spirit, and readmitted the outcast into civic life and religious fellowship. Of this he had himself set the pattern, when, after slaying the Delphian dragon, he fled from the land, did seven years' menial service to Admetus in atonement for the murder, and, when the time of penance was past, had himself purified in the sacred grove of bay-trees by the Thessalian temple; and not until then did he return to Delphi and enter on his office as prophet of Zeus. Therefore he exacts from all a recognition of the atoning power of penance, in the teeth of the old law of vengeance for blood, which only bred new murders and new guilt. The atoning rites propagated by Apollo's worship, particularly from Delphi, contributed largely to the spread of milder maxims of law, affecting not only individuals, but whole towns and countries. Even without special prompting, the people felt from time to time the need of purification and expiation; and hence certain expiatory rites had from of old been connected with his festivals.
    As the god of light who pierces through all darkness, Apollo is the god of divination, which, however, has in his case a purely ethical significance; for he, as prophet and minister of his father Zeus, makes known his will to men, and helps to further his government in the world. He always declares the truth; but the limited mind of man cannot always grasp the meaning of his sayings. He is the patron of every kind of prophecy, but most especially of that which he imparts through human instruments, chiefly women, while in a state of ecstasy. Great as was the number of his oracles in Greece and Asia, all were eclipsed in fame and importance by that of Delphi.
    Apollo exercises an elevating and inspiring influence on the mind as god of music, which, though not belonging to him alone any more than atonement and prophecy, was yet pre-eminently his province. In Homer he is represented only as a player on the lyre, while song is the province of the Muses; but in course of time he grows to be the god, as they are the goddesses, of song and poetry, and is therefore Mousagetes (leader of the Muses) as well as master of the choral dance, which goes with music and song. And as the friend of all that beautifies life he is intimately associated with the Graces.
    Standing in these manifold relations to nature and man, Apollo at all times held a prominent position in the religion of the Greeks; and as early as Homer his name is coupled with those of Zens and Athene, as if between them the three possessed the sum total of divine power. His worship was diffused equally over all the regions in which Greeks were settled; but from remote antiquity he had been the chief god of the Dorians, who were also the first to raise him into a type of moral excellence. The two chief centres of his worship were the island of Delos, his birthplace, where, at his magnificent temple standing by the sea, were held every five years the festive games called Delia, to which the Greek states sent solemn embassies; and Delphi, with its oracle and numerous festivals. Foremost among the seats of his worship in Asia was Patara in Lycia, with a famous oracle.
    To the Romans, Apollo became known in the reign of their last king, Tarquinius Superbus, the first Roman who consulted the Delphic oracle, and who also acquired the Sibylline Books. By the influence of these writings the worship of Apollo soon became so naturalized among them that in B.C. 431 they built a temple to him as god of healing, from which the expiatory processions prescribed in the Sibylline Books used to set out. In the Lectisternia, first instituted in B.C. 399, Apollo occupies the foremost place. In B.C. 212, during the agony of the Second Punic War, the Ludi Apollinares were, in obedience to an oracular response, established in honour of him. He was made one of the chief gods of Rome by Augustus, who believed himself to be under his peculiar protection, and ascribed the victory of Actium to his aid; hence he enlarged the old temple of Apollo on that promontory, and decorated it with a portion of the spoils. He also renewed the games held near it, previously every two years, afterwards every four, with gymnastic and artistic contests and regattas on the sea. At Rome he reared a splendid new temple to him near his own house on the Palatine, and transferred the Ludi Saeculares to him and Diana.
    The manifold symbols of Apollo correspond with the multitude of his attributes. The commonest is either the lyre or the bow, according as he was conceived as the god of song or as the far-hitting archer. The Delphian diviner, Pythian Apollo, is indicated by the tripod, which was also the favourite offering at his altars. Among plants, the bay, used for purposes of expiation, was early sacred to him. It was planted round his temples, and plaited into garlands of victory at the Pythian Games. The palm-tree was also sacred to him, for it was under a palm-tree that he was born in Delos. Among animals, the wolf, the dolphin, the snow-white and musical swan, the hawk, raven, crow, and snake were under his special protection; the last four in conuection with his prophetic functions.
