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Listed 81 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for wider area of: "ATTIKI Region GREECE" .


Archaeological sites (81)

Ancient fortresses

EGOSTHENA (Ancient fortress) ATTICA, WEST

Aigosthena

  In the Megarian sphere, Aigosthena was situated on the slopes of the Kithairon in a deep inlet of the Gulf of Corinth, on the road between Boiotia and the Peloponnesos.
  Xenophon recorded the battles that took place here in 378 B.C. and the presence of the army of Archidamos, and mentioned the inaccessibility of the site (Hell. 5.4.18; 6.4.26). The fort is also mentioned by Pausanias (1.44.5). Along with Megara, Aigosthena formed part of the Achaian League in 244, was then ceded to Boiotia for a brief time, and re-entered the League after the second Macedonian war. The interior circuit protecting the acropolis and the entire encircling wall of the city are among the best examples of Greek military architecture. The acropolis is to the E, defended by a mighty polygon of wall which is well preserved, particularly on the E and NE sides. Eight large square towers in the wall served as bulwarks. There was an entrance to the W and a rear entrance to the E. Each tower consisted of two rooms and could be entered from the circuit wall by means of a stairway. The N and S sides of the fortification walls extend, toward the sea, into the two arms. Large square towers defend the curtain wall here also. On the N side there are eight additional towers, while the wall and the towers on the S side have mostly disappeared.
  The whole fortification system is built of hard local limestone (a quarry is identifiable inside the city walls) and in conglomerate rock, and shows two different techniques. One is an irregular trapezoidal technique with a squared face, datable to the 5th c.; the other is regular isodomic with the face perfectly squared, datable to the 4th c. (several scholars, however, attribute the latter to the beginning of the Hellenistic age). The few Roman constructions on the inside of the city walls did not alter the fortifications.
  Very few monumental remains have been discovered in the area of the city. A small Byzantine church was built on an apsidal Early Christian basilica (25.15 x 20.38 m) with three large aisles. Against the S side of the basilica was a quadrangular baptistery.

N. Bonacasa, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Oct 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Ancient monuments

MEGARA (Ancient city) GREECE

Theagenes' Spring

The fountain was built in ca. 500 B.C. The front side of the building was occupied by a portico with five Doric columns, and at the back of this was a narrow cistern for the drawing up of water. Two more large cisterns, separated by a parapet, were used for the collection of water. The roof was supported by 35 octagonal columns made of poros stone, while the walls were built of large limestone blocks in the isodomic system.
  The site of the spring was located in 1898 and partly uncovered in 1900. The excavation of the monument was carried out in 1957 and 1958 by J. Papademetriou. After 1959, the water-tight plastering on the walls of the cisterns, was consolidated.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture URL below, which also contains image.


Ancient sanctuaries

EGILA (Ancient city) ANTIKYTHIRA

The Temple of Apollo

In the innermost corner of the small bay of Xeropotamos, near the ancient fortress of Aegila, some of the stones used to tie ships in the harbor remain. In 1880, during excavations there, a marble statue dedicated to Apollo (now on display in the Athens Archaeological Museum) was discovered. On the base of the statue was an inscribed dedication to the gods from Aristomenis, the son of Aristomides, a Thessalian from Ferres and from Nikona, the son of Kifisodoros of Athens. The same archaeologists found parts of a temple to Apollo that once stood there. Round the ancient harbour, pieces of the wall that encircled the temple and the harbour have survived, together with steps carved into the rock that led to the castle.

This text is cited June 2005 from the Community of Antikythira URL below


VRAVRON (Ancient city) ATTICA, EAST

Brauron

Brauron. In a marshy valley on the eastern coast of Attica lies the archaeological site of Brauron. Named after an ancient hero, Brauron was one of the twelve cities of ancient Attica as well as the home territory of the Athenian tyrant, Peisistratos. The river Erasinos flows nearby, making this location suitable for the residential population it hosted for 2200 years from the Neolithic through the Mycenaean periods. After abandonment in 1300 BC, Brauron saw no use until the 8th century BC, when it became the site of the principal sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia. Legend has it that the priestess Iphigeneia, on orders from Athena, established this cult at Brauron. The architectural remains at the site include a small shrine, generally accepted as the Tomb of Iphigeneia, a three-winged stoa, the temple of Artemis, and a stone bridge of a style unique to Attica in its time.

