KAREAS (City quarter) VYRONAS
Tel: +30 210 7652746
The ancient stavropegic Monastery of Saint John the Baptist at Kareas, is located at the end of a rocky valley, at a distance of approximately five hundred meters away from the populated area of Kareas. Kareas is built on the expanse of the neighboring mountainside of Hymettus, where the ancient quarries, known as quarries of "Kara", used to be. At various times the origins of the name "Kareas" have been attributed to different explanations, having to do with the location, the honoured person of Saint John the Baptist, or with the founder of the Monastery. None of these attributions has been verified, and therefore accepted, without reservations. The conditions and the date of the establishment of the Monastery - which is definitely founded by the Church of Athens - are not known, since written documents regarding these matters have not been found. The Monastery is most likely originated in the Byzantine times. It is also believed, for good reasons, that a pagan temple of Apollo preexisted at the place of the Monastery. Later in time - most likely around the fourth century A.D. - the temple was transformed into an ancient Christian Chapel which was later rebuilt into a Church, in order to meet the needs of the monastic brotherhood. The earliest written reference to the Monastery is dated in 1575 A.D. This reference has to do most likely with the renovation of the Church, which is reserved to this day and constitutes the main Church of the Monastery.
From the ancient building of the Monastery, the only parts that are still in existence are: the Church of Saint John, the largest part of the southeastern two-storey building with the Monastery cells, and a small one-storey building in the northwestern area. Architecturally, the Church is simple. It is built in "Cruciform with dome", standing on four columns (Helladic type). Three of the columns are made of marble and have ancient capitals with suffixes. One of the four original columns had been subsequently replaced by a square-built pillar. The only remains of the Church frescos is a relic on the niche of the "Prothesis", which attests to the contemporary pilgrims the existence of ancient frescos in the Church. There is a walled-up small part of a "Thorakion" at the front of the Church which is decorated with a sculpted cross and a running animal. A similar part of a "Thorakion", with sculptured spiral decoration and thorn-like flowers, is walled-up at the front of the preserved Monastery cells located in the southeastern side. On the floor of the Church there was found, during its latest renovations, part of a tombstone with an inscription. The tombstone was thought to have covered the tomb of "Diaconissa" named Nikagori, but when it was removed they found that this was not the case. Since then, it is believed that the slate was simply used to cover the floor of the Church during one of its renovations, and that it was either collected by people of the surrounding Monastic area, or relocated from a similar construction. Over the entrance door of the Church there is, up to this day, a walled-up, sculptured votive Cross, which is dated from the year 1769 A.D., and carries the following inscription: "This Holy Cross was found in the "tekes" (dervise's den) where it has been for a long time, and the doctor by grace from Sehades, after buying it, has offered it to this Monastery in 1769."
During the seventeeth century in the Monastery of Kareas a doctor and philosopher named Peter Papastamatis (Petrakis) from Dimitsana led a monastic life. After taking his vows he was named Parthenios (1686 A.D.). Parthenios had renovated (around 1673 A.D.) the Monastery of Bodiless Powers, which was until then dependent on the Monastery of Saint John Kareas. Since then the Monastery was renamed as Petraki's Monastery, after Parthenios (Petrakis), who contributed to the work of renovating the Monastery.
Since 1796 A.D. (or perhaps since 1777 A.D. according to a "Sigil" of Patriarch Sophronios) the Monastery of Kareas was deserted and fell into decline. The monks of the Monastery, according to another "Sigil" of Patriarch Gerasimos III, which is dated in the year 1796 A.D.
The dependent Monastery of the Holy Archangels was closer to the city of Athens, had more spacious sites, and offered more security to the monks. Therefore the order was reversed and, from that point on, the Monastery of Kareas, according to the same Sigil of the Patriarch, became subsidiary to the dominant Monastery of the Holy Archangels, "Petraki’s".
