Archaeological sites PYTHAGORIO (Small town) SAMOS - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

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Archaeological sites (18)

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SAMOS (Ancient city) SAMOS
Visit also Heraion http://www.gtp.gr/HeraionSamos the great all over the ancient world sanctuary of Samos and today the celebrated archaelogical site.

Ancient aqueducts

The Tunnel of Eupalinos

PYTHAGORIO (Small town) SAMOS

Ancient sanctuaries

HERAION (Ancient sanctuary) SAMOS
  According to Greek Mythology, this was Hera's birthplace as well as the place she grew up in and the location where she married Zeus. The Heraion is located in a place near the east riverbank of the Imbrassos River. Herodotus attributes its establishment to the Leleges. Hera accepted the adoration of the Goddess Gaea, which was officially accepted on the island along with the settlement of Ions. Heraion's fame and power enlarges in the middle of the 7th century. This is evident by the plethora of structures that were built around the Temple as well as the ex votoes (statues of Hera, huge vases and pithoi) that are offered by many Greek cities. For this reason, a large colonnade was built so they could be kept safe. South of the large altar, a series of stone foundations have been preserved, which supported the ship dedicated by Kolaeos to Hera in addition to the large bronze lebes. Nude Games and Music Competitions took place in Hera's honor, a celebration that took place twice a year (?eraia and Tonea). The area was looted and destroyed in the 3rd century A.D. Two centuries later, a Christian Church in the form of a three-aisle basilica will be constructed in its place. The excavations of the Heraion site begin in 1902 and continue periodically, until today.
  Three older Temples preceded the Heraion area : the Ekatompedon I and Ekatompedon II as well as the Temple of Rhoikos and Theodoros. The Temple of Hera was built upon the remains of the Temple previously mentioned, which was destroyed by a fire shortly after it was built. The Temple of Hera is still preserved today. It was built in 530 B.C. (within the same period of Polycrates' tyranny). Limestone was used to construct the Temple except in the case of the bases and capitals that were made from marble. Due to the Athenian domination, construction was never completed. The south columns were constructed during the Hellenistic times whilst the remaining single column that is preserved in its place today dates back to the same period. The Great Altar was built simultaneously with the Temple, in the original altar's place. The Altar had been restored seven times until then. It was a large, rectangular building (3 meters in height).
  A significant number of buildings were constructed around the Temple. Thus, in the beginning of the 6th century, the large Temple of Hermes and Aphrodite was built whilst during the 7th century, the sacred cisterns were built in addition to the large Ionic colonnade (70 meters in length) in the north. Ex votoes, statues and small temples were built periodically. A small staircase was built in the Roman Temple's facade during the 2nd century A.D. It was probably built to serve the needs of the Roman Temple, which had been built at that time. Gradually, during the same period, a settlement was created (the remains from a Roman home are preserved). The pavement of the Sacred Road is built in the 3rd century, which unites the Temple to the Pythagorean city and upon which they had placed ex votoes and statues.

This text is cited May 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs URL below.


Excavations

Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut

PYTHAGORIO (Small town) SAMOS
Tel: +30 210 3307400, 3307416
Fax: +30 210 3814762

Perseus Building Catalog

Samos, Great Hera Temple

HERAION (Ancient sanctuary) SAMOS
Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: The Great Hera Temple is opposite the cult altar in the Sanctuary of Hera at Samos
Date: 510 B.C. - 460 B.C.
Period: Archaic/Classical

Plan:
A dipteral (double colonnade) temple with a 3rd row of columns at front and back (3 rows of 8 along front and 3 rows of 9 along back). Ionic order. Pronaos and cella divided into 3 aisles by two rows of columns. Steps at front added in Roman period.