Megan Harrison, ed.
History
A settlement on the low acropolis hill of Brauron was occupied from the later Neolithic period, around 3500 BC, until late in the Mycenaean period, ca. 1300 BC. It flourished especially between 2000 and 1600 BC during the Middle Bronze Age. A few houses dating from this period, as well as a number of late Mycenaean chamber tombs dug into the slope east of the acropolis, have been excavated. John Papadimitriou, a Greek archaeologist who excavated much of Brauron, attributed the abandonment of the prehistoric village ca. 1300 B.C. to the legendary unification of Attica by Theseus, the mythical king of Athens. When Theseus unified the independent towns of Attica, he reputedly forced their aristocracies to move to Athens. So the aristocratic families left Brauron, while the remainder of the population was presumably settled in other villages nearby.
Occupation of Brauron began again in the eighth century B.C., but this time it was a religious site, not a town. The site was sacred to Artemis Brauronia and her priestess Iphigeneia. Euripides' Iphigeneia in Tauris explains the origin of the cult. Iphigeneia was the daughter of Agamemnon, leader of the Greeks during the Trojan War. The Greeks offended Artemis by not offering her proper sacrifice, so she would not send an appropriate wind to let them leave Greece and sail for Troy. In order to appease Artemis, they sacrificed Iphigeneia to the goddess. However, Artemis saved Iphigeneia by whisking her away to Scythian Tauris, where Iphigeneia became a priestess of Artemis.
  Many years later, Iphigeneia's brother, Orestes, came to Tauris to steal the cult statue of Artemis, as he had been ordered to do by an oracle. The Scythians caught Orestes and planned on sacrificing him to the goddess. Iphigeneia recognized her brother, however, and the two of them proceeded to steal the cult statue together. Athena told them to take the cult statue back to Greece and set up two cult sites to Artemis in eastern Attica, one at Halae Araphenides and the other at Brauron. Orestes set the Taurian cult statue up at Halae in a temple dedicated to Artemis Tauropolos, while Iphigeneia instituted a cult dedicated to Artemis Brauronia at Brauron.
  Worship of Artemis Brauronia increased in importance in Athens during the rule of the tyrant Peisistratos from ca. 546 until his death in 527. Peisistratos originally came from the Brauronian hills, and incorporated many of the Brauronian rites into Athenian public life, such as the celebration of the Brauronia festival. During his rule, a sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia was built for the first time on the Athenian Acropolis.
  At Brauron, Artemis was worshipped primarily by women in connection with childbirth. After giving birth successfully, women would often dedicate their prized possessions to the goddess. The clothes of women who died in childbirth were also offered. Iphigeneia was also worshipped, in her own shrine close to the temple of Artemis. Every four years a festival, the Brauronia, was held. The festival was celebrated mainly by women, and a goat was sacrificed to the goddess. While our knowledge about this festival and the events that took place during its course is far from complete, we do know a little from literary and artistic sources about the activities that took place. Two of the most valuable passages are by the comic playwright, Aristophanes, in Peace 872-6 and Lysistrata 638f. In addition, a number of vases found at Brauron and at other locations in Attica illustrate some of the cult's activities.
  During the Brauronia, the Arkteia was celebrated. This was a coming of age ceremony performed by young girls, called arktoi, or "bears". The name arktoi was derived from a local Attic myth, according to which Iphigeneia had been slated for sacrifice at Brauron instead of in her Argive homeland but was rescued when Artemis substituted a bear for her. There was another local story in which a bear that was sacred to Artemis scratched a young girl. The girl's brothers killed the bear, thereby enraging Artemis, who sent a plague down on the population. In order to appease the goddess, the rites of the Arkteia were initiated.
  While the age of the girls who participated in the Arkteia is still a matter of scholarly debate, they were probably somewhere between five and thirteen. During the course of the festival, the arktoi would dress up in saffron colored robes, called krokotoi, and perform a dance in which they imitated bears. In addition, the girls would run races.
  While worship of Artemis Brauronia probably began as early as the eighth century, the Temple of Artemis wasn't built until shortly before 500 BC. Before this, the cult was probably centered around the sacred spring in the hillside just to the northwest of the temple. Both the temple and the sanctuary were destroyed in the Persian invasion of Attica in 480 B.C., but were rebuilt later in the fifth century.
Brauron was abandoned in the third century BC after it was flooded by the river Erasinos. The sanctuary of Artemis was never rebuilt, and the site remained deserted throughout the Roman period. The site was reoccupied in the sixth century, however, when a Christian basilica dedicated to St. George was built immediately south of the temple.
  Excavation of the site began in 1948, under John Papademetriou. Today, the site is dedicated mainly to archaeology. The ruins of the sanctuary of Artemis have been excavated, and a museum housing the artifacts found on the site has been constructed.
Amanda Herring, ed.
Archeology
The sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia was cleared between 1948 and 1962 under the direction of John Papadimitriou. Prior to this, the only excavation carried out was the clearance of three Mycenaean chamber tombs in 1894 under B. Stais. The sanctuary is located at the foot of the Ayios Georgios hill, on top of which a prehistoric settlement existed from 3500 to 1300 BC. Several houses from this settlement have been found, along with the chamber tombs that Stais excavated. Many vases and figurines were also found on the surface of the hill (also referred to as the akropolis). Expensive grave offerings were recovered from within the tombs, as well as a skeleton that apparently had a fishing net thrown over it, which suggests that the livelihood of the town may have centered on the sea. The settlement was abandoned before the end of the Bronze Age, and as a result the sanctuary was the only human development on the site during the Classical period. The sanctuary first came into use during the eighth century BC then was abandoned in the third century BC when it was destroyed by a flood of the River Erasinos. The only building activity on the site since then (aside from the modern reconstruction of part of the stoa and the construction of a museum for the site) was the construction of a Christian basilica in the sixth century AD.