    In ancient art he was represented as a longhaired but beardless youth, of tall yet muscular build, and handsome features. Images of him were as abundant as his worship was extensive: there was scarcely an artist of antiquity who did not try his hand upon some incident in the story of Apollo. The ideal type of this god seems to have been fixed chiefly by Praxiteles and Scopas. The most famous statue preserved of him is the Apollo Belvedere in the Vatican, which represents him either as fighting with the Pythian dragon, or with his aegis frightening back the foes who threaten to storm his sanctuary. Other great works, as the Apollo Musagetes in the Vatican, probably from the hand of Scopas, show him as a Citharoedus in the long Ionian robe, or nude. The Apollo Sauroctonus (lizard-killer), copied from a bronze statue by Praxiteles, is especially celebrated for its beauty. It represents a delicate youthful figure leaning against a tree, dart in hand, ready to stab a lizard that is crawling up the tree. It is preserved in bronze at the Villa Albani in Rome, and in marble at Paris.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Apollo (Apollon), one of the great divinities of the Greeks, was, according to Homer (Il. i. 21, 36), the son of Zeus and Leto. Hesiod (Theog. 918) states the same, and adds, that Apollo's sister was Artemis. Neither of the two poets suggests anything in regard to the birth-place of the god, unless we take Lukegenes (Il. iv. 101) in the sense of "born in Lycia," which, however, according to others, would only mean "born of or in light". Several towns and places claimed the honour of his birth, as we see from various local traditions mentioned by late writers. Thus the Ephesians said that Apollo and Artemis were born in the grove of Ortygia near Ephesus (Tacit. Annal. iii. 61); the inhabitants of Tegyra in Boeotia and of Zoster in Attica claimed the same honour for themselves (Steph. Byz. s.v. Tegura). In some of these local traditions Apollo is mentioned alone, and in others together with his sister Artemis. The account of Apollo's parentage, too, was not the same in all traditions (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23), and the Egyptians made out that he was a son of Dionysus and Isis (Herod. ii. 156). But the opinion most universally received was, that Apollo, the son of Zeus and Leto, was born in the island of Delos, together with his sister Artemis; and the circumstances of his birth there are detailed in the Homeric hymn on Apollo, and in that of Callimachus on Delos (Comp. Apollod. i. 4.1; Hygin. Fab. 140). Hera in her jealousy pursued Leto from land to land and from isle to isle, and endeavoured to prevent her finding a resting-place where to give birth. At last, however, she arrived in Delos, where she was kindly received, and after nine days labour she gave birth to Apollo under a palm or an olive tree at the foot of mount Cynthus. She was assisted by all the goddesses, except Hera and Eileithyia, but the latter too hastened to lend her aid, as soon as she heard what was taking place. The island of Delos, which previous to this event had been unsteady and floating on or buried under the waves of the sea, now became stationary, and was fastened to the roots of the earth (Comp. Virg. Aen. iii. 75). The day of Apollo's birth was believed to have been the seventh of the month, whence he is called hebdomagenes (Plut. Sympos. 8). According to some traditions, he was a seven months' child (heptamenaios). The number seven was sacred to the god; on the seventh of every month sacrifices were offered to him (hebdomagetes, Aeschyl. Sept. 802; comp. Callim. Hymn. in Del. 250, &c.), and his festivals usually fell on the seventh of a month. Immediately after his birth, Apollo was fed with ambrosia and nectar by Themis, and no sooner had he tasted the divine food, than he sprang up and demanded a lyre and a bow, and declared, that henceforth he would declare to men the will of Zeus. Delos exulted with joy, and covered herself with golden flowers (Comp. Theognis, 5, &c.; Eurip. Hecub. 457, &c.)
  Apollo, though one of the great gods of Olympus, is yet represented in some sort of dependence on Zeus, who is regarded as the source of the powers exercised by his son. The powers ascribed to Apollo are apparently of different kinds, but all are connected with one another, and may be said to be only ramifications of one and the same, as will be seen from the following classification.

