Archaeological sites ETOLOAKARNANIA (Prefecture) GREECE - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

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Listed 19 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites  for wider area of: "ETOLOAKARNANIA Prefecture GREECE" .


Archaeological sites (19)

Ancient temples

Stratos Project

STRATOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
The project is under the auspices of the Berlin Head Office of the Deutsches Archaologisches Institut.

Ancient theatres

Ancient towns

Oiniades

KATOCHI (Small town) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
On the west of the village, there is a rocky hill with oak trees, where the remains of the ancient city of Oiniades are situated.

PALEROS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  The most important site is the ancient city of Paleros which was situated in the current position of Κechropoula in the SE of the peninsula. The city is believed to exist since the Mycenaean period.
  Evidence of that are the walls of the city, part of it belongs to the second millennium B.C.
  The construction of the walls varies between trapezium and polygon system and they belong to different time periods. The oldest part of the walls belongs to the Mycenaean period. The port of ancient Paleros was situated in the current position of Pogonia, in the SE part of the peninsula. Ruins of marine construction have been found East of the village.
  The fortress was constructed in the middle of 5th century; some believe is identical to the ancient city of Sollion, colony of the Corinthians. Today, in that location still exist ruins and the views of historians regarding the fortress of sterna vary, if there was an ancient city and what was its name. Others place Sollio, others Νiriko, others place in Sterna another ancient city with great power. For this opinion substantiates the fact of the position in which the fortress is located, from which one can have control of a vast area. Sollio was a marine base of Corinthos, was conquered during the Peloponnesian war by the Athenians and according to Thoukidides ( 430 B.C.) came under the control of Palerians-Akarnanians.
  The strategic interests of the Athenians from 454 B.C. bring many conflicts in which the Akarnanian cities are involved during 5th century B.C. Akarnania during the Peloponnesian war is on the side of the Athenians and at the end of 5th century B.C. gains power.
  North of the city of Paleros is situated lake Voulkaria, or lake Μyrtountion according to Stavronas. Lake probably leftover of the salt lake that occupied today’s valley of Paleros during Homer’s time. The salt lake according to the tradition was the saviour of Queen Cleopatra, when during the battle of Aktion hunted by her seekers passed with her ships the shallow channel of Paleros. Memory of the passage of Cleopatra queen of Egypt is the preservation of the name of the ancient passage as "dock of Cleopatra".
  After the victory of Romans in 31 A.D., the prints of ancient Paleros are lost and historically this is explained by the establishment of Nicopolis after the battle of Aktio. The founding of Nicopolis in 30 A.D. is an important event for the distribution of the population and the whole economy of Aitoloakarnania. The surrounding cities loose a big part of their potential, as a result they became satellites of the new Metropolis, this way Ακαrnania became territorioum of this new city.
  Under Trian rule whole of Akarnania belonged to the Imperial district of Epirus, with base the ancient Nicopoli. Later, Dioklitian, part of which is today’s Aitoloakarnania, recognizes Nicopoli as base of Old Epirus. Since, Aitoloakarnania is linked with the fate Byzantine Empire, of which was part. Paleros was among the cities mentioned in ancient times and during the Roman period.
  If we go back in time, in second millennium B.C., we will see that that the peninsula of Plagia was an autonomous island. Plagia is situated on the NW tip of Aitoloakarnania and is separated from Lefkas by a canal that ancient Corinthians built during 600 B.C. with objective to improve transportation between the Ionian sea and Patraiko gulf.
  The channel separated Lefkas island from Aitoloakarnania. They were connected through a network of swamps and islets.
  The argument of the existence of Plagia as an island is supported by the fact that the valley of Paleros is below the sea level with sand type of soil, where there was sea which cut off the peninsula that Plagia is located today from the rest of Aitoloakarnania with a swamp that extended from the bay of today's Paleros to the bay of Ag. Nikolaos of Vonitsa. Leftover of the swamp is the lake Voulkaria, which is connected today with the sea by a canal.
  The view that Plagia was an island in the Homer years generates theories regarding the existence and actual location of "Homeric" Ithaka in Plagia. German researcher Doerpfeld, suggests that the Plagia Peninsula belongs to the geographic arrangement of "Homeric" Ithaka (Homer Odyssey). He equates the ancient city of Paleros with "Homeric" Nirikos, he believes that Nirikos was on the hill of St. Georgios where today exists the fort of St. Georgios.
  Views of researchers vary on the location of "Homeric" Ithaka and many theories have been created.
  According to German researcher Doerpfeld, the peninsula of Plagia was initially an island, believed to be the "Homeric country" of Kefallineans, where the ancient city of Nirikos existed, it was conquered by Laertis and incorporated with Ithaka, as the Kefallines became warriors of Odysseus. According to this theory, in the peninsula of Plagia, which is used today as in ancient times for shepherding, Odysseus could have had his schools of pigs, sheep, goats and cows. For Voukoulo Filoitio the poet informs us he lived in the city of Kefallineans. Kegallines lived in the time of Odysseus across in the mainland, and the herds of Odysseus according to Odysseus (ξ, 100 and υ, 210) were located in the peninsula of the mainland and at the same time in the region of Kefallines.