Epigraphic Evidence
An Athenian decree from the third century BC that orders the site to be inspected lists the buildings at the site, and thus gives archaeologists an idea of what to be looking for. Among those buildings named are a temple, a parthenon, an amphipoleion, a gymnasium (athletic field), a palaestra (wrestling school), and stables. The temple has been uncovered, as has a stoa that dominates the site and therefore is very likely to be one of the structures mentioned epigraphically. Other structures uncovered are a bridge, a sacred spring, a shrine, and several rooms that were probably once inside a cave. The parthenon and an "Old Temple" are repeatedly referred to in fourth century BC inscriptions on the Athenian Akropolis. There is considerable debate over where these are located on the site, but it is agreed that they are to be found among the temple, the stoa, the shrine, and the rooms within these buildings. Inventories of garments dedicated at Brauron mention three statues that the garments were draped over. These statues have not been discovered but may explain the division of the cella of the temple into three sections.
The Stoa
By far the largest building uncovered at Brauron is the ninety-six-foot-long, three-winged Doric stoa constructed in the fifth century BC. Most of the stoa was constructed out of sandstone quarried only a few hundred yards away, as was most of the sanctuary. This sandstone is easy to work but is not particularly attractive. The stoa's stylobate, capitals, and metopes were made of marble. The surviving foundations on the north, east, and west sides define the outlines colonnaded wings, while a retaining wall for the Temple of Artemis bounded the stoa at the southwest. It seems that only the north wing was actually completed, while the east and west colonnades never rose above the foundations. Based on its architecture and an inscription, the stoa appears to have been built in 420 BC. An inscription found inside the stoa states that it is the parthenon of the arktoi, the girls who participated in the cult activities at the site. The stoa has been preserved well enough in mud that much of the north colonnade has been reconstructed from the original materials.
The north wing serves as a model for what the rest of the temple would have looked like had it been built. The north colonnade consisted of eleven Doric columns, each twelve feet high. This is the only fifth century stoa for which the column height is precisely known. The column proportions are similar to those of the Hephaisteion in Athens. Many inscribed bases have been found inside the portico. Although the stylobate has been disturbed due to settling on the eastern side, it appears to have had refinements similar to those of the Parthenon, in that it curved upward very slightly toward the center rather than being perfectly horizontal. Such a refinement was relatively rare in the fifth century BC. The frieze and possibly also the architrave are higher in relation to the lower column diameter than they are on most stoas. The columns are thicker at the corners. While most colonnades had columns sitting in the center of every other stylobate block, the columns of the stoa at Brauron rest on every other joint between blocks.
  The intercolumniations are longer than those in most temples of the period. For the first time we know of in an extensive colonnade, each intercolumniation accommodated three metopes at the frieze level instead of the usual two. This, in combination with the intended length of the stoa, affected the treatment of the reentrant angle in the frieze. The intercolumniations at the ends are twelve centimeters longer than the rest so that a half-triglyph could be placed at the corner. Because this was an early attempt at wider column spacing, the lengthening of these intercolumniations was only a quarter of what it needed to be, and the metopes at the corners were significantly shortened in order to compensate. Because of these irregularities, mutules and viae were left out, and the cornice is Ionic.
  The stoa at Brauron and the south stoa of the Athenian Agora are the earliest known stoas to have rooms in the back. There are six identical rooms along the north wing of the stoa at Brauron and, less well preserved, four along the west wing, each about eighteen feet by eighteen feet. Indications of the furnishings of these rooms are most abundant at the eastern end of the north wing. Holes in their floors indicate that they held eleven beds or couches along their walls. These would have been about five feet long, and therefore could have accommodated sleeping children or served as their dining couches. They had wooden feet that were secured in cuttings with lead. In front of the beds were seven sandstone tables covered with marble plaques. A few base blocks of these tables still survive. The doors to these rooms faced the inside of the stoa and were displaced off-axis to the east to accommodate the couch configuration. The marble threshold to the easternmost doorway still has a bronze pivot for double doors as well as several bronze projections for keeping these doors shut. Al,ong the northern margin of the portico just to the south of these rooms are rows of bases. These held inscriptions and relief sculptures dedicated to Artemis as well as a few statues of children, most of which were portraits of young girls holding symbolic objects such as birds or fruit. These were put up in the fourth and fifth centuries BC. Because of the groups of beds as well as the nearby statues of children, it has been suggested that the arktoi slept in the rooms of the stoa's north wing. The counter-argument is that they were used as dining rooms, as they resemble the dining rooms in other Classical sanctuaries.
  A hallway between two of the rooms on the north side led into an open air corridor. This corridor was bounded by a shallow portico along its north side and by small propyla at the east and west ends. A small room at the western end of the north wing may have been for a porter stationed at the west propylon. In the portico to the north of the corridor were racks which may have held clothing that was dedicated to Artemis. About twelve meters to the west of the corridor is a collection of inscriptions, apparently relocated there by Christians.
