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Listed 13 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for wider area of: "ACHAIA Prefecture GREECE" .


Archaeological sites (13)

Ancient tombs

LEFKOS (Settlement) PATRA

Mycenaen tombs at Kyriazaiika location.


Ancient towns

EGIRA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Archaeological Site of Aegeira

Ancient Aigeira (in the province of Achaia) lies on the north coast of the Peloponnese - roughly opposite Delphi - at the opening of a valley which leads directly into the Corinthian gulf; together with Pellene, it represents the easternmost city of the ancient region of Achaia.
  Excavated finds revealing human activity and dating to the advanced late neolithic period have been found on the acropolis hill, which lies 416 m. above sea level; while excavated remains, in the same location, of a late Mycenaean settlement of the early 12th century B.C. constitute the beginning of a continuous settlement. The remains of a mansion and abundant finds point to a settlement structure, which developed during the period of foreign migrations and can be situated in the late Mycenaean koine.
  In the following period, perhaps already after the 10th century B.C., an early Greek sanctuary was erected on the acropolis, a sanctuary which was continually rebuilt and which continued to be used into the 4th century B.C. A wide spectrum of votive objects, as well as architectural evidence such as foundation walls and painted roof tiles, attests to the development of this sacred centre as the nucleus of the city of Aigeira, a city which, at least in the early period, is to be connected with the "Hyperesia" of Homeric tradition.
  For an evaluation of Aigeira in its prime, that is, at its greatest extent measuring ca. half a square kilometer and surrounded by a circuit wall, the excavation results from the theatre terrace in the north, beneath the acropolis hill, are particularly instructive.
  In the course of a thorough new foundation in the hellenistic period, at about 280 B.C., a monumental, public, sacred civic centre was achieved through the construction of a theatre and adjacent small temple; this area was continually rebuilt up until the early Imperial period with further temples and a cult building dedicated to Tyche. A period of usage prior to that of the theatre-complex is not to be ruled out for an additional sanctuary to the north, from which foundations of two further temples are preserved.
  In addition to the preserved architectural elements, the sculptural finds of the 2nd c. B.C., amongst them an over-lifesize head of Zeus by the sculptor Eukleides, and a draped female conforming to the figure of Tyche, as well as the mosaic floors of the small temples, attest to the high quality of the fittings of this space and its buildings.
  It is therefore not surprising that even in the 2nd c. A.D. this ensemble attracted the attention of the travel writer Pausanias, whose short description absolutely corresponds to the excavated finds.
  Two additional public spaces, which currently cannot adequately be classified, nevertheless at least provide evidence for the complex urban articulation of the city. Corresponding to this is an extensive infrastructure, which above all has to do with structures for the provision of water. An aqueduct system which can be traced for a number of kilometres and which, coming from the south, was carried over wide stretches through rock tunnels, guaranteed the city's water supply. This system was continually rebuilt and remained in use from the pre-hellenistic up until the post-antique period.
  Complementing the public and sacred centre, remains of a domestic building were cut into a terrace directly to the north-west of the acropolis. An andron, decorated with pebble mosaics and fitted with 11 klinai, attests to the representative pretension of this building, whose foundation date can provisionally be placed in the 4th c. B.C. and which in any event predates the construction of the complex of buildings at the theatre. In spite of sporadic evidence, the situation of Aigeira for the Roman Imperial period and late antiquity is at the moment not adequately known.