Ancient walls

Archaeological site of Sterna

PLAGIA (Village) AKTIO - VONITSA
  The archeological place of Sterna, which is situated o the peak of the mountain over the old Plagia. There is an ancient wall and two watch towers on the two hills opposite the area of Sterna.
This text (extract) is cited August 2003 from the Municipality of Kekropia tourist pamphlet.

Perseus Building Catalog

Thermon, Bouleuterion

THERMON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Site: Thermon
Type: Bouleuterion
Summary: Rectangular building; in the southeast corner of the Sanctuary of Apollo Thermios.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 160 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Rectangular meeting hall opening on the north.

History:
Also known as the Aetolian Council Hall.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, East Stoa

Site: Thermon
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; at the southeast corner of the Sanctuary of Apollo Thermios.
Date: ca. 275 B.C. - 216 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Two-aisled stoa opening west with a Doric outer colonnade.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, Fountainhouse

Site: Thermon
Type: Fountainhouse
Summary: Rectangular structure with zig-zag channel; in the Sanctuary of Apollo Thermios, between the Temple of Apollo and the Middle Stoa.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 200 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Small three-sided building fitted with spouts and opening southwest. A zig-zag channel from it runs roughly east-west.

History:
The fountain and channel still function.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, Megaron A

Site: Thermon
Type: House
Summary: 'Hair-pin' shaped house; on the north side of the Sanctuary of Apollo, partly under the northwest corner of the Temple of Apollo Thermios.
Date: ca. 1400 B.C. - 1100 B.C.
Period: Late Bronze Age

Plan:
Long apsidal building opening southwest. On the south end, extended antae, possibly returning, formed a deep porch, the porch rear wall opened onto a long nearly rectangular room with a door on its north end leading into a room in the apse.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, Megaron B

Site: Thermon
Type: Temple
Summary: Three-roomed structure; beneath the later Temple of Apollo Thermios.
Date: ca. 1000 B.C. - 680 B.C.
Period: Geometric

Plan:
Long, narrow building, with deep porch, large central room and a small rear room. Slightly curving rear wall.

History:
The function of the slightly apsidal 10th century B.C. structure is uncertain. The peristyle of wooden posts resting on stone slabs appears to have been added later, possibly in the 8th or 7th century B.C. The apsidal colonnade of wooden posts surrounding Megaron B would make it the earliest example of a temple with a colonnade, and the only example of an apsidal peristyle, but Lawrence suggests the relation of these posts to Megaron B is probably coincidental.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, Middle Stoa

Site: Thermon
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; in the Sanctuary of Apollo Thermios, running north-south between the Temple of Apollo and the South Stoa.
Date: ca. 275 B.C. - 216 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Two-aisled stoa opening east with buttressed rear wall on the west.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, Sanctuary Walls

Site: Thermon
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Wall with towers; surrounding the Sanctuary of Apollo Thermios.
Date: ca. 250 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Nearly rectangular peribolos wall with square towers built at regular intervals, and round towers guarding the southwest entry. Another entry on the northern wall.

