Pages of Macedonia University
The Early Phase of the Macedonian State
First half of the 7th century B.C. Foundation of the Argead dynasty
End of the 7th- 6th century B.C. The Macedonian state spreads from the region of Pieria towards the north and the east.
End of the 6th century B.C. Amyntas I ascends the Macedonian throne. The Persians attempt to subjugate Macedonia.
506 B.C. The tyrant Hippias takes refuge in Anthemus, which Amyntas I has offered him. The Athenian political leaders establish friendly relations with the Macedonian Kingdom.
497 B.C. Amyntas dies and his son, Alexander I, succeeds him.
Beginning of the 5th century B.C. Alexander I is victorious at the Olympic Games.
479 B.C. The Athenians give Alexander the status of consul. After the end of the Persian Wars, Alexander dedicates his own statue at Delphi.
432 B.C. On the eve of the Peloponnesian War, Perdiccas II of Macedonia moves with dexterity between the warring factions of Athens and Sparta.
413 B.C. Archelaus ascends the throne of Macedonia. A short time later, the capital is transferred from Aegae to Pella. Zeuxis decorates the royal palace.
406 B.C. Euripides is invited to the court of Archelaus. In the sacred city of Dion, athletic and drama contests add lustre to the cult of Olympian Zeus.
399 B.C. Death of Archelaus.
Acme of the Macedonian State
390-380 B.C. The Illyrians invade Macedonia.
359 B.C. Perdiccas III is killed in battle against the Illyrians. He is succeeded by Philip II.
357 B.C. Philip II marries Olympias, niece of the King of the Molossians, in an attempt to foster friendly relations.
356 B.C. Philip defeats and expels the Illyrians. Isocrates, in his speech "On Peace," expresses the Pan-Hellenic Idea. Alexander III is born.
353 B.C. Philip intervenes in Thessaly.
346 B.C. The Sacred War breaks out in Central Greece. Philip, owing to his alliance with the Amphictyonic Council at Delphi, becomes involved with the affairs of Southern Greece. Philip presides over the Pythian Games.
342 B.C. Philip carries out military campaigns in Thrace.
338 B.C. The Sacred War ends in the Battle of Chaeronea. Philip participates in the Panhellenic Union at Corinth.
337 B.C. Philip appointed commander-in-chief and emperor for the campaign against the Persians.
336 B.C. Philip is assassinated at Aegae (Vergina).
The Macedonian State Becomes One of the Hellenistic Kingdoms
335 B.C. The twenty-year-old son of Philip II, Alexander III, continues the work of his father as leader of the Greeks.
334 B.C. Alexander begins his campaign against the Persians, while Antipater, loyal friend of his father, remains in Macedonia as regent.
323 B.C. The death of Alexander the Great serves as a motive for the southern Greeks to express their dissatisfaction (in the Lamian War) and for clashes between his successors. Cassander succeeds his father Antipater and acts as mediator between the opposing and legitimate successors. By marrying Thessalonica, daughter of Philip II, his aim is to appear as the continuator of the Argead dynasty.
295 B.C. Following the death of Cassander, Demetrius Poliorcetes returns to Greece with designs on Macedonia. In Thessaly, he founds Demetrias. He is subsequently expelled, and Macedonia falls into anarchy. The Galatians pillage Macedonia.
274 B.C. Antigonus Gonatas founds a new dynasty, the Antigonids. He bases his authority on the tradition of the earlier Macedonian kings.
229 B.C. Antigonus Doson repels the Dardanians.
197 B.C. The Macedonians are defeated by the Romans at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. As a result, Philip V is forced to restrict the boundaries of Macedonia to their traditional limits.
168 B.C. Battle of Pydna. The Roman general L. Aemilius Paulus defeats Perseus, the King of Macedonia.
Macedonia in the Transitional Period (167 B.C. to 148 B.C.)
167 B.C. In Amphipolis Aemilius Paulus proclaims the "freedom" of the Macedonians. However, in practice, he divides the Macedonian state into four parts separated by sealed borders. Amphipolis, Pella, Thessaloniki, and Pelagonia are named the capitals.
149 B.C. A man named Andriscus crowns himself King of Macedonia and, relying on the lower social classes, incites the Macedonians against the Romans.
148 B.C. C. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus defeats Andriscus. Macedonia becomes a Roman province.
Macedonia as a Roman Province
148 B.C. Macedonia becomes a Roman province with extended borders which also contain Illyria and central Greece.
Circa 130 B.C. The Egnatian Way is constructed.
120-110 B.C. Barbarians invade Macedonia.
93-87 B.C. Mithridates invades Macedonian territory. A Macedonian named Euphanes stages an unsuccessful revolt.
42 B.C. Battle of Philippi. Roman colonies are created at Casandria, Dion, Philippi, and Pella. Augustan Age Thessaloniki becomes a free city (civitas libera), as do Amphipolis and Scotoussa. During the Imperial Period, the institution of the Koinon was strengthened, which helped to maintain a balance between the local and central administration.
After the mid 3rd c. Barbarian tribes invade Macedonia (Goths and Herulians).
Macedonia under the Tetrarchate
284-305 Diocletian introduces fundamental administrative reforms. The Roman state is divided into an eastern and a western part, each ruled by an emperor and a caesar.
300 Caesar Galerius selects Thessaloniki as his imperial seat.
318 The Diocese of Macedonia is founded, which includes the provinces of Macedonia, Old and New Epirus, Thessaly, Achaea, and Crete.
380 The Goths invade Macedonia again.
390 Slaughter in the Hippodrome of Thessaloniki.
395 Alaric’s Visigoths invade Macedonia. The Roman state is finally and conclusively divided into eastern and western halves.
Macedonia in the 6th c. A.D.
510 Barbarian tribes (Slavs, Antae, Bulgars, Kutrigurs) invade Macedonia from the North.
527 Justinian is crowned emperor. During his reign the Byzantine Empire comprises most of the Mediterranean.
ca. 540 The Huns invade Macedonia, and make an unsuccessful attempt to seize Thessaloniki; they destroy Cassandreia in Chalcidice.
558-9 The Kutrigurs pillage Macedonia.
586 The Avaro-Slavs repeatedly invade Macedonia.
Macedonia in the 10th c. A.D.