  The third room from the south in the west wing constituted a gate leading into the center of the stoa. A road made from remains of the stoa passes over the foundations of this room and was probably used to remove building material once the site had been abandoned.
  On top of the frieze and some of the walls of the stoa sat wall plates. These supported the rafters of a pitched roof. In the north and west wings, the front wall of the rooms supported the peak of the roof, while in the east a ridge beam served this purpose. There were probably battens or planking to hold up the roof tiles.
The Bridge
To the west of the stoa is a thirty-by-thirty-foot bridge crossing the stream that flows from the sacred spring in the southwest corner of the site. This bridge is unique in that it is the only one found on the Greek mainland that was built in the fifth century BC, and in that it was the first to be built by constructing walls parallel to the stream and laying horizontal stone slabs on top of them. The bridge consists of five such walls, on top of which lay slabs that are about three feet long.
The Temple of Artemis
Off the southwest corner of the stoa, on a terrace supported by a retaining wall, sat the Temple of Artemis Brauronia. The temple stood on what Euripides may have meant by the "holy stairs of Brauron" in his play, Iphigenia in Tauris. This retaining wall is well preserved and has steps that lead up past the temple to the church of St. George, which was built in the 6th century AD, reusing some of the original material of the sanctuary. There was probably a pagan altar where the church now stands, especially since one can now detect the foundation of an earlier structure from within the church. The temple was probably built around 500 BC, on top of the remains of an older shrine, as indicated by pottery fragments and the pavement inside the temple. The temple was Doric and measured sixty-six feet by thirty-three and a half feet.
  Because the north side of the hill has been cut away to make a roadway, all that remains of the temple are a section of polygonal toichobate and bits of the foundation in the southeast, as well as cuts made into the bedrock for the western side of the foundations. Scattered fragments of poros column drums, geisa, and triglyphs also appear to have belonged to the temple.
  Two broken column drums indicate that the eastern side of the temple was distyle or tetrastyle in antis. A cella (closed interior) lay at the center of the temple, with an adyton (inner sanctum) to the west and a prodomos (an open portico, serving as the entrance to the temple) to the east. Two rows of columns divided the cella into three sections. The cella is nearly square, but would have had almost standard proportions if it were combined with the adyton behind it.
  Inside the temple, colored reliefs in terracotta, bronze mirrors, and votive jewelry have been excavated. Near the retaining wall several marble steles were found along with the slots in the bedrock that held them. Inscribed on these slabs are lists of offerings to Artemis and Iphigenia as well as the names of the women who made these offerings. During the Peloponnesian War, the offerings were moved to the Athenian Akropolis, where copies of the lists have also been recovered.
The Sacred Spring
Out of the northwest side of the hill that the temple sits on, a spring flows first into a manmade pool, then north toward the Erasinos as a stream. In the basin of the pool and bed of the stream, thousands of objects have been found dating between 700 BC and 480 BC. It appears that all of these were offerings made by women; they include bronze mirrors, rings, gems, scarabs, statuettes, vases, and even objects of bone and wood that were preserved in the mud. The mirrors are considered particularly beautiful, and one has an inscription describing its dedication. The spring was probably the most sacred part of the site until late in the 6th century BC. It was destroyed, along with the temple, in the Persian sack of 480 BC. It is possible that the objects found in the spring were buried there in order to protect them from the Persians.
The Shrine and Adjacent Structures
Uphill from the temple are the foundations of a shrine, or mikron hieron, that was 24.5 feet long and 14.5 feet wide, and further to the southeast lie the remains of several stone and mortar rooms buried by boulders. It appears likely from the positions of the boulders that these rooms were once situated inside a cave. After the cave crashed down on them in the mid-5th century BC, the shrine may have been built in their place. Valuable offerings as well as inscriptions were found amidst the rubble. The shrine or the rooms to the southeast are considered by Papadimitriou to have been the supposed Tomb of Iphigenia, as the tombs of Greek heroes and heroines were often placed inside caves. Barber mentions that the rooms adjacent to the shrine may have been the tombs of priestesses of the temple. Hollinshead argues that the shrine was instead the Old Temple that is alluded to in Athenian inscriptions. Her evidence is the shrine's proximity to the newer temple and the quantity of inscriptions found outside of the shrine, as well as the limited access to the shrine, which would make it well suited for storage.
Other Finds
High-quality Greek sculpture has been preserved in the mud, including a number of votive reliefs and numerous statues and statuettes of children. One relief in particular, known as the "Relief of the Gods," portrays Zeus, Leto, Apollo, and Artemis, and may have been sculpted by Phidias.
  Two sections of an aulos, a type of flute, have been found in the bed of the spring. They are made out of bone, fit together, and have a total of six finger holes. The aulos is probably one of a pair of flutes that were played at the same time. The sections have been replicated in brass and experiments have been done that involve adding different lengths of pipe to try to produce a tuned musical scale. These experiments give clues about what the original instrument looked like.
  A special series of cult vessels called krateriskoi have been excavated at Brauron. These were used for dedications to Artemis. They depict naked girls running, as well as part of a bear, all perhaps pictorial rendeerings of the Brauronian rituals. A pit containing small votive offerings and Geometric potsherds has also been unearthed.
Lindsay Clark, ed.