  Apollo is:
1. The god who punishes and destroys (oulios) the wicked and overbearing, and as such he is described as the god with bow and arrows, the gift of Hephaestus (Hom. Il. i. 42, xxiv. (605, Od. xi. 318, xv. 410, &c.; comp. Pind. Pyth. iii. 15, &c.). Various epithets given to him in the Homeric poems, such as hekatos, hekaergos, hekebolos, ekatebolos, klutotoxos, and argurotoxos, refer to him as the god who with his darts hits his object at a distance and never misses it. All sudden deaths of men, whether they were regarded as a punishment or a reward, were believed to be the effect of the arrows of Apollo; and with the same arrows he sent the plague into the camp of the Greeks. Hyginus relates, that four days after his birth, Apollo went to mount Parnassus, and there killed the dragon Python, who had pursued his mother during her wanderings, before she reached Delos. He is also said to have assisted Zeus in his contest with the giants (Apollod, i. 6.2). The circumstance of Apollo being the destroyer of the wicked was believed by some of the ancients to have given rise to his name Apollo, which they connected with apollumi, "to destroy" (Aeschyl. Agam. 1081). Some modern writers, on the other hand, who consider the power of averting evil to have been the original and principal feature in his character, say that Apollon, i. e. Apellon, (from the root pello), signifies the god who drives away evil, and is synonymous with alexikakas, Acesius, Acestor, soter, and other names and epithets applied to Apollo.
2. The god who affords help and wards off evil. As he had the power of visiting men with plagues and epidemics, so he was also able to deliver men from them, if duly propitiated, or at least by his oracles to suggest the means by which such calamities could be averted. Various names and epithets which are given to Apollo, especially by later writers, such as akesios, akestor, alexikakos, soter, apotropaios, epikourios, iatromantis, and others, are descriptive of this power (Paus. i. 3.3, vi. 24.5, viii. 41.5; Plut. de Ei ap. Delph. 21, de Defect. Orac. 7; Aeschyl. Eum.. 62). It seems to be the idea of his being the god who afforded help, that made him the father of Asclepius, the god of the healing art, and that, at least in later times, identified him with Paeeon, the god of the healing art in Homer.
3. The god of prophecy. Apollo exercised this power in his numerous oracles (see Oraculum), and especially in that of Delphi. The source of all his prophetic powers was Zeus himself (Apollodorus states, that Apollo received the mantike from Pan), and Apollo is accordingly called "the prophet of his father Zeus" (Aeschyl. Eum. 19); but he had nevertheless the power of communicating the gift of prophecy both to gods and men, and all the ancient seers and prophets are placed in some relationship to him (Hom. Il. i. 72, Hymn. in Merc. 3, 471). The manner in which Apollo came into the possession of the oracle of Delphi (Pytho) is related differently. According to Apollodorus, the oracle had previously been in the possession of Themis, and the dragon Python guarded the mysterious chasm, and Apollo, after having slain the monster, took possession of the oracle. According to Hyginus, Python himself possessed the oracle; while Pausanias (x. 3.5) states, that it belonged to Gaea and Poseidon in common. (Comp. Eurip. Iphig. Taur. 1246, &c.; Atlen. xv. p. 701; Ov. Met. i. 439; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 706).
4. The god of song and music. We find him in the Iliad (i. 603) delighting the immortal gods with his play on the phorminx during their repast ; and the Homeric bards derived their art of song either from Apollo or the Muses (Od. viii. 488, with Eustath.). Later traditions ascribed to Apollo even the invention of the flute and lyre (Callim. Hymn. in Del. 253; Plut. de Mus.), while the more common tradition was, that he received the lyre from Hermes. Ovid Heroid. xvi. 180) makes Apollo build the walls of Troy by playing on the lyre, as Amphion did the walls of Thebes. Respecting his musical contests, see Marsyas, Midas.
5. The god who protects the flocks and cattle (nomios Deos, from nomos or nome, a meadow or pasture land). Homer (Il. ii. 766) says, that Apollo reared the swift steeds of Eunlelus Pheretides in Pieria, and according to the Homeric hymn to Hermes (22, 70, &c.) the herds of the gods fed in Pieria under the care of Apollo. At the command of Zeus, Apollo guarded the cattle of Laomedon in the valleys of mount Ida (ll. xxi. 488). There are in Homer only a few allusions to this feature in the character of Apollo, but in later writers it assumes a very prominent form (Pind. Pyth. ix. 114; Callim. Hymn. in Apoll. 50, &c.); and in the story of Apollo tending the flocks of Admetus at Pherae in Thessaly, on the banks of the river Amphrysus, the idea reaches its height. (Apollod. i. 9. &sec; 15; Eurip. Alcest. 8; Tibull. ii. 3. 11; Virg. Georg. iii. 2).
6. The god who delights in the foundation of towns and the establishment of civil constilutions. His assistance in the building of Troy was mentioned above; respecting his aid in raising the walls of Megara, see Alcathous. Pindar (Pyth. v. 80) calls Apollo the archegetes, or the leader of the Dorians in their migration to Peloponnesus; and this idea, as well as the one that he delighted in the foundation of cities. seems to be intimately connected with the circumstance, that a town or a colony was never founded by the Greeks without consulting an oracle of Apollo, so that in every case he became, as it were, their spiritual leader. The epithets ktistes and oikistes refer to this part in the character of Apollo.