904 Saracen pirates besiege and capture Thessaloniki.
963 The Great Laura and the monastic community on Mount Athos are founded.
893-1018 The Bulgars invade Macedonia repeatedly and the Byzantines wage war on them.
989 Samuel, Tsar of the Bulgars, besieges but fails to take Thessaloniki.
990 Emperor Basil II organizes his defenses from Thessaloniki.
1003 Basil II restores Byzantine control over the cities of Beroea, Kolindros, Servia, and Edessa.
1014 Basil defeats the Bulgars at Klidion.
Macedonia in the second half of the 13th c. A.D.
1246-61 Macedonia is incorporated into the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea. Andronicus Palaeologus assumes control of the areas of Thessaloniki and Beroea and his son Michael Palaeologus of Serres and Melenik.
1259 Michael VIII Palaeologus is crowned emperor. At the Battle of Pelagonia he crushes the Despot of Epirus, Michael II, and his Latin allies and receives all the territories in western and north-western Macedonia.
1261 With the recovery of Constantinople. the Byzantine Empire is re-established.
1282 The Serbian ruler Stephen Urosh II Milutin attacks Macedonia.
Macedonia from the Greek War of Independence (1821) to Liberation (1913)
1821-8 The Macedonians join with the rest of the Greeks in the common struggle to throw off the Ottoman yoke.
1870 The independent Bulgarian Church, known as the Exarchate, is established and Bulgaria starts to manifest expansionist designs on Macedonia.
1903 Many Greek areas in western and northern Macedonia are ravaged after the suppression of the Ilinden Uprising on the Feast of the Prophet Elijah.
1904-8 The Greeks struggle to prevent Slavonic expansion into Macedonia. Volunteers from both occupied and free Greece join in the Macedonian struggle.
1912-13 Balkan Wars. Macedonia is liberated from Ottoman rule.
August 10, 1913 The Treaty of Bucharest officially establishes the borders of the Balkan nations in Macedonia. Most of the former Turkish provinces of Thessaloniki and Monastir now belongs to Greece.
Macedonia from 1913 to the present
1919-25 The exchange of populations under the Treaties of Neuilly and Lausanne lead to the creation of an ethnically homogenous Greek state. 1923 With the Treaty of Lausanne, the borders of Greece are established once and for all.
1940-4 Bulgaria, Hitler’s ally, revives its claims by occupying part of Macedonia.
1945 onwards Bulgaria and Yugoslavia vie with each other to win over the so-called Slavonic-speaking "Macedonians". Yugoslavia attempts to create a "Macedonian nation" out of the region’s various ethnic groups with Skopje as its centre. Greece reacts strongly, with urgent calls to preserve historical truth, the current national borders, and peace in the region.
This text is cited Sep 2002 from the Ministry of Macedonia Thrace URL below, which contains images.
Acichorius (Akichorios) was one of the leaders of the Gauls, who invaded Thrace and Macedonia in B. C. 280. He and Brennus commanded the division that marched into Paeonia. In the following year, B. C. 279, he accompanied Brennus in his invasion of Greece. (Paus. x. 19.4, 5, 22.5, 23.1, &c.) Some writers suppose that Brennus and Acichorius are the same persons, the former being only a title and the latter the real name.
Belgius or Bolgius (Bolgios), the leader of that division of the Gaulish army which invaded Macedonia and Illyria in B. C. 280. He defeated the Macedonians in a great battle, in which Ptolemy Ceraunus, who had then the supreme power in Macedonia, was killed; but the Gauls did not follow up their victory, and the rest of Greece was spared for a time. (Paus. x. 19.4; Justin. xxiv. 5.)
P. Ssulpicius, Ser. F. P. N. Galba Maximus, was elected consul for the year B.
C. 211, although he had never before held any curule magistracy. He entered upon
his office on the ides of March, and both the consuls.of that year had Appulia
as their province; but as the senate no longer apprehended much from Hannibal
and the Carit was decreed that one of the consuls only should remain in Appulia,
and that the other should have Macedonia for his province. When lots where drawn
as to which was to leave Appulia, P. Sulpicius Galba obtained Macedonia, in the
operations against which he succeeded M. Valerius Laevinus. At the close of his
consulship his imperium was prolonged for another year, but owing to the boasting
report which Laevinus had made of his own achievements, Sulpicius Galba was ordered
to disband his army, and retained the command of only one legion and of the socii
navales, i. e. of the fleet, and a sum of money was placed at his disposal to
supply the wants of his forces. During this year, B. C. 210, Sulpicius Galba nacould
do but little, and all we know is, that he took the island of Aegina, which was
plundered and given to the Aetolians, who were allied with the Romans, and that
he in vain tried to relieve Echinus, which was besieged by Philip of Macedonia.
For the year B. C. 209, his imperium was again prolonged, with Macedonia and Greece
as his province. Besides the Aetolians the Romans had contrived to ally themselves
also with Attalus against Philip. The Aetolians in the battle of Lamia were assisted
by 1000 Romans, whom Galba had sent to them, while he himself was stationed at
Naupactus. When Philip appeared at Dyme, on his march against Elis, Galba had
landed with fifteen of his ships on the northern coast of Peloponnesus, and his
soldiers were ravaging and plundering the country; but Philip's sudden arrival
compelled them to return to their station at Naupactus. As Philip, however, was
obliged to go back to Macedonia, which was threatened with an invasion by some
of the neighbouring barbarians, Galba sailed to Aegina, where he joined the fleet
of Attalus, and where both took up their winter-quarters.
In the spring of B. C. 208, Galba and Attalus, with their united fleets, amounting to sixty ships, sailed to Lemnos, and, while Philip exerted all his resources to prepare himself for any emergency, Attalus made an attack upon Peparethus, and then crossed with Galba over to Nicaea. From thence they proceeded to Euboea, to attack the town of Oreus, which was occupied by a Macedonian garrison, but was treacherously delivered up to Galba. Elated by this easy conquest he made also an attempt upon Chalcis; but he soon found that would have to contend with insurmountable difficulties, and sailed to Cynus, a port-town of Locris. In the meantime Attalus was driven by Philip out of Phocis, and, on the report that Prusias had invaded his kingdom, he went to Asia. Galba then returned to Aegina, and remained in Greece for several years, without doing any thing worth noticing. The Romans afforded no efficient assistance to the Aetolians, not even after the fall of Hasdrubal, which considerably lessened their care about the safety of Italy. The Aetolians had to act for themselves as well as they could.