Research at Aigeira
The discovery of the site and the earliest archaeological investigations date back to Otto Walter, who, with excavations at the theatre terrace in 1916 and 1925, initiated archaeological research at Aigeira which would have an impact on the future. As the unstable political situation in Greece only allowed two short seasons, the research presence of the Austrian Archaeological Institute (?AI) at Aigeira was in this fashion founded.
  The excavation campaigns, from 1972 to 2001 carried out under the auspices of the central OAI in Wien and since 2002 conducted by the Athens Branch, have brought to light fundamental evidence concerning the historical development of this Greek settlement from the late Bronze Age up to the most recent past, and the appraisal of its material culture.
  W. Alzinger led the greatest part of the field research (from 1972-1988), with systematic surface excavations on the acropolis and on the theatre terrace, turning aside briefly for excavation in the plain of Palati north of the city. Besides numerous individual studies on material such as sculpture, ceramic finds, coins, and the like, as well as the study of the theatre by S. Gogos, a comprehensive presentation of the historical development of Aigeira has resulted from these investigations. The remains from the prehistoric and Bronze Age periods found on the acropolis are currently the focus of intensive research by E. Alram-Stern (OAW, Myceneaen Commission) and S. Deger-Jalkotzy (OAW, Mycenaean Commission). Analysis of the ceramic finds from the Greek historical period from the acropolis excavations is being carried out by G. Schwarz (IKA Graz). Preliminary research for the final publication of the building elements and the remains from the so-called Tycheion is the work of T. Hagn (IKA Vienna).
  Between the years 1990-1997, A. Bammer pursued a comprehensive urban survey, and investigated numerous areas of the city via intensive survey, measuring, and cleaning. These studies incorporate the re-addressing of questions concerning the water supply, the orientation of numerous extensive public areas, the photographing of architectural remains from the Byzantine period, and the study of the modern remains of the so-called "Houses of the Raisin Pickers". A surface excavation in the plain of Zaoussis led to the partial exposure of the foundations of two temples north of the theatre terrace.
  The most recent excavations by G. Ladstatter (from 1998) continue the study of the water supply of Aigeira, in connection with hydrogeological studies, and concentrate on the excavation of the domestic buildings in the plain of Solon to the north-west of the acropolis.
  A selection of objects from the excavations is presented in the Archaeological Museum at Aigion, while the head of Zeus is displayed in the National Museum at Athens. The impressive ruins of the theatre with its connected temples, two of which are protected by a modern shelter, provide an architectural impression of the hellenistic building ensemble.

Georg Ladstatter. Feb 2004
This text cited Aug 2004 from the Austrian Archaeological Institute's URL http://www.oeai.at/eng/ausland/aigeira.html which contains 4 images.


LOUSSES (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Archaeological Site of Loussae

Ancient Lousoi (province of Achaia, Peloponnese), is located on the slopes of the high valley of Sudena near Kalavrita at an alitude of ca. 1200 m. above sea level, and in antiquity belonged to the region of Arcadia.
  After the discovery of the sanctuary of Artemis Hemera in Lousoi by W. Dorpfeld and A. Wilhelm in 1897, the sister-institute of the Austrian Archaeological Institute (OAI) in Athens carried out the first excavations in three campaigns during 1898 and 1899, under the direction of W. Reichel and A. Wilhelm.
  In the sanctuary which extended over two terraced areas, the foundations of numerous structures were nearly completely exposed, structures which exemplify the necessary infrastructure of a small rural sanctuary of the 3rd century B.C. The central building of the sanctuary, the temple of Artemis, was located on the southern terrace, the higher one; its noteworthy groundplan consists of a central naos and colonnades connected at the sides. Constructions on the slightly lower northern terrace accompanied the road to the sanctuary, and according to the interpretation of the excavators included a fountain house, a "propylon" (gateway) and a "bouleuterion" (council building). The rapid publication of the architectural elements, as well as the finds, which include votives connected to the cult of Artemis represents even today the primary focus of research at the sanctuary.
  As part of the excavations, which were renewed in 1980 under the direction of V. Mitsopoulos-Leon and which continue to date, a survey of the architectural remains of the extensive settlement area visible in the region has been undertaken (F. Glaser). To this end, systematic field research has concentrated on excavations in the sanctuary of Artemis and on the uncovering of domestic housing in the region of Phournoi, as well as on the measurement of the remains of public structures in the area called "stadion".
  In the sanctuary, the finds recovered from undisturbed stratigraphic layers reveal the early phase of the cult of Artemis. From the analysis of the broad spectrum of votive gifts such as bronze jewellery, small figural bronzes and terracottas, lead and bone votives (V. Mitsopoulos-Leon, Ch. Schauer), pyxides for the cult and miniature vessels (Ch. Schauer), it is clear that, for the late geometric and archaic periods, this sanctuary played a leading transregional role, when seen against the back of similar sacral places. The discovery of the so-called East Building expands the picture of the architectural layout of the temple terrace, and points to a possible predecessor of the 4th c. B.C. The complete clearing of the temple foundations and the search for architectural elements enable to a great extent the reconstruction and classification of this building from the turn of the 4th-3rd century B.C. or slightly afterwards. The structure, which consists of a marble architectural order at the front and in the cella, is divided into a naos, consisting of pronaos, cella and adyton, and into lateral colonnades at the sides, comprising a unique solution for a sacred building (G. Ladstatter).
  With the excavated remains of two houses from the area of Phournoi, extending over two terraces, the hellenistic domestic culture of Lousoi can be clarified. Neither the eastern peristyle house, which probably represents an adaptation of one or more earlier structures, nor the simpler house to the west, embody canonical groundplans. Furthermore, the room inventories, with their klinai, bath tubs, and hearths, indicate a relatively elevated standard of living. The troughs for wine production located near the domestic area, the evidence for the working of bones and of ceramic production, as well as storage rooms, point to predominantly agrarian resources as the economic basis of the people of Lousoi. From a rebuilding, incorporating numerous stretches of walls, which occurred after the houses were destroyed all at once probably in the 1st cent. A.D., it can be seen that the area continued to be used until the late Imperial period.
  The preliminary results of a survey in the region called "stadion" point to a monumental public building in this area. The foundations of a two-aisled stoa, further traces of walls arranged in a rectangular ground plan, as well as massive worked ashlar blocks suggest that the remains of a hellenistic civic square should be identified here.
  From this research, beginning with the development of the sanctuary in the late 8th century B.C., followed by a hellenistic civic settlement covering an extensive built up area and with the outgoing use of the site in the late Roman period, important stages of the historical development of the settlement of Lousoi can be recognised.
  The foundations of the Artemis sanctuary and the groundplans of the houses are visible high above the valley in an impressive location. Until the construction of a museum at the site, the most important finds are kept in the Ephorate in Patras.