This text is cited Aug 2005 from The Dartmouth College URL below


Brauron

  Lies beside a small bay on the E coast, about 38 km from Athens.
   A fortified prehistoric settlement occupied the small hill about 400 m W of the bay, flourishing from the Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age, but particularly during the period ca. 2000-1600 B.C. A few houses have been cleared, and on the NW slopes of the hill E of the acropolis, several Late Helladic chamber tombs were dug. This settlement was abandoned before the end of the Bronze Age, and in the Classical period only a sanctuary remained. It lay just to the NW of the acropolis and was active from the late 8th to the 3d c. B.C., when it was destroyed by a flood of the nearby river Erasinos. The area was deserted in Roman times, but in the 6th c. A.D. an Early Christian basilica was built about 500 m W of the sanctuary on the other side of the valley, and reused some material from the sanctuary itself.
   The goddess of the sanctuary, identified with Artemis, was particularly connected with childbirth and was worshiped mainly by women. Her cult statue, presumably a primitive one, was said to have been brought from the Crimea by Iphigeneia and Orestes (Eur. IT 1462-67) but Pausanias (1.23.7; 1.33.1; 3.16.8) discounts the story. Iphigeneia herself was supposed to be buried there. The special servants of Artemis Brauronia were called arktoi (bears), young girls aged between five and ten, who wore saffron robes, perhaps to recall the actual bearskins of an earlier period (Suda, s.v. arktos e Brauroniois).
   Greek excavations between 1948 and 1962 revealed the main buildings of the sanctuary. Of the temple, dating from ca. 500 B.C., only the foundations remain. It was a small Doric building (ca. 20 x 11 m), but little is known of its plan. Immediately to the NW of the temple terrace is a copious spring into whose waters offerings were thrown. From the partly artificial basin of the spring, and from the bed of the stream flowing N from it, many dedications were recovered, mostly of a feminine character--mirrors rings, gems, etc.; particularly valuable are the objects of bone and wood which luckily have been preserved in the mud. The spring seems to have been the most sacred part of the sanctuary until the late 6th c. B.C., but both it and the temple were probably destroyed by the Persians in 480.
   About 10 m SE of the temple, in a cleft in the rock which was probably once a cave, stood a small temple-like building which perhaps represents the supposed Tomb of Iphigeneia. It seems to have replaced the earlier buildings to the SE, which were destroyed by the collapse of the cave roof in the mid 5th c. B.C.
   The most impressive building at the sanctuary is the large Doric stoa dating from ca. 430-420 B.C., which was perhaps used by the arktoi. It was to have had three colonnaded wings facing onto a court from the W, N, and E, the temple terrace forming the fourth side. The E wing was longer than the W, and did not have rooms behind its portico as did the N and W wings. In the end, the N wing alone was completed; except for the column nearest the corner with the N colonnade, the E and W colonnades never rose above their foundations. Behind the N wing was a narrow courtyard with a small propylon at each end, and a shallow portico forming its N side.
   The N colonnade of the stoa has been partially restored, using the original elements found lying in front of it. Its 11 Doric columns, with shafts of local sandstone and capitals of Pentelic marble, stood on a marble stylobate, which, although it has settled badly at the E end, seems to have been laid in a rising curve like that of the Parthenon. The columns were more widely spaced than in contemporary temples, so that above each span there are three metopes instead of two; the spans nearest the corners were extended a further 12 cm to allow a half-triglyph to appear in the frieze at the reentrant angle. The stoa is one of the earliest buildings where this wider column spacing is found, and where the problem of the reentrant angle had to be met; not surprisingly, therefore, the adjustment of the column spacing is not really adequate.
   Behind the N and (intended) W porticos of the stoa were various rooms, the majority of them of a standard size (ca. 6 x 6 m) and equipped with 11 couches and 7 small tables. The arrangement of these rooms is best seen at the E end of the N wing, where the base blocks for several tables, as well as the holes where couch legs were fixed with lead, still survive. The rooms were entered from the porticos in front of them, and in the marble threshold of the first room from the E can be seen one of the bronze pivots for the double doors and the prism-shaped bronze projections that held the doors shut.
   Besides the standard rooms, there were also in the N wing a narrow passage to the N court, and a small room at the extreme W end, which probably served as a lodge for the porter of the W gate into the N court. In the W wing, the third room from the S formed the main entrance to the stoa and its court from the W. The many wheel-marks visible here, however, belong with a rough road made of reused reliefs and architectural members and laid over the remains of the stoa, probably by people coming to remove building material from the site.
   Along the central wall of the N wing, behind the rear wall of the W wing, and at the foot of the N retaining wall of the temple, there were rows of bases. On most of these bases were reliefs or inscriptions in honor of Artemis, but there were also several statues of children, mostly girls (arktoi ?), dating from the 5th and 4th c. B.C. Several fragments of the catalogue of dedications to Artemis list separately the garments dedicated to the goddess, either in thanks for successful childbirth or in memory of those who died as a result of it. The garments were perhaps displayed on the racks which appear to have occupied the narrow portico of the N court.
   About 7 m W of the stoa, a bridge of the 5th c. B.C. crosses the stream which flows N from the sacred spring to the Erasinos. It is ca. 9 m long x 9 m wide, very simple in structure, and consists of horizontal slabs about 1 m long which rest on five rows of upright slabs. Not all the buildings at the sanctuary have been uncovered; an inscription mentions several others, including a palaistra and a gymnasium.
   The finds from the excavations at the artemision are mostly housed in a new museum on the site.

J. J. Coulton, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Oct 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 8 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Bauron

Region: Attica
Periods: Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic
Type: Sanctuary
Summary: Sanctuary of Artemis, worshipped in her function as protectress of childbirth.

Physical Description:
    On the coast ca. 38 km E of Athens, the sanctuary consists of a cave and sacred spring and a court enclosed by a temple and a three-winged stoa. The stoa housed the votive dedications and numerous dinning rooms. Inscriptions mention other buildings including a palaestra and gymnasium which have not been excavated. Ritual included dancing by "Arktoi," girls aged 5 to 10 dressed as bears. Iphigeneia is said to have brought the cult statue of Artemis here and to be buried here.
Description:
   
Earlier habitation and cemetery remains of Neolithic to Late Bronze Age date have been found SE of the sanctuary, but the cult site appears to date no earlier than the 8th century B.C. According to myth, the rites and cult statue of Artemis (who was particularly connected with childbirth and was worshipped chiefly by women) were brought to Attica from Scythia (Crimea) by Iphigeneia and Orestes. The sacred spring at Brauron seems to have been originally the most sacred part of the sanctuary, and the first temple was erected as late as ca. 500 B.C. Both were probably destroyed by the Persians in 480 B.C. when a wooden image (perhaps the original cult statue) was reportedly carried off to Susa. About 10 m SE of the temple was a small building, perhaps representing the supposed tomb of Iphigeneia. This seems to have replaced an earlier building to the SE which was destroyed with the collapse of the sacred cave at mid 5th century. The later stoa at the sanctuary had a number of dinning rooms perhaps used by the Arktoi servant girls of Artemis Brauronia. Offerings (of feminine character) recovered from the sanctuary, especially from the sacred spring, have helped to clarify aspects of the cult. The site was finally abandoned after the nearby river Erasinos flooded the sanctuary in the 3rd century B.C. There was no activity at the sanctuary in the Roman period, but building material from it was reused in a 6th century A.D. Christian basilica ca 500 m W of the sanctuary site.
Exploration:
   
Excavations: 1946-52 and 1956-63, J. Papadimitriou, Greek Archaeological Society.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 8 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Pages with photos by Kevin T. Glowacki, Assistant Professor in the Department of Classical Studies at Indiana University.