In B. C. 204 Galba was recalled from Greece, and succeeded by the proconsul, P. Sempronius. In the year following he was appointed dictator for the purpose of holding the comitia, and summoning Cn. Servilius from Sicily. In B. C. 200, the year in which war again broke out, Galba was made consul a second time, and obtained Macedonia as his province. The people at Rome were highly dissatisfied with a fresh war being undertaken, before they had been able to recover from the sufferings of the Carthaginian one; but the senate and Galba carried their plan, and the war against Philip was decreed. Galba was permitted to select from the army which Scipio had brought back from Africa all those that were willing to serve again, but none of those veterans were to be compelled. After having selected his men and his ships, he sailed from Brundusium to the opposite coast. On his arrival he met Athenian ambassadors, who implored his protection against the Macedonians, and he at once sent C. Claudius Centho with 20 ships and 1000 men to their assistance. But as the autumn was approaching when Galba arrived in his province, he took up his winter-quarters in the neighbourhood of Apollonia. In the spring of B. C. 199, he advanced with his army through the country of the Dassaretii, and all the towns and villages on his road surrendered to him, some few only being taken by force. The Romans, as well as Philip, were ignorant of the movements which each was making, until the outposts of the two armies met by accident, and a skirmish took place between them. The hostile annies then encamped at some distance from each other, and several minor engagements took place, in one of which the Romans sustained considerable loss. Hereupon a regular battle of the cavalry followed, in which the Romans were again beaten, but the Macedonians, who were hasty in their pursuit of the enemy, suddenly found themselves attacked on their flanks, and were put to flight, during which Philip nearly lost his life. These engagements occurred near the passes of Eordea. Immediately after this defeat Philip sent a messenger to Galba to sue for a truce; the Roman deferred his decision till the next day, but in the night following Philip and his army secretly left the camp, without the Romans knowing in what direction the king had gone. After having stayed for a few days longer, Galba marched towards Pluvina, and then encamped on the banks of the river Osphagus, not far from the place where the king had taken up his post. Here again the Romans spent their time in petty conquests, and nothing decisive was done, and in the autumn Galba went back with his army to Apollonia.
For the year following T. Villius Tappulus was elected consul, with Macedonia as his province, and Galba returned to Rome. In B. C. 197, he and Villius Tappulus were appointed legates to T. Quintius Flamininus in Macedonia, and in the next year, when it was decreed at Rome that tell commissioners should be sent to arrange with Flamininus the affairs between Rome and Macedonia, Galba and Tappulus were ordered to act as two of those commissioners. In B. C. 193, Galba and Tappulus were sent as ambassadors to Antiochus; they first went to Eumenes at Pergamus, as they had been ordered, who urged the Romans to begin the war against Antiochus at once. For a short time Galba was detained at Pergamus by illness, but he was soon restored and went to Ephesus, where, instead of Antiochus, they found Minion, whom the king had deputed with full power. The result of the transactions was the war with Antiochus. [p. 205] This is the last event recorded of Galba, in whose praise we have very little to say, and whose conduct in Greece, in connection with the Aetolians, greatly contributed to the demoralisation of the Greeks. (Liv. xxv. 41, xxvi.l, 28, xxvii. 7, 10, 22, 31-33, xxviii. 5-7, xxix. 12, xxx. 24, xxxi. 4-8, 14, 22, 27, 33-40, xxxii. 28, xxxiii. 24, xxxiv. 59, xxxv. 13, 14, 16; Polyb. viii. 3, ix. 6, &c., 42, x. 41, xvi. 24, xviii. 6, xxiii. 3; Appian, Maced. 2, &c.; Eutrop. iii. 14; Oros. iv. 17.)
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Ser. Sulpicius Galba, was elected curule aedile in B. C. 208, and three years later he was one of the ambassadors that were sent to Asia to solicit the friendship of Attalus in the impending war between the Romans and Philip of Macedonia. In 203, he was elected pontiff in the place of Q. Fabius Maximus, and in this capacity lie died in B. C. 198. (Liv. xxvii. 21, xxix. 11, xxx. 26, xxxii. 7.)
T. Quintius Flamininus. As he is said to have been about thirty-three years old
in B. C. 196, he must have been born about B. C. 230 (Liv. xxxiii. 33). He is
called by Aurelius Victor (De Vir. Illustr. 51) a son of C. Flaminius, who fell
in the battle on Lake Trasimenus; but this statement arises from a confusion of
the Flaminia gens with the family of the Flaminini. He was the brother of L. Quintius
Flamininus, and is first mentioned in history in B. C. 201, when lie was appointed
one of the ten commissioners to measure and distribute the public land in Samnium
and Appulia among the veterans who had fought under P. Scipio in Africa, against
the Carthaginians, and the year after he was one of the triunvirs appointed to
complete the number of colonists at Venusia, which had been greatly reduced during
the Hannibalian war. In B. C. 199 he was quaestor, and towards the expiration
of his office he sued for the consulship. He was opposed by two tribunes, who
maintained that he ought first to go through the offices of aedile and praetor,
before aiming at the consulship; but as he had reached the legitimate age, the
senate declared that he was entitled to offer himself as a candidate. The tribunes
yielded, and T. Quintius Flamininus was elected consul for B. C. 198, together
with Sex. Aelius Paetus. When the two consuls drew lots for their provinces, T.
Flamininus obtained Macedonia. According to a resolution of the senate, he levied
an army of 3000 foot and 300 horse, as a supplement for the army engaged against
Philip of Macedonia, and he selected such men as had already distinguished themselves
in Spain and Africa. Some prodigies detained him for a short time in Rome, as
the gods had to be propitiated by a supplication; but he then hastened without
delay to his province, instead of spending the first months of his consulship
at Rome, as had been the custom with his predecessors. He sailed from Brundusium
to Corcyra, where he left his troops to follow him, for he himself sailed to Epeirus,
and thence hastened to the Roman camp. After having dismissed his predecessor,
cessor, he waited a few days, till the troops from Corcyra arrived in the camp;
he then held a council, to deliberate by what route he should invade Macedonia.