These characteristics of Apollo necessarily appear in a peculiar light, if we adopt the view which was almost universal among the later poets, mythographers, and philosophers, and according to which Apoilo was identical with Helios, or the Sun. In Homer and for some centuries after his time Apollo and Helios are perfectiy distinet. The question which here presents itself, is, whether the idea of the identity of the two divinities was the original and primitive one, and was only revival in later times, or whether it was the result of later speeulations and of foreign, chiefly Egyptian, influence. Each of these two opinions has had its able advocates. The former, which has been maintained by Buttmann and Hermann, is supported by strong arguments. In the time of Callimachus, some persons distinguished between Apollo and Helios, for which they were censulred by the poet. Pausanias (vii. 23. &sec; 6) states, that he met a Sidonian who declared the two gods to be identical, and Pausanias adds that this was quite in accordance with the belief of the Greeks (Comp. Strab. xiv.; Plut. de Ei ap. Delph. 4, de Def.Orae. 7). It has further been said, that if Apollo be regarded as the Sun, the powers and attributes which we have enumerated above are easily explained and accounted for; that the sursname of Phoibos (the shining or brilliant), which is frequently applied to Apollo in the Homeric poems, points to the sun; and lastly, that the traditions concerning the Hyperboreans and their worship of Apollo bear the strongest marks of their regarding the god in the same light (Alcaeus, ap. Himer. xiv. 10; Diod. ii. 47.) Still greater stress is laid on the fact that the Egyptian Horus was regarded as identical with Apollo (Herod. ii. 144, 156; Diod. i. 25; Plut. de Is. et Os. 12, 61; Aelian, Hist. An. x. 14), as Horus is usually considered as the god of the burning sun. Those who adopt this view derive Apollo from the East or from Egypt, and regard the Athenian Apollon patroios as the god who was brought to Attica by the Egyptian colony under Cecrops. Another set of accounts derives the worship of Apollo from the very opposite quarter of the world -from the country of the Hyperboreans, that is, a nation living beyond the point where the north wind rises, and whose country is in consequence most happy and fruitful. According to a fragment of an ancient Doric hymn in Pausanias (x. 5.4), the oracle of Delphi was founded by Hyperboreans and Olenus; Leto, too, is said to have come from the Hyperboreans to Delos, and Eileithyia likewise (Herod. iv. 33, &c.; Paus. i. 18.4; Diod. ii. 47). The Hyperboreans, says Diodorus, worship Apollo more zealously than any other people; they are all priests of Apollo; one town in their country is sacred to Apollo, and its inhabitants are for the most part players on the lyre (Comp. Pind. pyth. x. 55, &c.).
  These opposite accounts respecting the original seat of the worship of Apollo might lead us to suppose, that they refer to two distinct divinities, which were in the course of time united into one, as indeed Cicero (de Nat. Deor. iii. 23) distinguishes four different Apollos. Muller has rejected most decidedly and justly the hypothesis, that Apollo was derived from Egypt; but he rejects at the same time, without very satisfactory reasons, the opinion that Apollo was connected with the worship of nature or any part of it; for, according to him, Apollo is a purely spiritual divinity, and far above all the other gods of Olympus. As regards the identity of Apollo and Helios, he justly remarks, that it would be a strange phenomenon if this identity should have fallen into oblivion for several centuries, and then have been revived. This objection is indeed strong, but not insurmountable if we recollect the tendency of the Greeks to change a peculiar attribute of a god into a separate divinity; and this process, in regard to Helios and Apollo, seems to have taken place previous to the time of Homer. Muller's view of Apollo, which is at least very ingenious, is briefly this. The original and essential feature in the character of Apollo is that of "the averter of evil" (Apellon); he is originally a divinity peculiar to the Doric race; and the most ancient seats of his worship are the Thessalian Tempe and Delphi. From thence it was transplanted to Crete, the inhabitants of which spread it over the coasts of Asia Minor and parts of the continent of Greece, such as Boeotia and Attica. In the latter country it was introduced during the immigration of the Ionians, whence the god became the Apollon patrpsos of the Athenians. The conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians raised Apollo to the rank of the principal divinity in the peninsula. The Apollon nomios was originally a local divinity of the shepherds of Arcadia, who was transformed into and identified with the Dorian Apollo during the process in which the latter became the national divinity of the Peloponnesians. In the same manner as in this instance the god assumed the character of a god of herds and flocks, his character was changed and modified in other parts of Greece also : with the Hyperboreans he was the god of prophecy, and with the Cretans the god with bow and darts. In Egypt he was made to form a part of their astronomical system, which was afterwards introduced into Greece, where it became the prevalent opinion of the learned.
  But whatever we may think of this and other modes of explaining the origin and nature of Apollo, one point is certain and attested by thousands of facts, that Apollo and his worship, his festivals and oracles, had more influence upon the Greeks than any other god. It may safily be asserted, that the Greeks would never have become what they were, without the worship of Apollo: in him the brightest side of the Grecian mind is reflected. Respecting his festivals, see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Apollonia, Thargelia, and others.
  In the religion of the early Romans there is no trace of the worship of Apollo. The Romans became acquainted with this divinity through the Creeks, and adopted all their notions and ideas about him from the latter people. There is no doubt that the Romans knew of his worship among the Greeks at a very early time, and tradition says that they consulted his oracle at Delphi even before the expulsion of the kings. But the first time that we hear of the worship of Apollo at Rome is in the year B. C. 430, when, for the purpose of averting a plague, a temple was raised to him, and soon after dedicated by the consul, C. Julius (Liv. iv. 25, 29). A second temple was built to him in the year B. C. 350. One of these two (it is not certain which) stood outside the porta Capena. During the second Punic war, in B. C. 212, the ludi Apollinares were instituted in honour of Apollo (Liv. xxv. 12; Macrob. Sat. i. 17; Dict. of Ant. s. v. Ludi Apollinares). The worship of this divinity, however, did not form a very prominent part in the religion of the Romans till the time of Augustus, who, after the battle of Actium, not only dedicated to him a portion of the spoils, but built or embellished his temple at Actium, and founded a new one at Rome on the Palatine, and instituted quinquennial games at Actium (Suet. Aug. 31, 52; Dict. of Ant. s. v. Aktia)
  Apollo, the national divinity of the Greeks, was of course represented in all the ways which the plastic arts were capable of. As the ideas of the god became gradually and more and more fully developed, so his representations in works of art rose from a rude wooden image to the perfect ideal of youthful manliness, so that he appeared to the ancients in the light of a twin brother of Aphrodite (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4.10). The most beautiful and celebrated among the extant representations of Appllo are the Apollo of Belvedere at Rome, which was discovered in 1503 at Rettuno, and the Apollino at Florence. In the Apollo of Belvedere, the god is represented with commanding but serene majesty; sublime intellect and physical beauty are combined in it in the most wonderful manner. The forehead is higher than in other ancient figures, and on it there is a pair of locks, while the rest of his hair flows freely down on his neck. The limbs are well proportioned and harmonious, the muscles are not worked out too strongly, and at the hips the figure is rather thin in proportion to the breast.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