Veronika Mitsopoulos-Leon Feb 2004
This text cited Aug 2004 from the Austrian Archaeological Institute's URL http://www.oeai.at/eng/ausland/lousoi.html which contains 3 images and bibliography.


PSOFIS (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Ancient walls

DYMI (Ancient city) PATRA

Dymaion Wall


Caves

KASTRIA (Village) KALAVRYTA

Cave of the Lakes at Kastria - Kalavryta

Tel: +30 26920 31633, Fax: +30 26920 31588

  In the village Kastria of Achaia, 60km from Tripoli (tunnel at Artemision) and 9 Km from Kleitoria, lies the famous “Cave of the Lakes”.
  It is a rare creation of Nature. Apart from its labyrinth of corridors, its mysterious galleries and its strange stalactite formations, the “Cave of the Lakes” has something exclusively unique that does not exist in other well known caves. Inside the cave there is a string of cascading lakes forming three different levels that establish its uniqueness in the world.
  The cave is an old subterranean river whose explored length is 1980 meters. In winter when the snow melts, the cave is transformed into a subterranean river with natural waterfalls. In the summer months, part of the cave dries up revealing a lace-work of stone-basins and dams of up to 4 m. in height. The rest of the cave retains water permanently throughout the year in 13 picturesque lakes.
TOURIST ROUTE
  The developed part of the cave is currently 500 meters long. It includes artistic lighting. The visitor enters the cave through an artificial tunnel which leads directly to the second floor. The dimensions of this part of the cavern create awe, rapture, admiration. The passage from lake to lake is possible by small man-made bridges.
PALEONTOLOGICAL INTEREST
  
At the cave’s lower floor, human and animal fossils were found, among which that of a hippopotamus. This part of the cave is intended to become a biological cave laboratory of international standing.
THE CAVE’S LEGEND
  The legend says that the daughters of Proitos, king of Tirynth, Lyssippi, Ifinoy and Ifianassa, bragged that they were more beautiful than the Goddess Hera and scorned the worship of the God Dionysus. Zeus’s mate didn’t forgive their vanity and took their sanity, causing them to believe that they were heifers running wild on the mountains and meadows of Peloponnisos, infecting the women of Argolida with the craze of infanticide. Someday they arrived at the cave of Aroanios were they were found by Melambodas who cured them. He then led them to the village Loussoi.
EXPLORATION - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAVE
  
In 1965, the residents of the valley of Kastria reached for the first time the second floor, using wooden ladders from a 9 meter ramp. The cave was explored by the E.O.S. (Hellenic Alpine Club) with the help of Prof. I. Melendis and mapped by the E.S.S. (Hellenic Speleological Society) under the supervision of Mrs. Anna Petrochilou. The development of the cave began in 1981 by E.O.T. (Hellenic Tourism Organization) and continued from the former community of Kastria. Today the municipality of Lefkasio is responsible for the cave’s operation and is resided at Kleitoria (Mazeika).