He there showed at once that he was animated by a bold and heroic spirit : he
did not despair of what appeared impossible to every one else, for he resolved
to storm the pass of Antigoneia, which was occupied by the enemy, instead of going
a round-about way. He trusted, however, in this undertaking to the assistance
of the Roman party in Epeirus, which was headed by Charops; and he further hoped
to pave his way into Greece, where he wished to detach one state after another
from the cause of Macedonia, and thus to crush Philip more effectually. For forty
days he faced the enemy, without a favorable opportunity of attacking the enemy
being offered. Philip had from the first conceived the hope of concluding a favourable
treaty with the Romans, and, through the mediation of the Epeirots, he began to
negotiate, but Flamininus demanded first of all the liberation of Greece and Thessaly.
This bold demand of the young hero, before he had gained an inch of ground, was
equivalent to a call upon the Greeks to throw off the yoke of Macedonia. An event,
however, soon occurred which en abled Flamininus to rise from his inactivity:
there was a path across the mountains, by which the pass of Antigoneia could be
evaded, as at Thermopylae, and this path was either unknown to Philip, or neglected
by him, because he did not fear any danger from that quarter. Charops informed
Flamininus of the existence of the path, and sent a man well acquainted with it
as his guide. The consul then sent 4300 men, accompanied by the guide, across
the mountain, and in a few days they arrived in the rear of the Macedonians. The
latter, being thus pressed on both sides, made a short resistance, and then fled
in great consternation towards Thessaly : 2000 men were lost, and their camp fell
into the hands of the Romans. Epeirus immediately submitted to Flamininus, and
was mildly treated, for his ambition was to appear every where as the deliverer
form the Macedonians.
The consul and his army now marched through the passes into Thessaly. Here Philip, in order to leave nothing for the enemy to take, had rivaged the country and destroyed the towns. Flamininus laid siege to Phaloria, the first Thessalian town to which he came, and, after a brave resistance of its garrison, it was taken by storm, and reduced to a heap of ashes, as a warning to the other Greeks. But this severity did not produce the desired effect, nor did it facilitate his progress, for the principal towns were strongly garrisoned, and the Macedonian army was encamped in Tempe, whence the king could easily send succours to his allies. Flamininus next besieged Charax, on the Peneius, but in spite of his most extraordinary exertions, and even partial success, the heroic defence of its inhabitants thwarted all his attempts, and in the end he was obliged to raise the sieae. He fearfully ravaged the country, and marched into Phocis, where several places and maritime towns, which enabled him to communicate with the fleet under the command of his brother Lucius, opened their gates to him; but Elateia, the principal place, which was strongly fortified, offered a brave re sistance, and for a time checked his progress. While he was yet engaged there, his brother Lucius, at his request, contrived to draw the Achaean league into an alliance with the Romans, which was effected the more easily, as Aristaenetus, then strategus of the Achaeans, was well disposed towards Rome. Megalopolis, however, Dyme, and Argos, remained faithful to Macedonia.
After capturing Elateia, Flamininus took up his winter-quarters in Phocis and Locris; but he had not been there long when an insurrection broke out at Opus, in which the Macedonian garrison was compelled to withdraw to the acropolis. Some of the citizens called in the assistance of the Aetolians, and others that of the Romsnans. The former came, but the gates were not opened till Flamininus arrived, and took possession of the town. This seems to have been the first cause of the ill feeling of the Aetolians towards the Romans. The Macedonian garrison remained in the acropolis, and Flamininus for the present abstained from besieging them, as king Philip had just made proposals of peace. Flamininus accepted the proposals, but only with the view of employing them as a means of satisfying his own ambition; for as he did not yet know whether he was to be left in his province for another year, his object was to give matters such a turn as to have it in his own power to decide upon war or peace. A congress was held at the Malean gulf, in the neighbourhood of Nicaea, which lasted for three days. Flamininus and his allies, among whom the Aetolians distinguished themselves by their invectives against Philip, who was present, drew up a long list of demands, and the conditions of a peace : the principal demand, however, was, that Philip should withdraw his garrisons from all the towns of Greece. The allies of the Romans were of opinion that the negotiations should be broken off at once, unless Philip would consent to this fundamental condition; but the consul, whose object it was to defer giving any decision, acted with very great diplomatic skill. At last a truce of two months was concluded, during which ambassadors of both parties were sent to Rome. The condition, however, on which Philip was permitted to send his ambassadors was, the evacuation of the towns in Phocis and Locris which were still in his possession. When the ambassadors arrived at Rome, those of Flamininus and his allies actted according to the dictates of the consul : they declared that Greece could not possibly be free, so long as Demetrias, Chalcis, and Corinth were occupied by Macedonian garrisons, and that, unless Philip withdrew his garrisons, the war ought to be continued, and that it would now be an easy matter to compel the king to submit to the terms of the Romans. When Philip's ambassadors were asked whether their king was willing to give up the three fortresses just mentioned, they replied that they had no instructions to answer that question. The senate then dismissed them, and told them that if their sovereign wanted to negotiate further, he must apply to Flamininus, to whom the senate gave full power to act as he thought proper, and whose imperium was now prolonged for an indefinite period. Flamininus, after having thus gained his end, declared to Philip, that if any further negotiations were to be carried on, he must first of all withdraw his garrisons from the Greek towns. The king, on hearing this, resolved to venture any thing rather than yield to such a demand, although his army was in an incomparably inferior condition to that of the Romans. Philip immediately took steps to form an alliance with Nabis, the tyrant of Sparta. When every thing was prepared, and Nabis had treacherously put himself in possession of Argos, he invited Flamininus to a conference at Argos, where a treaty between Flamininus and Sparta was concluded without any difficulty, for the Romans demanded only auxiliaries, and the cessation of hostilities against the Achaeans. Nabis remained in the possession of Argos, but no clause respecting it was inserted in the treaty. When Flamininus had received the auxiliaries of Nabis, he marched against Corinth, hoping that the commander of its garrison, Philocles, a friend of Nabis, would follow the tyrant's example, but in vain. Flamininus then went into Boeotia, which he compelled to renounce the alliance with Philip, and to join the Romans. Most of the Boeotian men, however, capable of bearing arms, were serving inthe Macedonian army, and afterwards fought against the Romans. The Acarnanians were the only allies of Macedonia that remained faithful.