The lord of the silver bow

From the book:
Old Greek Stories by James Baldwin
Bringing Yesterday's Classics to Today's Children

Επίθετα του Απόλλωνα

Apollo Acersecomes

Acersecomes (Akersekomes), a surname of Apollo expressive of his beautiful hair which was never cut or shorn. (Hom. Il. xx. 39; Pind. Pyth. iii. 26.)

Apollo Acestor

Acestor (Akestor), a surname of Apollo which characterises him as the god of the healing art, or in general as the averter of evil, like akesios. (Eurip. Androm. 901.)

Apollo Aegletes

Aegletes (Aigletes), that is, the radiant god, a surname of Apollo. (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1730; Apollod. i. 9.26; Hesych. s. v.)

Apollo Carneius

Carneius (Karneios), a surname of Apollo under which he was worshipped in various parts of Greece, especially in Peloponnesus, as at Sparta and Sicyon, and also in Thera, Cyrene, and Magna Graecia (Paus. iii. 13.2, &c., ii. 10.2, 11.2; Pind. Pyth. v. 106; Plut. Sympos. viii. 1; Paus. iii. 24.5, iv. 31.1, 33.5). The origin of the name is explained in different ways. Some derived it from Carnus, an Acarnanian soothsayer, whose murder by Hippotes provoked Apollo to send a plague into the army of Ilippotes while he was on his march to Peloponnesus. Apollo was afterwards propitiated by the introduction of the worship of Apollo Carneius (Paus. iii. 13.3; Schol. ad Theocrit. v. 83). Others believed that Apollo was thus called from his favourite Carnus or Carneius, a son of Zeus and Europa, whom Leto and Apollo had brought up (Paus. l. c. ; Hesych. s. v. Karneios). Several other attempts to explain the name are given in Pausanias and the Scholiast on Theocritus. It is evident, however, that the worship of the Carneian Apollo was very ancient, and was probably established in Peloponnesus even before the Dorian conquest. Respecting the festival of the Carneia see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Carneia.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Apollo Hebdomagetes