Ancient stadiums

Panathenaic Stadium

  It was originally a natural hollow part of the ground between the two hills of Agra and Ardettos, over Ilissos river. It was transformed into a stadium by Lykourgos in 330-329 BC for the athletic competitions of the Great Panathinaea Festivities. Between 140 and 144 AD, Herodes Atticus restored the Stadium, giving it the form that was found at the 1870 excavation: the horseshoe construction with a track 204,07 meters long and 33,35 meters wide. It is believed that the Stadium had a seating capacity of 50.000 people. Separating scales were built between the tiers and on the base of the sphendone there was a portico with Doric-style columns; another portico was placed in the stadium's facade. Herodes possibly restored also the Ilissos river bridge on the Stadium's entrance, making it larger and adding three archways on its base. The bridge was standing there up to 1778 and a part of it was excavated in 1958. At the Roman times, the Stadium was used as an arena, with the addition of a semi-circular wall on the north that was corresponding to the sphendone of the southern side.
  The modern times restoration of the Stadium was conducted by G. Averof by the end of the 19th century for the first Olympic Games that were reborn again in 1896.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture URL below, which also contains images.


Ancient temples

ATHENS (Ancient city) GREECE

Athens Temples


LEMOS (City quarter) VOULIAGMENI

Temple of Apollo 'Zostir'

  It is a significant historical symbol for the city, and is situated in the hotel ASTIR area. The ticket you pay at the entrance, allows you also to use the swimming pool. The temple's base is still standing, together with sections of the peristyle and the altar which is dedicated to Leto and her twins, Artemis and Apollo.
  The discovery of the first archaelogical findings in 1952 started when the children of the Vouliagmeni orphanage, while playing at the beach over the ancient temple that was buried in the sand, found a piece of polished marble with an inscription on it.
Detailed description of the temple:
  The temple of Apollo Zostir is a temple of simple structure and moderate size. The 'nave', i.e. the main section of the temple has dimensions of 10,8 m X 6 m, and its entrance faces to the East.
  In later years the temple aquired a 'peristasis', i.e. a kind of roofed area around it, with the roof based on pillars. The 'peristasis', which is dated at the second half of the 4th century bC, is comprised of 4 pillars at its two narrow sides and 6 pillars at its wider ones. Today, only the bases of these pillars are still remaining.
  The floor of the temple is paved with perfectly aligned and fitted together plates of titanolith.
  Only the north side of the walls stil remains, at a height that is less than 1 m. It is considered as the best existing specimen of the Archaic period, and is constructed with the polygonic system, i.e. the stones are fitted together only with the help of perfect hewing, rectangulation and setting, and without any use of clay or lime. The archaeologists believe that the whole height of walls of the temple were constructed in this way, in spite of the fact that during this period, mud-bricks were used over a certain height.
  During the Christian era the temple was converted into a small monastery, which according to some researchers was dedicated to St. George, while others believe that it was dedicated to Virgin Mary.
  At the north-east side of the temple and at a distance of 6,5 m one can see the base of the altar, constructed from big, othrogonized titanoliths with dimensions of 4,25 X 2,55.
  In the middle of the nave and aligned parallel to the entrance, three bases of statues have been discovered. On the right and on the left were the statues of Leto and Artemis, while in the middle stood the statue of Apollo. In front of it there stood a solid, monolithic marble table of 1,10 X 0,62 and 0,63 high, ending in two lion feet, of a rather sloppy craftmanship.
  The fragments that were discovered in the temple lead the archaeologists to believe that such tables, but of a smaller size, must have been present in front of the other two staues, used as altars where the pious could lay down their offerings.
  The two pilasters of the entrance are also still standing, and the two holes on the marble threshold seem to prove that the wooden gate of the temple had two leafs.

This text is cited June 2005 from the Municipality of Vouliagmeni URL below


Ancient tombs

MARATHON (Ancient demos) ATTICA, EAST

Tumulus of Marathon

Tel: +30 22940 55155, Fax: +30 22940 55155

  The fertile plain of Marathon was a natural place for the establishment and development of human activity from prehistoric to Roman times. Here on this plain the battle between the Athenians and the Persians was fought in 490 B.C. To this great event Marathon owes its worldwide fame and its important place in the conscience of the ancient Greeks.
  The Mound was raised over the graves of the 192 Athenians who died in the battle and whose remains were buried here after cremation of the dead.
  The first excavations were carried out by D. Philios in 1884, and subsequently by V. Stais in 1890 and 1891.


PERATI (Mountain) ATTIKI

Mycenaen cemetery of Perati


Ancient towns

EGILA (Ancient city) ANTIKYTHIRA

Aigila

  The island's, ancient walled city, the "kastro" or stronghold of ancient Aigila, lies in the north of the island above the above the bay of Xeropotamos, once the city’s harbor. Its walls, which date from the Hellenistic period, have survived in good condition. The city’s ruins cover about 75 acres, and it probably had about 800-1000 inhabitants. Much of the fortification has been preserved: in places, the walls stand as much as six meters tall. In the harbour of Xeropotamos there is a neosoikos - an inclined space or slipway where the warships from the pirate city were stored. It is carved out of the rock and in exceptionally good condition; it is one of the few in Greece that have ever been found preserved in their entirety. The ongoing excavation of the stronghold has discovered that the fortifications were first built towards the end of the fourth century BC or the begining of the third century BC. Important repairs were made during the middle of the third century BC, after an expedition of invaders from Rhodes devastated the city. It appears that from the begining the castle was under the control of Falasarna, a well-known city of pirates in Western Crete, which used it as an obeservatory and isolated outpost. The island's luck changed between 69 and 67 BC, when the Romans the decided to embark on "an expedition against piracy" and after the first century BC it seems to have been abandoned. Throughout the city, archaeologists have found clear evidence of a long history of war. The majority of the archaeological objects found are residues of war, such as stone projectiles from small catapaults, arrowheads, and innumerable lead sling-shots in the shape of almonds. The walls are marked by numerous and extensive repairs, and in some places the repairs were clearly hasty and improvised.

