Listed 13 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites
for wider area of: "ACHAIA
Archaeological sites (13)
Mycenaen tombs at Kyriazaiika location.
Ancient Aigeira (in the province of Achaia) lies on the north coast of the Peloponnese
- roughly opposite Delphi - at the opening of a valley which leads directly into
the Corinthian gulf; together with Pellene, it represents the easternmost city
of the ancient region of Achaia.
Excavated finds revealing human activity and dating to the advanced
late neolithic period have been found on the acropolis hill, which lies 416 m.
above sea level; while excavated remains, in the same location, of a late Mycenaean
settlement of the early 12th century B.C. constitute the beginning of a continuous
settlement. The remains of a mansion and abundant finds point to a settlement
structure, which developed during the period of foreign migrations and can be
situated in the late Mycenaean koine.
In the following period, perhaps already after the 10th century B.C.,
an early Greek sanctuary was erected on the acropolis, a sanctuary which was continually
rebuilt and which continued to be used into the 4th century B.C. A wide spectrum
of votive objects, as well as architectural evidence such as foundation walls
and painted roof tiles, attests to the development of this sacred centre as the
nucleus of the city of Aigeira, a city which, at least in the early period, is
to be connected with the "Hyperesia" of Homeric tradition.
For an evaluation of Aigeira in its prime, that is, at its greatest
extent measuring ca. half a square kilometer and surrounded by a circuit wall,
the excavation results from the theatre terrace in the north, beneath the acropolis
hill, are particularly instructive.
In the course of a thorough new foundation in the hellenistic period,
at about 280 B.C., a monumental, public, sacred civic centre was achieved through
the construction of a theatre and adjacent small temple; this area was continually
rebuilt up until the early Imperial period with further temples and a cult building
dedicated to Tyche. A period of usage prior to that of the theatre-complex is
not to be ruled out for an additional sanctuary to the north, from which foundations
of two further temples are preserved.
In addition to the preserved architectural elements, the sculptural
finds of the 2nd c. B.C., amongst them an over-lifesize head of Zeus by the sculptor
Eukleides, and a draped female conforming to the figure of Tyche, as well as the
mosaic floors of the small temples, attest to the high quality of the fittings
of this space and its buildings.
It is therefore not surprising that even in the 2nd c. A.D. this ensemble
attracted the attention of the travel writer Pausanias, whose short description
absolutely corresponds to the excavated finds.
Two additional public spaces, which currently cannot adequately be
classified, nevertheless at least provide evidence for the complex urban articulation
of the city. Corresponding to this is an extensive infrastructure, which above
all has to do with structures for the provision of water. An aqueduct system which
can be traced for a number of kilometres and which, coming from the south, was
carried over wide stretches through rock tunnels, guaranteed the city's water
supply. This system was continually rebuilt and remained in use from the pre-hellenistic
up until the post-antique period.
Complementing the public and sacred centre, remains of a domestic
building were cut into a terrace directly to the north-west of the acropolis.
An andron, decorated with pebble mosaics and fitted with 11 klinai, attests to
the representative pretension of this building, whose foundation date can provisionally
be placed in the 4th c. B.C. and which in any event predates the construction
of the complex of buildings at the theatre. In spite of sporadic evidence, the
situation of Aigeira for the Roman Imperial period and late antiquity is at the
moment not adequately known.
Research at Aigeira
The discovery of the site and the earliest archaeological investigations date
back to Otto Walter, who, with excavations at the theatre terrace in 1916 and
1925, initiated archaeological research at Aigeira which would have an impact
on the future. As the unstable political situation in Greece only allowed two
short seasons, the research presence of the Austrian Archaeological Institute
(?AI) at Aigeira was in this fashion founded.
The excavation campaigns, from 1972 to 2001 carried out under the
auspices of the central OAI in Wien and since 2002 conducted by the Athens Branch,
have brought to light fundamental evidence concerning the historical development
of this Greek settlement from the late Bronze Age up to the most recent past,
and the appraisal of its material culture.
W. Alzinger led the greatest part of the field research (from 1972-1988),
with systematic surface excavations on the acropolis and on the theatre terrace,
turning aside briefly for excavation in the plain of Palati north of the city.