From that point on, the Monastery of Kareas - as dependent on the dominant Monastery of "Petraki's" - become "Vakoufi" (Monastery property). Then, following a petition of the "Petraki's" Monastery - because it failed to pay the heavy taxation - became subject to Sultana Mihrisah (mother of Soultan Selim III, 1770-1807 A.D.). Thus the Monastery was attached to a poorhouse in Constantinople, under the condition that it would pay a yearly contribution.
Concurrently with the administrative modifications, as stated in the same Sigil, the Monastery of Holy Archangels and its Dependent monasteries became ecclesiastically subsidiaries to the Patriarchate.
From that time on, the Monastery of Saint John Kareas became more deserted progressively and fell into decline. It continued to be Dependent on the Petrakis. Monastery, and the future and progress of the two Monasteries coincided for approximately the next two centuries.
Following its decline into a Dependent Monastery, Kareas was not used to the advantage of the dominant Monastery of "Petraki’s". It was rather used solely as a financial resource, offering profits from its quarries, as well as from its pastures.
During the reconstruction of the Modern Greek state, following the revolution and the ruling of the nation by the Bavarians, after publication of the Royal Decree of the 25th of September 1833, "regarding the Monasteries of the kingdom of Greece", it was commanded by the Prefecture of Attica and Viotia, to the Abbot Dionysios of Petrakis Monastery, to relocate the soonest possible, "along with all the brotherhood", to a new location, possibly to the old dominant Monastery of Kareas, because the area of the Petrakis Monastery was considered to be appropriate for building a military hospital.
Finally, after putting in several objections and extensive exchanges of letters and despite the objections of the brotherhood, the Monastery of Kaesariani, rather than the old Monastery of Kareas, was considered a more appropriate location to which they moved.
For a short period of time, the Monastery of Petrakis and its Dependent Monasteries became annexed to the Monastery of Penteli, but they were soon dissociated from it and returned to their prior status.
Τhe onset of the twentieth century meets the Monastery of Kareas - Dependent still on the Petraki's Monastery - small, poor, a neglected country Chapel, "a pitiful sight, with inelegant buildings and extensions that were constructed by ill-qualified people" (A.D. 17, 1961/62). Despite all that, it continued to draw and inspire a great number of faithful pilgrims.(...).
With parallel efforts from the Department of Archaeology, "the works of the quarries were finally terminated before the war. Following the war termination, the Church building of the Monastery was freed up from the remains of the quarry, freeing up a narrow area around it that protected it from further damage" (as stated above).
The Board of Trustees of Byzantine Antiquities designed a "programme for the restoration and proper presentation of the Monastery, which, following the approval of the Department of Archaeology, began to operate in March of 1963." During the reconstruction works, "masses of stones and marble remains, which were hanging over the Church were removed... revealing a series of quarters with arch-tops, along the northwestern side of the grounds. During the clean up of one of those quarters, a limestone was found, with the year 1712 engraved on it... dating of course the year of the construction" (as stated above).
The construction works of the Monastery, with expenses of the Archaeology Department, were continued till the year 1971. It is worth mentioning that during those works, specifically in 1968, a copper coin of Alexios I, Komninos, was found.
A new era began for the Monastery of Kareas, in May of 1971, when a newly-formed Sisterhood inhabited the Monastery.(...).
Tel: +30 210 7650765
VYRONAS (Suburb of Athens) ATTIKI
Tel: +30 210 7664255
The monastery of St. Georgios (near the municipal cemetery of Vironas) is said to be a glebe of the monastery of Kessariani and was obviously founded later than that. According to mythology, its name derives from Hercules' deeds. In particular, one of the deeds was also the killing of the lion that lived on the peaks of mount Kitheronas. According to the myth, Hercules killed the lion with a huge club made of strong wood, called "koutali", which he brought to the area that was named Koutala. The historian K. Orlandos notes that the original name is Koutalas and derives from the famous family of the Koutalas'. Despite the fact that information on this monastery is very little, it seems though, it was a sacred place of worship from ancient times.
Tel: +30 210 7669203
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