In the spring of B. C. 197, Flamininus left his winter-quarters to enter upon his second campaign against Philip. His army, which was already strengthened by the Achaeans and other auxiliaries, was increased at Thermopylae by a considerable number of Aetolians. He advanced slowly into Phthiotis. Philip, at the head of his army, which was about equal in numbers to that of his opponent, advanced more rapidly towards the south, and was determined to seize the first favourable opportunity for fighting a decisive battle. After a skirmish between the Roman and Macedonian cavalry, near Pherae, in which the Romans gained the uppei hand, both belligerents moved towards Phlarsalus and Scotussa. A battle ensued near a range of hills called Cynoscephalae (Dog's heads), in which the fate of Macedonia was decided in a few hours: 8000 Macedonians were killed in their light, and 5000 were taken prisoners, while Flamininus lost only 700 men. The result of this battle was, that the towns of Thessaly surrendered to the Romans, and Philip sued for peace. The Aetolians, who had been of great service during the battle, now showed their arrogance and pretensions in a manner which wounded the pride of Flamininnus : they boasted that he had to thank them for his victory, and their vaunting was believed by many Greeks. Flamininus in return treated them with haughtiness and contempt, and, without consulting them, he granted to Philip a truce of fifteen days, and permission to begin negotiations for peace, while the Aetolians desired nothing short of the entire destruction of the Macedonian empire. They even went so far as to say that Flamininus was bribed by the king. The consequence was, that they derived less advantages from the victory at Cynoscephalae than they had in reality deserved, and Philip only profited by the disunion thus existing between the Romans and their allies. Flamininus felt inclined to conclude peace with Philip, for his own ambition was satisfied, and Antiochus of Syria was threatening to come over to Europe and assist Philip against the Romans. When, therefore, Philip, at a meeting which he had with Flamininus, declared himself willing to conclude peace on the terms proposed before the opening of the campaign, and to submit all further points to the Roman senate, Flamininus at once concluded a truce for several months, and embassies from both parties were sent to Rome.
After the battle of Cynoscephalae Flamininus had generously restored to freedom all the Boeotians that had served in Philip's army and were taken prisoners. But, instead of thanking him for it, they acted as if they owed their delivery to Philip, and even insulted the Romans by conferring the office of boeotarchus upon the man who had been their commander in the Macedonian army. The Roman party at Thebes, however, soon after secretly caused his assassination, with the knowledge of Flamininus. When this became known, the people conceived a burning hatred of the Romans, whose army was stationed in and about Elateia in Phocis. All the Romans who had to travel through Boeotia, were murdered and their bodies left unburied on the roads. The number of persons who thus lost their lives, is said to have amounted to 500. After Flaminus had in vain demanded reparation for these crimes, he began ravaging Boeotia, and blockaded Coroneia and Acraephia, near which places most of the bodies of the murdered Romans had been found. This frightened the Boeotians, and they now sent envoys to Flamininus, who, however, refused to admit them into his presence; but the mediation of the Achaeans prevailed upon him to treat the Boeotians leniently. He accordingly made peace with them, on condition of their delivering up to him the guilty persons, and paying thirty talents as a reparation, instead of 100 which he had demanded before.
In the spring of B. C. 196, and shortly after the peace with Boeotia, ten Roman commissioners arrived in Greece to arrange, conjointly with Flamininus, the affairs of the country; they also brought with them the terms on which a definite peace was to be concluded with Philip. He had to give up all the Greek towns in Europe and Asia which he had possessed and still possessed. The Aetolians again exerted themselves to excite suspicions among the Greeks as to the sincerity of the Romans in their dealings with them. Flamnininus, however, insisted upon immediate compliance with the terms of the peace, and Corinth was at once given over to the Achaeans. In this summer the Isthmian games were celebrated at Corinth, and thousands of people from all parts of Greece flocked thither. Flamininus accompanied by the ten commissioners entered the assembly, and, at his command, a herald, in the name of the Roman senate, proclaimed the freedom and independence of Greece. The joy and enthusiasm at this unexpected declaration was beyond all description : the throngs of people that crowded around Flamininus to catch a sight of their liberator or touch his garment were so enormous, that even his life was endangered.
When the festive days were over, Flamininus and the ten commissioners set about settling the affairs of Greece, especially of those districts and towns which had till then been occupied by the Macedonians. Thessaly was divided into four separate states: Magnesia, Perrhaebia, Dolopia, and Thessaliotis. The Aetolians received back Ambracia, Phocis, and Locris; they claimed more, but they were referred to the Roman senate, and the senate again referred them to Flamininus, so that they were obliged to acquiesce in his decision. The Achaeans received all the Macedonian possessions in Peloponnesus, and, as a particular favour towards Athens, Flamininus extended her dominions also.
The peace thus established in Greece by the victory over Macedonia did not last long, for the alliance of the Romans with Nabis was as disagreeable to the Romans as it was disgraceful, and in the spring of B. C. 195 Flamnininus was invested with full power by the Roman senate to act towards Nabis as lie might think proper. He forthwith convoked a meeting of the Greeks at Corinth. All were delighted at the hope of getting rid of this monster of a tyrant, and it was only the Aetolians who again gave vent to their hostile feelings towards the Romans. But the war against Nabis was decreed, and after receiving reinforcements from the Achaeans, Philip, Eumenes of Pergamus, and the Rhodians, Flamininus marched to Argos, the Lacedaemonian garrison of which was commanded by Pythagoras, the brother-in-law of Nabis. As the people of Argos, being kept down by the strong garrison, did not rise in a body against their oppressors, Flamininus resolved to leave Argos and march into Laconia. Nabis, although his army was inferior to that of his opponents, made preparations for a most vigorous defence. Two battles were fought under the walls of Sparta, in which Nabis was beaten; but Flamininus abstained from besieging the tyrant in his own capital; he ravaged the country and endeavoured to cut off the supplies. With the assistance of his brother Lucius he took the populous and strongly fortified town of Gythium. The unexpected fall of this place convinced Nabis that he could not hold out much longer, and he sued for peace. Flamininus, who feared lest a successor should be sent into his province, was not disinclined to come to some arrangement with Nabis. His allies, on the other hand, urged the necessity of exterminating his tyranny completely; but the Romans looked at the state of things in a different light, and probably thought Nabis an useful check upon the Achaeans; Flamininus, therefore, without openly opposing his allies, brought them round to his views by various considerations. But the terms on which peace was offered to Nabis were rejected, and Flamininus now advanced against Sparta and tried to take the place by assault; and, as he was on the point of making a second attempt, in which Sparta would probably have fallen into his hands, Nabis again began to negotiate for peace, and was glad to obtain it on the terms he had before rejected. The Argives, who had heard of the probable reduction of Sparta, had expelled their Spartan garrison. Flamininus now went to Argos, attended the celebration of the Nemean games, and proclaimed the freedom of Argos, which was made over to the Achaeans.