History:
The entire wall is not preserved. Although remains at the sanctuary date to earlier periods, the protective walls are from the 3rd century B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, South Stoa

Site: Thermon
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; on the south side of the Sanctuary of Apollo Thermios, parallel to the southern sanctuary wall.
Date: ca. 275 B.C. - 216 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Two-aisled stoa with probable Doric outer colonnade, opening north. Buttressed rear wall.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon, Temple of Apollo

Site: Thermon
Type: Temple
Summary: Narrow peripteral temple; at the northern end of the Sanctuary of Apollo Thermios.
Date: ca. 630 B.C. - 610 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Doric peripteral temple, 5 x 15 columns, with two-aisled cella opening south directly onto the peristyle. The first of the 10 interior columns stood in the space between the antae of the cella. Opisthodomos with 2 columns on the north.

History:
Built over the remains of Megaron B. The wooden columns were later replaced by stone. Northwest of the temple may have been a small Temple of Apollo Lyseios, and to the east, a small Temple of Artemis.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 29 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Site Catalog

Kalydon

KALYDON (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
Region: Aetolia
Periods: Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic
Type: Fortified city and sanctuary
Summary: Setting of the Kalydonian boar hunt.

Physical Description:
   
N of the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth, Kalydon was a minor city enclosed by a 4 km long circuit wall (3rd century B.C. date) and a strongly fortified acropolis. A sacred road ran ca. 400 m from the West City Gate to the Sanctuary of Artemis Laphria. The sanctuary had originally 2 Archaic temples dedicated to Artemis and Apollo. During the Classical and Hellenistic period the sanctuary developed to include a number of stoas, treasuries and other structures.
Description:
   
Kalydon was recorded by Homer as the home of Oeneus and the setting of the Caledonian boar hunt. The historical city is little known and apparently unimportant, but the growth of the Sanctuary of Artemis, the construction of the city's walls in the 3rd century B.C., and the size of some of the Hellenistic tombs indicate some prosperity. The city declined in the Roman period, and in 30 B.C. Augustus transferred the inhabitants to the new city of Nikopolis.
Exploration:
   
Early description of the remains by Leake (1835) and Woodhouse (1897). Excavations on the acropolis and at the sanctuary of Artemis Laphria in 1908 by G. Sotiriadis. In 1926, 1928, and 1932 joint Greek-Danish excavations carried out under F. Poulsen and K. Romaios.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 13 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thermon

THERMON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Region: Aetolia
Periods: Late Bronze Age, Geometric, Dark Age, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic
Type: Sanctuary
Summary: Sanctuary of Apollo and meeting place of the Aetolian League.

Physical Description:
    Located on a mountain plateau above the NE shore of Lake Trichonis in W Central Greece, the fortified temenos occupied an area of 340 by 200 m. It contained 3 temples, 3 stoas, a fountain and spring, agora, and a bouleuterion as well as exedra and votive sculpture. Fragmentary remains of an early (ca. 630-610 B.C.) Doric temple were found below the later temple of Apollo Thermios and above the so-called Megaron B, a possible temple of Geometric date. There was also a temple of Artemis at the sanctuary.
Description:
   
The site was first settled in the Late Bronze Age. At sometime in the Geometric period the site took on a religious character as evidenced by the remains of Megaron B, a cult building with an elliptical colonnade (which may, however, have been added at a later date). Above the Megaron B temple an Archaic temple was built which was then replaced after 206 B.C. by the final temple of Apollo Thermios. In the Classical period the site became a Pan-Aetolian sanctuary and the meeting place for members of the Aetolian League. Annual festivals were held and the election of magistrates took place in the bouleuterion at the site. The fortification of the sanctuary probably occurred after the invasion of Antipater and Krateros in 323 B.C. Thermon was plundered by Philip V of Macedon in 218 and 206 B.C., but it continued to function until ca. 168 B.C. when the League was reduced. The discovery of 1st century B.C. graves in the temenos area indicates that the site was no longer a sacred precinct by this time.
Exploration:
   
Excavations: 1896-1916, G. Soteriades, Greek Archaeological Society.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 19 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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