Hebdomagetes, a surname of Apollo, which was derived, according to some, from the fact of sacrifices being offered to him on the seventh of every month, the seventh of some month being looked upon as the god's birthday. Others connect the name with the fact that at the festivals of Apollo, the procession was led by seven boys and seven maidens. (Aeschyl. Sept. 804; Herod. vi. 57)

Apollo Hecaergus

Hecaergus, (Hekaergos), a surname of Apollo, of the same meaning as Hecaerge in the case of Artemis. (Hom. Il. i. 147.) Here too tradition has metamorphosed the attribute of the god into a distinct being, for Servius (ad Aen. xi. 532, 858) speaks of one Hacaergus as a teacher and priest of Apollo and Artemis.

Apollo Intonsus

Intonsus, i. e. unshorn, a surname of Apollo and Bacchus, alluding to the eternal youth of these gods, as the Greek youths allowed their hair to grow until they attained the age of manhood, though in the case of Apollo it may also allude to his being the god of the sun, whence the long floating hair would indicate the rays of the sun. (Hom. Il. xx. 39, Hymn. in Apoll. 134; Horat. Epod. xv. 9; Tibull. i. 4. 34; Ov. Met. iii. 421, Amor. i. 14. 31; Martial, iv. 45.)

Apollo Loxias

Loxias, a surname of Apollo, which is derived by some from his intricate and ambiguous oracles (loxa), but it is unquestionably connected with the verb Legein, and describes the god as the prophet or interpreter of Zeus. (Herod. i. 91, viii. 136; Aeschyl. Eum. 19; Aristoph. Plut. 8; Eustath. ad Hom.; Macrob. Sat. i. 17.)

Apollo Lyceius

Lyceius (Lukeios), a surname of Apollo, the meaning of which is not quite certain, for some derive it from lukos, a wolf, so that it would mean "the wolf-slayer;" others from luke, light, according to which it would mean "the giver of light;" and others again from the country of Lycia. There are indeed passages in the ancient writers by which each of these three derivations may be satisfactorily proved. As for the derivation from Lycia, we know that he was worshipped at mount Cragus and Ida in Lycia; but he was also worshipped at Lycoreia on mount Parnassus, at Sicyon (Paus. ii. 9.7), Argos (ii. 19.3), and Athens (i. 19.4). In nearly all cases, moreover, where the god appears with this name, we find traditions concerning wolves. Thus the descendants of Deucalion, who founded Lycoreia, followed a wolf's roar; Latona came to Delos as a she-wolf, and she was conducted by wolves to the river Xanthus; wolves protected the treasures of Apollo; and near the great altar at Delphi there stood an iron wolf with inscriptions. (Paus. x. 14.4). The attack of a wolf upon a herd of cattle occasioned the worship of Apollo Lyceius at Argos (Plut. Pyrrh. 32; comp. Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 124); and the Sicyonians are said to have been taught by Apollo in what manner they should get rid of wolves (Paus. ii. 19.3). In addition to all this, Apollo is called lukoktonos. (Soph. Elect 7; Paus. ii. 9.7; Hesych. s. v.) Apollo, by the name of Lyceius, is therefore generally characterised as the destroyer. (Muller, Dor. ii. 6.8)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Artemis Cynthia & Apollo Cynthius

Cynthia and Cynthius (Kunthia and Kunthios), surnames respectively of Artemis and Apollo, which they derived from mount Cynthus in the island of Delos, their birthplace. (Callim. Hymn. in Del. 10; Hor. Carm. i. 21. 2, iii. 28. 12; Lucan, i. 218.)

Artemis Daphnaea & Apollo Daphnaeus

Daphnaea and Daphnaeus (Daphnaia and Daphnaios), surnames of Artemis and Apollo respectively, derived from daphne, a laurel, which was sacred to Apollo. In the case of Artemis it is uncertain why she bore that surname, and it was perhaps merely an allusion to her statue being made of laurel-wood (Paus. iii. 24.6; Strab. xvi.; Philostr. Vit. Apollon. i. 16; Eutrop. vi. 11; Justin. xv. 4.)

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