In the winter following Flamininus exerted himself, as he had done hitherto, in restoring the internal peace and welfare of Greece, for there can be no doubt that he loved the Greeks, and it was his noble ambition to be their benefactor, and wherever his actions appear at variance with this object, he was under the influence of the policy of his country. The wisdom of several of his arrangements is attested by their long duration. In order to refute the malignant insinuations of the Aetolians, Flamininus prevailed upon the Roman senate to withdraw the Roman garrisons from Acrocorinthus, Chalcis, Demetrias, and the other Greek towns, before his departure from the country. When the affairs of Greece were thus satisfactorily settled, he convoked, in the spring of B. C. 194, an assembly of the Greeks at Corinth, to take leave of his beloved people. He parted from them like a father from his children, exhorting them to use their freedom wisely, and to remain faithful to Rome. Before he left lie performed another act of humanity which history ought not to pass over. During the Hannibalian war a number of Romans had been taken prisoners, and, as the republic refused to ransom them, they were sold as slaves, and many of them had been bought by the Greeks. Flatmininus now prevailed on the Roman senate to grant him a sum of money for the purpose of purchasing the liberty of those men. On his return to Rome, he celebrated a magnificent triumph which lasted for three days.
Soon after the Romans had quitted Greece, Antiochus of Syria, and Nabis of Sparta, were instigated by the Aetolians to take up arms against Rome. Nabis did not require much persuasion. He besieged Gythium, which was occupied by the Achaeans. The Roman senate, which was informed of every thing that was going on in Greece, sent a fleet under C. Atilius, B. C. 192, and an embassy, headed by Flamininus, who had more influence there than any one else, and who was to exercise it, partly to keep up the good understanding with the allies of Rome, and partly to make new friends. He arrived in Greece before Atilius, and advised the Greeks not to undertake any thing before the arrival of the Roman fleet. But as the danger which threatened Gythium required quick action, the war against Nabis was decreed. The tyrant was reduced to the last extremity, and Philopoemen had it in his power to decide his downfall by one more blow, but it was prevented by Flamininus, partly from the same political motives which had before induced him to spare Nabis, and partly because his ambition was wounded by the dislike with which the Greeks had regarded and still regarded the peace which he had concluded with Nabis. Flamininus was invested with full power; and he might have destroyed the evil at once at its root, but he preferred carrying out the scheme of the Roman policy : Philopoemen was checked in his progress, and obliged to conclude a truce with Nabis. Antiochus was now making serious preparations to cross over into Greece; and Flamininus, by various favourable promises, induced Philip of Macedonia [p. 166] to join the Romans in the impending war. The intrigues of the Aetolians, on the other hand, alienated several important places from the cause of Rome. The arrival of Antiochus in Greece increased their number. Flamininus attended the congress at Aegium. at which Syrian and Aetolian deputies likewise appeared. The Aetolians, as usual, indulged in bitter invectives against the Romans, and in personal attacks on Flamininus, and they demanded that the Achaeans should remain neutral; but Flamininus, now joined by Philopoemen, opposed this advice, and the Achaeans themselves, who had too much to win or to lose, could not have looked with indifference at what was going on. Most of the allies remained faithful to Rome; and, at the request of Flamininus, troops were immediately sent to Peiraeeus and Chalcis to suppress the Syrian party in those places. In the mean time, the war with Antiochus ended in Europe, in the battle of Thermopylae, B. C. 191. Flamininus still remained in Greece, in the capacity of ambassador plenipotentiary, and exercising a sort of protectorate over Greece.
After the departure of Antiochus, the consul, Acilius Glabrio, wanted to chastise Chalcis for the homage it had paid to the foreign invader, but Flamininus interfered : he soothed the anger of the consul, and saved the place. The war against the Aetolians now commenced; aud there again Flamininus used his influence in protecting the weaker party, although it is more than doubtful whether, on that occasion, he acted from a pure feeling of humanity or from ostentation. While the consul was besieging Naupactus, Flamininus came from Peloponnesus into the Roman camp; and as soon as the Aetolians saw him, they implored his protection. He shed tears of compassion, and induced the consul to raise the siege. Anxious not to share his protectorate in Greece with any one else, he directed the consul's attention to the increasing power of Macedonia. About this time insurrections broke out in several parts of Peloponnesus ; and Flamininus agreed with the strategus of the Achaeans to march against Sparta : lie himself accompanied the Achaeans into Laconia. But Philopoemen succeeded in restoring peace without any severe measures. The Messenians refused to join the Achaean league; and when the strategus advanced with an army against Messene, Flamininus, who was then staying at Chalcis, hastened into Messenia, whither he was invited by the people. He again acted as mediator ; he made the Messenians join the Achaeans, but left them the means of defying their decrees. At the same time, he obliged the Achaeans to give up to Rome the island of Zacynthus, which they had purchased, saying, that it was best for the Achaean state to be compact, and limited to Peloponnesus. This opinion was true enough, but the Romans took care to sow the seeds of discord in Peloponnesus, or at least to keep them alive where they existed.