History:
Construction lasted over a century and possibly never completed. Built as part of the tyrant Polykrates' building campaign over the earlier dipteral temple of architects Rhoikos and Theodoros. Stood in ruins by 170 A.D.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Hera Temple of Rhoikos and Theodoros

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple Summary: Hera Temple built by architects Rhoikos and Theodoros stood opposite the cult altar in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 570 B.C. - 560 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
A dipteral (double colonnade) Ionic temple with a square pronaos and a cella equal in length to the total width of stylobate. Cella and pronaos divided into 3 aisles by 2 rows of columns. A double row of 8 columns and a double row of 10 columns along the front and back of the stylobate. Presumed that columns at front lined up with the double row of internal cella and pronaos columns.

History:
In same location as earlier hekatompedon temples. Built by Rhoikos and Theodoros. The first of the giant Ionic temples. Destroyed ca. a decade after its completion, possibly by earthquake.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Temple A

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple A, NW of altar and center court of Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 575 B.C. - 550 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Small non-peripteral temple with almost square cella and a pronaos in antis. A single step ran around the building. Inside a cult statue base stands against center of rear wall, opposite the single entrance.

History:
Built in the mid-6th c. B.C., the temple is aligned with an earlier version of the cult altar. It may have housed the cult statue of Hera during the construction of the later temple and altar of Hera.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Temple B

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple B is N of the main altar in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 575 B.C. - 525 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Small non-peripteral temple with rectangular cella and pronaos in antis. May have had 2 Ionic columns in antis and a statue base in center of cella. A single step ran around the building.

History:
A new floor and repairs made after earthquake damage in late 6th c. B.C. Replaced by a wider and shorter temple in antis (which used original W and S walls) in 2nd or 1st c. B.C. Later temple may have been distyle in antis.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Temple C

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple C, immediately N of main altar in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 550 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
A peripteral (6 x 11) temple, distyle in antis, probably of Ionic order. Colonnade stood on separate foundations, not on stylobate. Uncertain if antae extended to front of structure (as reconstructed) or if there were 6 columns along the front--as along the back. Double row of columns stood inside the deep pronaos and possibly inside the cella as well (not shown on reconstruction).

History:
The late Archaic temple was radically rebuilt (with new cella and pronaos) in Roman era, ca. 1st c. A.D.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Temple D

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple D, NE of Temple A in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 550 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
A non-peripteral temple (or possibly treasury) with an almost square cella and a pronaos and an opisthodomos, both in antis. A single door in center of the pronaos.

History:
Built in second half of 6th c. B.C

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, First Hekatompedon Temple

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: First Hekatompedon temple of Hera, opposite the cult altar in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 800 B.C. - 700 B.C.
Period: Geometric

Plan:
The oldest temple in the sanctuary. A long cella with open front faced the altar to the E. The cella had a central row of wooden columns on stone slab bases and a limestone cult statue base at W end. Debated, but generally accepted as being peripteral (6 x 17), as reconstructed on plan.

History:
Few remains, but stylistically dated to 8th c. B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Second Hekatompedon Temple

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: 2nd Hekatompedon temple of Hera, built over the 1st Hekatompedon in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 675 B.C. - 625 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
A rebuilt Hekatompedon on same site as the first. Cella remained same size, but colonnade increased and central row of columns removed from cella. Colonnade was square wooden piers resting on cult stone round bases. Inside cella a bench-like projection ran around 3 walls. This may have served for seating or as base for interior supports to reduce free span of the roof. Temple may have stood on earth podium as at the North Building.

History:
Replaced 1st Hekatompedon in mid-7th c. B.C. and demolished in 6th c. B.C. to make room for the Rhoikos temple.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Main Altar

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Altar
Summary: Monumental altar in center of Sanctuary of Hera
Date: 560 B.C. - 550 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
A three-sided open-air platform with a broad staircase in antis on its west side. N and S walls serve as antae with sculptured pilaster capitals (see 3 details).