Excavations

EGIRA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Austrian Archaeological Institute at Athens

Tel: +30 210 8213708, Fax: +30 210 8220798

ELIKI (Ancient city) EGIALIA

LOUSSES (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Austrian Archaeological Institute at Athens

Tel: +30 210 8213708, Fax: +30 210 8220798

Odeum

PATRAI (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Ancient Odeion of Patras

Tel: +30 2610 276207

  It was built shortly before the Odeion of Herodes Atticus in Athens (161 A.D.) and is smaller than the Athenian monument. The cavea has four rows of seats in the lower section, and seven in the upper part, over the diazoma. The outer, tall wall of the stage (skene) has five entrances to the skene and the lateral buildings (paraskenia). Access to the proskenion is gained through two built stairways, one on the left and one on the right side. The orchestra is paved and separated from the cavea by a semicircular parapet. The Odeion was revealed in 1889 and until then it was completely covered with earth. Only restricted excavation has been carried out on the site.
   The monument was repaired and again dressed with marble slabs after World War II.
   Every summer the Odeion is employed for music concerts and theatrical performances.


Ancient Odeion

  On the West side of the acropolis, at the upper town, lies the Roman Odeum of Patras, erected prior to the Athens Odeum. (Herodeum, 160 AD). Pausanias, that visited Patras in the decade of 170AC writes, "It has the most beautiful decoration I have ever seen, after that of Athens". As Pausanias reports, inside the Odeum that used to be a continuance of the Agora, there was a statue of Apollo, made of the loots of the war against the Galatians (279 BC), when Patras people had helped the Etolians.
  In the centuries that followed, earthquakes, wars and conquerors destroyed the Odeum and covered it with other buildings and ground. A small hill was created, which covered almost the entire Odeum. The Odeum saw daylight again in 1889, when there have been some works of digging to collect ground for the banking up of the port.
  A lot of decades went by until the process of restoration begun, which was completed in 1956, the year that the Odeum regained its initial shape. On the same decade, the surroundings were turned into an archaeological site, housing the exhibition of sarcophagi, mosaics and other ancient findings.
  The Odeum contains all the basic parts of a theatre such as hollow, orchestra, proscenium, scene and wings as well as 23 rows of seats, while its capacity is 2300 spectators.
  After the establishment of Patras International Festival, the Ancient Odeum constitutes its main venue, welcoming in the summer months, top Greek and foreign artistic bands.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Municipality of Patra URL below, which contains image.


Roman aqueducts

Patras' Roman Aqueduct

Patras was rendered a Roman colony in 31BC and the dominance of Roman architecture has been all-embracing. Many public buildings and works were constructed at the expense of Roman Emperors and the benefactors of the city. One of these works was the Roman aqueduct, necessary in a populous city like Patras. It was the time that Patras was going through the most flourishing period in its history, occupying its position as Greece's gate to Italy. Romans constructed a large water reservoir at the sources of Romanos river, where Diakoniaris torrent rises. The reservoir was constructed in the form of an artificial dam at the beginning of the glade, at ten meters distance from the sources. A part of the initial wall of the dam is incorporated today at the base of the contemporary reservoir, while 20m away, inside the river's bed, there are large pieces of a strong wall. At the sources of Romanos River, as it derives from an inscription discovered last century, they worshiped Nymphs, deities of water. Patras' aqueduct, from the reservoir to the fortress, was 6.5km long. Water was transferred at its biggest part through a built ground pipe, passing through valleys and gullies on well-looked-after arches, parts of which survive till nowadays. There were branch-pipes towards several directions with covered pipes of smaller cross-section. The constant water flow was accomplished thanks to the principle of communicating vessels, of which Greeks were aware.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Municipality of Patra URL below.


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