In B. C. 190 Flamininus returned to Rome, and was appointed censor for the year following with M. Claudius Marcellus. In B. C. 183 he was sent as ambassador to Prusias of Bithynia, who, afraid of what he had done to offend the Romans, offered to deliver up Hannibal, who had taken refuge with him. But Hannibal prevented the treachery by taking poison. The fact of Flamininus allowing himself to be made an accomplice in this attempt upon Hannibal is a stain on his character, and was severely censured by many of his contemporaries. He seems to have died either during or shortly before B. C. 174, for in that year his son celebrated funeral games in his honour.
(Plutarch, Flaminius; Liv. xxxi. 4, 49, xxxii. 7, &c., xxxiii., xxxiv. 22, &c., xxxv. 23, &c., xxxvi. 31, &c., xxxvii. 58, xxxviii. 28, xxxix. 51, 56; Polyb. xvii. 1, &c., xviii. 1, &c., xxii. 15, xxiii. 2, xxiv. 3, &c.; Diod. Excerpt. de Legat. iii.; Eutrop. iv. 1, &c.; Flor. ii. 7; Paus. vii. 8; Appian, Aac. iv. 2, vi. vii. Syr. 2, 11; Cic. Phil. v. 17, De Senect. 1, 12, in Verr. iv. 58, i. 21, pro Muren. 14, in Pison. 25, de Leg. Agr. i. 2)
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
L. Quintius Flamininus, a brother of the great T. Quintius Flamininus, was curule
aedile in B. C. 200, and the year after was invested with the city praetorship.
When his brother Titus, in B. C. 198, undertook the war against Philip of Macedonia,
Lucius received the command of the Roman fleet, and had to protect the coasts
of Italy. He first sailed to Corcyra, and having met his fleet near the island
of Zama, and received it from his predecessor, L. Apustius, he slowly proceeded
to Malea, and thence to Peiraeeus, to join [p. 162] the ships which had been stationed
there for the protection of Athens. Soon after he was joined by the allied fleets
of Attalus and the Rhodians, and the combined fleets now undertook the siege of
Eretria, which was occupied by a Macedonian garrison. Its inhabitants dreaded
the Rommans as much as the Macedonians, and were uncertain what to do; but Lucius
took the place at night by assault. The citizens surrendered, and the conquerors'
booty consisted chiefly of works of art which had adorned the town. Carystus immediately
after surrendered to him without a blow. Having thus, in the space of a few days,
gained possession of the two principal towns of Euboea, Flamininus sailed towards
Cenchreae, the port of Corinth, where he made preparations for besieging Corinth.
By the command of his brother Titus, Lucius and his naval allies sent ambassadors
to the Achaeans to win them over to their side. Most of them were persuaded to
take up the cause of the Romans, and sent their troops to join Lucius in the siege
of Corinth. Lucius had in the mean time taken Cenchreae, and was already engaged
in the siege of Corinth. A fierce battle had been fought, in which Lucius and
his Romans were beaten. When his forces were strengthened by the arrival of the
Achaeans, they equalled in number those of the enemy, and he continued his operations
with better hopes of success. But the defence made by the Corinthian garrison
was desperate, for there were among the besiged a great number of Italians, who
in the war with Hannibal had deserted form the service of the Romans. Hence Lucius
at length despaired of success; he gave up the siege, and returned to his fleet,
with which he sailed to Corcyra, while Attalus went to Peiraeeus. As his brother's
imperium was proionged for another year, Lucius also retained the command of the
fleet in B. C. 197. He accompanied his brother to the congress with the tyrant
Nabis at Argos. Just before the battle of Cynoscephalae, Lucius, who was informed
of the intention of the Acarnanians to join the Romans, sailed to Leucas, the
chief place of the Acarnanians, and began to bockade it for the purpose of trying
their intention. But the inhabitants resisted, and the town was taken by storm.
The inhabitants were resolved to defend themselves to the last, and a great massacre
took place; but when the news of the battle of Cynoscephalae arrived, all the
tribes of Acarnania submitted to the Romans. In B. C. 195, when T. Flamininus
marched against Nabis, Lucius went out with 40 sail to join him in his operations
: he took several maritime towns, some of which were conquered by force, while
others submitted voluntarily, and he then proceeded to Gythium, the great arsenal
of Sparta. When Titus began besieging the same place by land, Gorgopas, the commander
of the garrison, treacherously surrendered the town to the Romans.
In B. C. 193, L. Flamininus sued for the consulship, and, as the remembrance of his exploits in Greece and of his subsequen triumph was yet fresh, he was elected for the year 192, together with Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus. He received Gaul as his province, and was ordered to hold the comitia. While on his march into his province, he fell in with the Ligurians in the neighbourhood of Pisa, and gained a great battle : 9000 enemies fell, and the rest fled to their camp, which was then besieged. In the night following, however, the Ligurians made their escape, and the next morning the deserted camp fell into the hands of the Romans, Lucius then advanced into the country of the Boians, of which he ravaged the parts through which he passed. Towards the end of the year he went to Rome to conduct the elections for the next year, and when this was done, he returned to the country of the boians, who submitted to him without taking up arms. Upon his return to Rome, he levied a large army, at the command of the senate, that the new consuls, immediately after entering upon their office, might have forces ready to set out against Anticohus. In B. C. 191 he was appointed legate to the consul M'. Acilius Glabrio, who had to conduct the war in Greece. In B. C. 184, M. Porcius Cato, who was then censor, ejected L. Quintius Flamininus from the senate, and then delivered a most severe speech against him for crimes which he had committed seven years before in his consulship. Among the various charges he brought against Lucius, there is one which exhibits him in a truly diabolical light. It seems that he had become acquainted in Greece with the vice of paederastia, and when in his consulship he went to the north of Italy, he took with him his favourite youth, a young Carthaginian, of the name of Philippus. This youth had often complained that Flaimininus had never afforded him an opportunity of seeing a gladiatorial exhibition. Once while Flamininus and his favourite were feasting and drinking in their tent, there came a noble Boian, who, with his children, took refuge in the consul's camp. He was introduced into the tent, and stated through an interpreter what he had to say. Before he had finished Flamininus asked his favourite whether he would not like to see a Gaul die, and scarcely had the youth answered in the affirmative, when Flamininus struck the Boian's head with his sword, and when the man endeavoured to escape, imploring the assistance of the bystanders, the consul ran his sword through his body and killed him for the amusement of the contemptible youth. Valerius Antias related a similar and equally horrible crime of this Flamininus. He died in B. C. 170, holding at the time a priestly office.