This text is cited June 2005 from the Community of Antikythira URL below


Links

VRAVRON (Ancient city) ATTICA, EAST

Perseus Building Catalog

ATHENS (Ancient city) GREECE

Athens, Altar of the 12 Gods

Site: Athens
Type: Altar
Summary: Altar enclosed in a peribolos wall; near the north end of the Agora.
Date: ca. 522 B.C. - 425 B.C.
Period: Archaic/Classical

Plan:
Rectangular altar. Peribolos wall of stone posts and slabs supported by a poros sill. Entrances on east and west.

History:
Identified by an inscribed marble statue base found in situ on west side of the peribolos wall. Original altar was built in 522/21 B.C. by Peisistratos. Rebuilt ca. 425 B.C. to repair damage suffered in the Persian invasion of 480/79 B.C. The altar was used as the central point for measuring road distances. From the 5th century B.C., the altar became associated with the Goddess of Pity, probably because the enclosed area served as a place of asylum. A round marble altar of the 4th century B.C. may also have been in the sanctuary.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 9 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Arsenal

Site: Athens
Type: Hall
Summary: Large rectangular building; north of the Temple of Hephaistos and Athena in the Agora, on the Kolonos Agoraios.
Date: ca. 320 B.C. - 280 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Rectangular with buttressed walls, door opening east. Inside there were 2 rows of 8 supports forming 3 aisles. Large cisterns under the foundations held run-off water from the roof.

History:
Probably used for storage, possibly of military equipment, thus the name "Arsenal." Construction dated to late 4th or early 3rd century B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, East Building

Site: Athens
Type: Hall
Summary: Rectangular building; in the southeastern section of the Agora, between the Middle Stoa to the north and the South Stoa II to the south.
Date: ca. 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Rectangular. Stoa-like colonnade opened to the east. Five rooms lined the west wall, all opening west at a lower level than the colonnaded hall. Middle of the 5 rooms had steps and was a passage from the South Square to the colonnaded hall. The 3 middle rooms may have had columns in antis. Southernmost room opened west into the South Stoa II. The East Building was the eastern side of the area known as the South Square.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Enneakrounos (SE Fountainhouse)

Site: Athens
Type: Fountainhouse
Summary: Rectangular building; in the southeast corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 530 B.C. - 520 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Divided into 3 sections, a central large room with a rectangular basin at its west end and a rectangular area at its east end where water could be taken directly from a spout. Colonnaded entrance of 3 columns opening north.

History:
This building may have been the Enneakrounos, or nine-spouted fountainhouse, built by the Peisistratids. On literary evidence Camp locates the Enneakrounos south of the Acropolis, but agrees this is a fountain of the same period.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 10 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Eponymous Heroes

Site: Athens
Type: Statue Base
Summary: Rectangular statue base; in the Agora, 14 meters east of the Metroon and roughly parallel to it.
Date: ca. 350 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
Supported 10 bronze statues, and had tripods at either end. Surrounded by a fence of stone posts and wooden rails.

History:
The Eponymous Heroes were the legendary heroes whose names identified the 10 tribes of Attica, into which the Attic population was officially grouped by Kleisthenes in 508 B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 13 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Eschara

Site: Athens
Type: Altar
Summary: Ground altar; on the northern side of the Agora, to the south of the Altar of the 12 Gods.
Date: ca. 525 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Area bounded by a stone curb, surrounded by a paved area enclosed by a wall.

History:
This type of altar was often associated with a particular hero. May have served as a shrine to the Aeginetan hero Aiakos.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Heliaia

Site: Athens
Type: Court
Summary: Large square enclosure; in the southwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 550 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Originally no internal divisions or rooms and no roof. Opening on the north side. Possibly a later inner colonnade and rooms.

History:
Originally the enclosure may have been a simple fence or rope. Early 5th century B.C. the boundary was changed to a stone wall, and small rooms, probably offices, were added on the south side, but the meeting place remaining unroofed. The Heliaia was the name of the largest court in Athens and this building was of appropriate size, date and type for its meetings, but the identification remains tentative. Travlos has suggested it was a precinct of Theseus, but the votives commonly excavated in such sanctuaries have not been found here.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, House of the Marbleworkers

Site: Athens
Type: House
Summary: Irregularly shaped building; just southwest of the Agora, and west of the Triangular Shrine.
Date: ca. 475 B.C. - 275 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan: A complex of several rooms. Two cisterns in the largest room.

History:
The house is referred to as the House of the Marbleworkers Mikion and Menon and was in use from 475 to 275 B.C. A bone tool inscribed with the name Mikion, ca. 475 B.C., and pottery dating to ca. 275 B.C. bearing the name Menon, were all found at this location. Excavation has revealed tools, marble dust and unfinished sculpture, supporting the belief that this area, just to the southwest of the Agora, was a location for marble working.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 12 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Kallirrhoe (SW Fountainhouse)

Site: Athens
Type: Fountainhouse
Summary: L-shaped building; in the southwest corner of the Agora, near the Heliaia.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 325 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
From a small square courtyard one entered the L-shaped colonnaded porch. A 2nd interior L-shaped colonnade divided the building into 2 parts: the L-shaped colonnaded porch and the L-shaped draw basin. Water was drawn from over a low wall which filled the spaces between the columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Law Courts

Site: Athens
Type: Hall
Summary: Halls, complex of 3 buildings; all in the Agora, beneath the Square Peristyle, beneath the Stoa of Attalos.
Date: ca. 420 B.C. - 380 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Group of 3 buildings around an open triangular space. Law court A, roofed colonnade; Law court B, rectangular hall; and Law court C, a rectangular hall. The northernmost building, Law court B, was a large rectangular hall with a door and 2 columned portico on the south side. Sharing Law court B's eastern wall was Law court A, an open colonnade of 11 columns opening south, with a door and 2 columned portico opening off its north eastern corner. Across from these buildings and to the south was Law court C, a rectangular Hall, probably opening north, with a line of basins at ground level on its north side.