Besides numerous individual studies on material such as sculpture, ceramic finds,
coins, and the like, as well as the study of the theatre by S. Gogos, a comprehensive
presentation of the historical development of Aigeira has resulted from these
investigations. The remains from the prehistoric and Bronze Age periods found
on the acropolis are currently the focus of intensive research by E. Alram-Stern
(OAW, Myceneaen Commission) and S. Deger-Jalkotzy (OAW, Mycenaean Commission).
Analysis of the ceramic finds from the Greek historical period from the acropolis
excavations is being carried out by G. Schwarz (IKA Graz). Preliminary research
for the final publication of the building elements and the remains from the so-called
Tycheion is the work of T. Hagn (IKA Vienna).
Between the years 1990-1997, A. Bammer pursued a comprehensive urban
survey, and investigated numerous areas of the city via intensive survey, measuring,
and cleaning. These studies incorporate the re-addressing of questions concerning
the water supply, the orientation of numerous extensive public areas, the photographing
of architectural remains from the Byzantine period, and the study of the modern
remains of the so-called "Houses of the Raisin Pickers". A surface excavation
in the plain of Zaoussis led to the partial exposure of the foundations of two
temples north of the theatre terrace.
The most recent excavations by G. Ladstatter (from 1998) continue
the study of the water supply of Aigeira, in connection with hydrogeological studies,
and concentrate on the excavation of the domestic buildings in the plain of Solon
to the north-west of the acropolis.
A selection of objects from the excavations is presented in the Archaeological
Museum at Aigion, while the head of Zeus is displayed in the National Museum at
Athens. The impressive ruins of the theatre with its connected temples, two of
which are protected by a modern shelter, provide an architectural impression of
the hellenistic building ensemble.
Georg Ladstatter. Feb 2004
This text cited Aug 2004 from the Austrian Archaeological Institute's URL http://www.oeai.at/eng/ausland/aigeira.html
which contains 4 images.
Ancient Lousoi (province of Achaia, Peloponnese), is located on the slopes of
the high valley of Sudena near Kalavrita at an alitude of ca. 1200 m. above sea
level, and in antiquity belonged to the region of Arcadia.
After the discovery of the sanctuary of Artemis Hemera in Lousoi by
W. Dorpfeld and A. Wilhelm in 1897, the sister-institute of the Austrian Archaeological
Institute (OAI) in Athens carried out the first excavations in three campaigns
during 1898 and 1899, under the direction of W. Reichel and A. Wilhelm.
In the sanctuary which extended over two terraced areas, the foundations
of numerous structures were nearly completely exposed, structures which exemplify
the necessary infrastructure of a small rural sanctuary of the 3rd century B.C.
The central building of the sanctuary, the temple of Artemis, was located on the
southern terrace, the higher one; its noteworthy groundplan consists of a central
naos and colonnades connected at the sides. Constructions on the slightly lower
northern terrace accompanied the road to the sanctuary, and according to the interpretation
of the excavators included a fountain house, a "propylon" (gateway) and a "bouleuterion"
(council building). The rapid publication of the architectural elements, as well
as the finds, which include votives connected to the cult of Artemis represents
even today the primary focus of research at the sanctuary.
As part of the excavations, which were renewed in 1980 under the direction
of V. Mitsopoulos-Leon and which continue to date, a survey of the architectural
remains of the extensive settlement area visible in the region has been undertaken
(F. Glaser). To this end, systematic field research has concentrated on excavations
in the sanctuary of Artemis and on the uncovering of domestic housing in the region
of Phournoi, as well as on the measurement of the remains of public structures
in the area called "stadion".