(Liv.xxxi. 4, 49, xxxii. 1, 16, 39, xxxiii. 16, xxxiv. 29, xxxv. 10, 20, &c., 40, &c. xxxvi. 1, 2, xxxix. 42, 43, xl. 12; Val. Max. ii. 9.3, iv. 5, Β§ 1; Cic. de Senect. 12; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. Illustr. 47; Plut. Cat. 17, Flamin. 18; Senec. Controv. iv. 25.)
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
M. Acilius, C.F.L.N. Glabrio, was tribune of the plebs in B. C. 201, when he opposed
the claim of Cn. Corn. Lentulus, one of the consuls of that year, to the province
of Africa, which a unanimous vote of the tribes had already decreed to P. Scipio
Africanus I (Liv. xxx. 40). In the following year Glabrio was appointed commissioner
of sacred rites (decemvir sacrorum) in the room of M. Aurelius Cotta, deceased
(xxxi. 50). He was praetor in B. C. 196, having presided at the Plebeian Games
in the Flaminian Circus; and from the fines for encroachment on the demesne lands
he consecrated bronze statues to Ceres and her offspring Liber and Libera (xxxiii.
25, comp. iii. 55; Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 24) at the end of 197. Glabrio was praetor
peregrinus (Liv. xxxiii. 24, 26), and quelled an insurrection of the praedial
slaves in Etruria, which was so formidable as to require the presence of one of
the city legions (Liv. xxxiii. 36). In B. C. 193 he was an unsuccessful competitor
for the consulship, which, however, he obtained in 191 (xxxv. 10, 24). In this
year Rome declared war against Antiochus the Great, king of Syria; and the commencement
of hostilities with the most powerful monarch of Asia was thought to demand unusual
religious solemnities. In the allotment of the provinces, Greece, the seat of
war, fell to Glabrio; but before he took the field he was directed by the senate
to superintend the sacred ceremonies and processions, and to vow, if the campaign
were prosperous, extraordinary games to Jupiter, and offerings to all the shrines
in Rome. (Liv. xxxvi. 1, 2.)
Glabrio, to whom the senate had assigned, besides the usual consular army of two legions, the troops already quartered in Greece and Macedonia, appointed the month of May and the city of Brundisium as the time and place of rendezvous. From thence he crossed over to Apollonia, at the head of 10,000 foot, 2,000 horse, and 15 elephants, with power, if needful, to levy in Greece an additional force of 5000 men (Liv. xxxvi. 14; Appian. Syr. 17). He made Larissa in Thessaly his headquarters, from which, in co-operation with his ally, Philip II., king of Macedonia, he speedily reduced to obedience the whole district between the Cambunian mountain chain and mount Oeta. Limnaea, Pellinaeum, Pharsalus, Pherae, and Scotussa, expelled the garrisons of Antiochus, and his allies the Athamanes; Philip of Megalopolis, a pretender to the crown of Macedonia, was sent in chains to Rome; and Amynander, the king of the Athamanes, was driven from his kingdom (Liv., Appian, ll. cc.).
Antiochus, alarmed at Glabrio's progress, entrenched himself strongly at Thermopylae; but although his Aetolian allies occupied the passes of mount Oeta, the Romans broke through his outposts, and cut to pieces or dispersed his army. Boeotia and Euboea next submitted to Glabrio: he reduced Lamia and Heracleia at the foot of Oeta, and in the latter city took prisoner the Aetolian Damocritus, who the year before had threatened to bring the war to the banks of the Tiber. The Aetolians now sent envoys to Glabrio at Lamia. They proposed an unconditional surrender of their nation "to the faith of Rom". The term was ambiguous; Glabrio put the strictest interpretation upon it (comp. Liv. vii. 31), and when the envoys remonstrated, threatened then with chains and the dungeon. His officers reminded Glabrio that their character as ambassadors was sacred, and he consented to grant the Aetolians a truce of ten days. During that time, however, the Aetolians received intelligence that Antiochus was preparing to renew the war. They concentrated their forces therefore at Naupactus, in the Corinthian gulf, and Glabrio hastened to invest the place (Polyb. xx. 9, 10; Liv. xxxvi. 28). His march from Lamia to Naupactus lay over the highest ridge of Oeta; a handful of men might have held it against the whole consular army. But the difficulties of the road were all that Glabrio had to contend with, so completely had his stern demeanour and his repeated victories quelled the spirit of the Aetolians. Naupactus was on the point of surrendering to Glabrio, but it was rescued by the intercession of the proconsul, T. Quintius Flamininus, and the besieged were permitted to send an embassy to Rome. After attending the congress of the Achaean cities at Aegium, and a fruitless attempt to procure a recal of the exiles to Elis and Sparta, Glabrio returned to Phocis, and blockaded Amphissa. While yet engaged in the siege, his successor, L. Cornelius Scipio, arrived from Rome, and Glabrio gave up to him the command (Polyb. xxi. 1, 2; Liv. xxxvi. 35, xxxvii. 6; Appian, Syr. 21). A triumph was unanimously granted to Glabrio, but its unusual splendour was somewhat abated by the absence of his conquering army, which remained in Greece. He triumphed in the autumn of B. C. 190. "De Aetoleis et rege Syriae Antiocho". Glabrio was a candidate for the censorship in B. C. 189. But the party of the nobles which, in 192, had excluded him from the consulship, again prevailed. It was rumoured that a part of the rich booty of the Syrian camp, which had not been displayed at his triumph, might be found in his house. The testimony of his legatus, M. Porcius Cato, was unfavourable to him, and Glabrio withdrew from an impeachment of the tribunes of the plebs, under the decent pretext of yielding to a powerful faction. (Liv. xxxvii. 57; Plut. Cat. Maj. 12, 13, 14; Flor. ii. 8.10; Aur. Vict. Vir. Illustr. 47, 54; Front. Strat. ii. 4.4; Eutrop. iii. 4; Appian, Syr. 17-21)
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