History:
At least 7 earlier altars beneath present structure, the oldest dating to the Late Bronze Age. The limestone of the Archaic altar (possibly built by Rhoikos) was replaced with marble in early Roman period and the Archaic reliefs were copied in the old style.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, Hellenistic Building

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Treasury
Summary: Hellenistic rectangular building, S of Sacred Way that leads to main altar in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 330 B.C. - 80 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Almost square structure with two doorways opening obliquely to the Sacred Way. Opposite the doorways borders set in the marble floor set off the interior SE and SW corners. The location, orientation, and floor of this unique building may indicate that it was an open "treasury" to display and protect valuable votive dedications, but its true function is unknown.

History:
Hellenistic date is indicated by the use of green-gray poros stone in foundations. Remains of mortared walls show modification or repairs of Roman date.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, North Building

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Temple
Summary: "North Building" located immediately north of the main altar at Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 560 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
The second largest temple at the site, it was a peripteral (5 x 12) temple of Ionic order with double row of columns at front and rear. Temple rested on an artificial earth platform, probably with steps along the front. No pronaos, but cella was deep and open to the front, facing the Sacred Way. The adyton had two doorways and a single row of interior columns ran the length of the cella and adyton.

History:
Original mid-6th c. B.C. temple of cella and adyton built on an artificial terrace received the addition of a colonnade later in the century.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, South Stoa

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Stoa
Summary: South Stoa, SW of the main altar in Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 700 B.C. - 550 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Long, hall-like building divided into 3 equal parts. Open along the long NW side. Rows of wooden columns, along open side and down center of building supported a hipped roof of terracotta rooftiles. Before the hall was a flagstone paved, 4 m. wide court.

History:
Built at the time of the 2nd Hekatompedon and originally formed SW boundary of the sanctuary. One of the earliest stoas known. Demolished in 6th c. B.C. to make room for the larger Hera temple and the South Building.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Samos, North West Stoa

Site: Samos, Heraion
Type: Stoa
Summary: North West Stoa, NW of main altar and W of N gate at Sanctuary of Hera, Samos
Date: 550 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Archaic/Classical

Plan:
Long, hall-like building with the N temenos wall as its real wall. Open along its length facing the Hekatompedon. A continuous structure subdivided into 8 or more sections (plan shows 3 of the sections).

History:
Apparently not built all at once, but section by section.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Site Catalog

Samos, Heraion

Region: Sporades
Periods: Dark Age, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman
Type: Sanctuary
Summary: Sanctuary of Hera.

Physical Description:
   
The Heraion is located in marshy ground at the mouth of the river Imbrasos ca. 6 km W of the ancient capital city of Samos.
Description:
   
The earliest evidence for occupation at the site goes back to the Early Bronze Age, but the first structures of a definite religious character (altar and temple) date to the Dark Ages. The sanctuary may have served a local Carian divinity originally, but the Hellenic religion probably arrived with the early Ionian colonists. According to Greek myth, it was here, beside a sacred bush, that Hera was born and married. A festival was held every year at the Heraion to celebrate the marriage of Hera and Zeus. In the mid 6th century B.C. the sanctuary was enlarged and embellished during the reign of Polycrates and the 1st Great Hera Temple was built by the architect Rhoikos. At ca. 530 B.C. Samos was captured by the Persians and the Hera Temple was destroyed by fire. A 2nd Great Temple was started at the end of the 6th century B.C., but it was never completed. Samos was a member of the Delian League and became an Athenian colony in 365 B.C. After 190 B.C. Samos came under the control of Pergamon and finally under Roman rule. The sanctuary continued to develop throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods, but was plundered a number of times by pirates and barbarians during its later history. It was also plundered by Antony in 39 B.C., but Augustus restored many of its art works.
Exploration:
   
Visited by Society of Dilettanti in 1812 and Ross in 1841. Minor test excavations by Gerard, Clerc, Kavvadias and Sophulis at end of 19th century. Excavated by German Archaeological Institute 1910-14, 1925-39, and since 1952.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 12 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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