In the sanctuary, the finds recovered from undisturbed stratigraphic
layers reveal the early phase of the cult of Artemis. From the analysis of the
broad spectrum of votive gifts such as bronze jewellery, small figural bronzes
and terracottas, lead and bone votives (V. Mitsopoulos-Leon, Ch. Schauer), pyxides
for the cult and miniature vessels (Ch. Schauer), it is clear that, for the late
geometric and archaic periods, this sanctuary played a leading transregional role,
when seen against the back of similar sacral places. The discovery of the so-called
East Building expands the picture of the architectural layout of the temple terrace,
and points to a possible predecessor of the 4th c. B.C. The complete clearing
of the temple foundations and the search for architectural elements enable to
a great extent the reconstruction and classification of this building from the
turn of the 4th-3rd century B.C. or slightly afterwards. The structure, which
consists of a marble architectural order at the front and in the cella, is divided
into a naos, consisting of pronaos, cella and adyton, and into lateral colonnades
at the sides, comprising a unique solution for a sacred building (G. Ladstatter).
With the excavated remains of two houses from the area of Phournoi,
extending over two terraces, the hellenistic domestic culture of Lousoi can be
clarified. Neither the eastern peristyle house, which probably represents an adaptation
of one or more earlier structures, nor the simpler house to the west, embody canonical
groundplans. Furthermore, the room inventories, with their klinai, bath tubs,
and hearths, indicate a relatively elevated standard of living. The troughs for
wine production located near the domestic area, the evidence for the working of
bones and of ceramic production, as well as storage rooms, point to predominantly
agrarian resources as the economic basis of the people of Lousoi. From a rebuilding,
incorporating numerous stretches of walls, which occurred after the houses were
destroyed all at once probably in the 1st cent. A.D., it can be seen that the
area continued to be used until the late Imperial period.
The preliminary results of a survey in the region called "stadion"
point to a monumental public building in this area. The foundations of a two-aisled
stoa, further traces of walls arranged in a rectangular ground plan, as well as
massive worked ashlar blocks suggest that the remains of a hellenistic civic square
should be identified here.
From this research, beginning with the development of the sanctuary
in the late 8th century B.C., followed by a hellenistic civic settlement covering
an extensive built up area and with the outgoing use of the site in the late Roman
period, important stages of the historical development of the settlement of Lousoi
can be recognised.
The foundations of the Artemis sanctuary and the groundplans of the
houses are visible high above the valley in an impressive location. Until the
construction of a museum at the site, the most important finds are kept in the
Ephorate in Patras.
Veronika Mitsopoulos-Leon Feb 2004
This text cited Aug 2004 from the Austrian Archaeological Institute's URL http://www.oeai.at/eng/ausland/lousoi.html
which contains 3 images and bibliography.
- Municipality of Dymi WebPage
Tel: +30 26920 31633,
Fax: +30 26920 31588
In the village Kastria of Achaia,
60km from Tripoli (tunnel
at Artemision) and 9 Km from
Kleitoria, lies the famous
“Cave of the Lakes”.
It is a rare creation of Nature. Apart from its labyrinth of corridors,
its mysterious galleries and its strange stalactite formations, the “Cave
of the Lakes” has something exclusively unique that does not exist in other
well known caves. Inside the cave there is a string of cascading lakes forming
three different levels that establish its uniqueness in the world.
The cave is an old subterranean river whose explored length is 1980
meters. In winter when the snow melts, the cave is transformed into a subterranean
river with natural waterfalls. In the summer months, part of the cave dries up
revealing a lace-work of stone-basins and dams of up to 4 m. in height. The rest
of the cave retains water permanently throughout the year in 13 picturesque lakes.
The developed part of the cave is currently 500 meters long. It includes
artistic lighting. The visitor enters the cave through an artificial tunnel which
leads directly to the second floor. The dimensions of this part of the cavern
create awe, rapture, admiration. The passage from lake to lake is possible by
small man-made bridges.
At the cave’s lower floor, human and animal fossils
were found, among which that of a hippopotamus. This part of the cave is intended
to become a biological cave laboratory of international standing.
THE CAVE’S LEGEND
The legend says that the daughters of Proitos, king of Tirynth, Lyssippi,
Ifinoy and Ifianassa, bragged that they were more beautiful than the Goddess Hera
and scorned the worship of the God Dionysus. Zeus’s mate didn’t forgive
their vanity and took their sanity, causing them to believe that they were heifers
running wild on the mountains and meadows of Peloponnisos,
infecting the women of Argolida
with the craze of infanticide. Someday they arrived at the cave of Aroanios
were they were found by Melambodas who cured them. He then led them to the village
EXPLORATION - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAVE
In 1965, the residents of the valley of Kastria reached for
the first time the second floor, using wooden ladders from a 9 meter ramp. The
cave was explored by the E.O.S. (Hellenic Alpine Club) with the help of Prof.
