The most important site is the ancient city of Paleros which was situated
in the current position of Κechropoula in the SE of the peninsula. The city is
believed to exist since the Mycenaean period.
Evidence of that are the walls of the city, part of it belongs to the second millennium B.C.
The construction of the walls varies between trapezium and polygon system and they belong to different time periods. The oldest part of the walls belongs to the Mycenaean period. The port of ancient Paleros was situated in the current position of Pogonia, in the SE part of the peninsula. Ruins of marine construction have been found East of the village.
The fortress was constructed in the middle of 5th century; some believe is identical to the ancient city of Sollion, colony of the Corinthians. Today, in that location still exist ruins and the views of historians regarding the fortress of sterna vary, if there was an ancient city and what was its name. Others place Sollio, others Νiriko, others place in Sterna another ancient city with great power. For this opinion substantiates the fact of the position in which the fortress is located, from which one can have control of a vast area. Sollio was a marine base of Corinthos, was conquered during the Peloponnesian war by the Athenians and according to Thoukidides ( 430 B.C.) came under the control of Palerians-Akarnanians.
The strategic interests of the Athenians from 454 B.C. bring many conflicts in which the Akarnanian cities are involved during 5th century B.C. Akarnania during the Peloponnesian war is on the side of the Athenians and at the end of 5th century B.C. gains power.
North of the city of Paleros is situated lake Voulkaria, or lake Μyrtountion according to Stavronas. Lake probably leftover of the salt lake that occupied today’s valley of Paleros during Homer’s time. The salt lake according to the tradition was the saviour of Queen Cleopatra, when during the battle of Aktion hunted by her seekers passed with her ships the shallow channel of Paleros. Memory of the passage of Cleopatra queen of Egypt is the preservation of the name of the ancient passage as "dock of Cleopatra".
After the victory of Romans in 31 A.D., the prints of ancient Paleros are lost and historically this is explained by the establishment of Nicopolis after the battle of Aktio. The founding of Nicopolis in 30 A.D. is an important event for the distribution of the population and the whole economy of Aitoloakarnania. The surrounding cities loose a big part of their potential, as a result they became satellites of the new Metropolis, this way Ακαrnania became territorioum of this new city.
Under Trian rule whole of Akarnania belonged to the Imperial district of Epirus, with base the ancient Nicopoli. Later, Dioklitian, part of which is today’s Aitoloakarnania, recognizes Nicopoli as base of Old Epirus. Since, Aitoloakarnania is linked with the fate Byzantine Empire, of which was part. Paleros was among the cities mentioned in ancient times and during the Roman period.
If we go back in time, in second millennium B.C., we will see that that the peninsula of Plagia was an autonomous island. Plagia is situated on the NW tip of Aitoloakarnania and is separated from Lefkas by a canal that ancient Corinthians built during 600 B.C. with objective to improve transportation between the Ionian sea and Patraiko gulf.
The channel separated Lefkas island from Aitoloakarnania. They were connected through a network of swamps and islets.
The argument of the existence of Plagia as an island is supported by the fact that the valley of Paleros is below the sea level with sand type of soil, where there was sea which cut off the peninsula that Plagia is located today from the rest of Aitoloakarnania with a swamp that extended from the bay of today's Paleros to the bay of Ag. Nikolaos of Vonitsa. Leftover of the swamp is the lake Voulkaria, which is connected today with the sea by a canal.
The view that Plagia was an island in the Homer years generates theories regarding the existence and actual location of "Homeric" Ithaka in Plagia. German researcher Doerpfeld, suggests that the Plagia Peninsula belongs to the geographic arrangement of "Homeric" Ithaka (Homer Odyssey). He equates the ancient city of Paleros with "Homeric" Nirikos, he believes that Nirikos was on the hill of St. Georgios where today exists the fort of St. Georgios.
Views of researchers vary on the location of "Homeric" Ithaka and many theories have been created.
According to German researcher Doerpfeld, the peninsula of Plagia was initially an island, believed to be the "Homeric country" of Kefallineans, where the ancient city of Nirikos existed, it was conquered by Laertis and incorporated with Ithaka, as the Kefallines became warriors of Odysseus. According to this theory, in the peninsula of Plagia, which is used today as in ancient times for shepherding, Odysseus could have had his schools of pigs, sheep, goats and cows. For Voukoulo Filoitio the poet informs us he lived in the city of Kefallineans. Kegallines lived in the time of Odysseus across in the mainland, and the herds of Odysseus according to Odysseus (ξ, 100 and υ, 210) were located in the peninsula of the mainland and at the same time in the region of Kefallines.
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