I. Melendis and mapped by the E.S.S. (Hellenic Speleological Society) under the
supervision of Mrs. Anna Petrochilou. The development of the cave began in 1981
by E.O.T. (Hellenic
Tourism Organization) and continued from the former community of Kastria. Today
the municipality of
Lefkasio is responsible for the cave’s operation and is resided at Kleitoria
Tel: +30 210 8213708,
Fax: +30 210 8220798
Tel: +30 210 8213708,
Fax: +30 210 8220798
Tel: +30 2610 276207
It was built shortly before the Odeion of Herodes Atticus in Athens
(161 A.D.) and is smaller than the Athenian monument. The cavea has four rows
of seats in the lower section, and seven in the upper part, over the diazoma.
The outer, tall wall of the stage (skene) has five entrances to the skene and
the lateral buildings (paraskenia). Access to the proskenion is gained through
two built stairways, one on the left and one on the right side. The orchestra
is paved and separated from the cavea by a semicircular parapet. The Odeion was
revealed in 1889 and until then it was completely covered with earth. Only restricted
excavation has been carried out on the site.
was repaired and again dressed with marble slabs after World War II.
Every summer the Odeion is employed for music concerts and theatrical
On the West side of the acropolis, at the upper town, lies the Roman
Odeum of Patras, erected
prior to the Athens Odeum. (Herodeum, 160 AD). Pausanias, that visited Patras
in the decade of 170AC writes, "It has the most beautiful decoration I have ever
seen, after that of Athens". As Pausanias reports, inside the Odeum that used
to be a continuance of the Agora, there was a statue of Apollo, made of the loots
of the war against the Galatians (279 BC), when Patras people had helped the Etolians.
In the centuries that followed, earthquakes, wars and conquerors destroyed
the Odeum and covered it with other buildings and ground. A small hill was created,
which covered almost the entire Odeum. The Odeum saw daylight again in 1889, when
there have been some works of digging to collect ground for the banking up of
A lot of decades went by until the process of restoration begun, which
was completed in 1956, the year that the Odeum regained its initial shape. On
the same decade, the surroundings were turned into an archaeological site, housing
the exhibition of sarcophagi, mosaics and other ancient findings.
The Odeum contains all the basic parts of a theatre such as hollow,
orchestra, proscenium, scene and wings as well as 23 rows of seats, while its
capacity is 2300 spectators.
After the establishment of Patras International Festival, the Ancient
Odeum constitutes its main venue, welcoming in the summer months, top Greek and
foreign artistic bands.
This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Municipality of Patra URL below, which contains image.
Patras' Roman Aqueduct
Patras was rendered a Roman colony in 31BC and the dominance of Roman architecture has been all-embracing. Many public buildings and works were constructed at the expense of Roman Emperors and the benefactors of the city. One of these works was the Roman aqueduct, necessary in a populous city like Patras. It was the time that Patras was going through the most flourishing period in its history, occupying its position as Greece's gate to Italy. Romans constructed a large water reservoir at the sources of Romanos river, where Diakoniaris torrent rises. The reservoir was constructed in the form of an artificial dam at the beginning of the glade, at ten meters distance from the sources. A part of the initial wall of the dam is incorporated today at the base of the contemporary reservoir, while 20m away, inside the river's bed, there are large pieces of a strong wall. At the sources of Romanos River, as it derives from an inscription discovered last century, they worshiped Nymphs, deities of water. Patras' aqueduct, from the reservoir to the fortress, was 6.5km long. Water was transferred at its biggest part through a built ground pipe, passing through valleys and gullies on well-looked-after arches, parts of which survive till nowadays. There were branch-pipes towards several directions with covered pipes of smaller cross-section. The constant water flow was accomplished thanks to the principle of communicating vessels, of which Greeks were aware.
This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Municipality of Patra URL below.