History:
The excavated finds in this area of the Agora indicate the buildings' use as law courts. A ballot box containing dicasts' ballots was found near the eastern end of Law court B. Also in the area were found bronze jurors' identification tags, water clocks, juror payment tokens and other such court furnishings.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Law Court (Square Peristyle)

Site: Athens
Type: Court
Summary: Square roofed colonnade; in the Agora, beneath the Stoa of Attalos.
Date: ca. 338 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Walled square enclosure with entrances on east and west. Inner Doric colonnade of 14 x 14 columns.

History:
Size and location would have made this an appropriate meeting place for the law courts. Travlos dates this building to the time of Lykourgos, 338 - 326 B.C., and states the building was carefully constructed. Camp dates the building to 300 B.C. and considers its construction to have been "shoddy," with the west side unfinished.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Leokoreion

Site: Athens
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Small shrine surrounded by a wall and associated with a well to the north; in the northern part of the Agora, across from the south wing of the Stoa Basileios.
Date: ca. 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
An enclosing wall around an outcrop of native rock (a sacred area from earlier times). There was originally a door, perhaps with rail barrier, in the northern side of the wall.

History:
Named the Leokoreion after the daughters of Leos, who were sacrificed to save the city from a terrible plague. Votives (5th century B.C.), such as loom weights and jewelry, commonly associated with shrines of females were found here. Also known as the Crossroads Enclosure, because the date of ca. 400 B.C makes this shrine later than the Leokoreion of literature, which would have been in use in the 6th century B.C. The Leokoreion had a prominent position in the Agora and consequently was a noted landmark. Silted in by the 4th century B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Metroon

Site: Athens
Type: Metroon
Summary: Chambered building, with front colonnade; on the west side of the Agora, north of the Tholos.
Date: ca. 150 B.C. - 125 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Four chambered building. Outer front colonnade of 14 Ionic columns linking the 4 chambers and opening to the Agora on the east. Southernmost chamber and the 2nd chamber from the south were equal in size. Second chamber from the south is believed to have been the Temple of the Mother of the Gods (Metroon) with a pronaos distyle in antis. Next chamber was slightly larger than the previous 2. Largest and northernmost chamber had a square inner colonnade of 12 columns with 2 others in antis at the entrance.

History:
Built over earlier Bouleuterion and earlier limestone foundations of Temple of the Mother of the Gods. The distinct units of the later Metroon would have accommodated the Sanctuary of the Mother of the Gods, a council house and state record storage. building including a temple

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 45 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Middle Stoa

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; approximately in the middle of the Agora and dividing it into north and south areas.
Date: ca. 175 B.C. - 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Doric, two-aisled stoa, completely surrounded by unfluted Doric columns. The center colonnade of 23 columns, may have been Ionic, and the center columns may have been connected by screens to divide the stoa into halves. The Middle Stoa was the northern side of the area known as the South Square.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 7 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Mint

Site: Athens
Type: Mint
Summary: Large, square building; in the Agora, near the South Stoa I and west of the Enneakrounos.
Date: ca. 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Northern half was a courtyard. Furnaces located in a large room on the southwest corner. Two small rooms in the southeast corner were possibly used for storage.

History:
This building is identified on the basis of excavation finds which included coins and blank coins (flans), industrial debris, and the remains of furnaces and slag basins. In the 2nd century A.D., a temple and Nymphaion were built on the ruins of the Mint, and later, ca. 1000 A.D., a Christian church was built, which is still standing.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 8 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, North Houses

Site: Athens
Type: House
Summary: Irregular units sharing walls; on southern edge of the Agora, north of the Areopagus.
Date: ca. 450 B.C.
Period: Early Classical

Plan:
Groups of rooms organized around a courtyard (each house organized in a different fashion). The house forming the northeast corner is nearly square, with small rooms around a rectangular court. A chamber on the east side of the court had one column in its west opening forming a small portico. Large room on the south was probably the main living area, with smaller rooms for storage, weaving and other activities.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Prytanikon

Site: Athens
Type: Prytanikon
Summary: Irregularly shaped building; on the west side of the Agora, formed an architectural unit with the Old Bouleuterion.
Date: ca. 550 B.C. - 525 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Many internal irregularly shaped divisions, grouped around a colonnaded court. Two cooking pits on the north side.

History:
Also known as Building F, Camp postulates that it may have been a palace for the Peisistratids. Because the later Tholos was located on the same spot as the Prytanikon and included the same area in its enclosure, it has also been suggested that this structure served as a state dining hall.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, South Stoa I

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; on the south side of the Agora, between the Heliaia and the Enneakrounos (SE Fountainhouse).
Date: ca. 425 B.C. - 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Two-aisled stoa opening north, with a Doric outer colonnade, an inner colonnade of unknown order, and 16 rooms lining the southern wall. One narrow room, and 15 square rooms which served as dining rooms and places of relaxation. May have had a 2nd story.

History:
The 15 rooms apparently were outfitted as dining rooms and may have been used by the city officials who were fed at public expense. The building was in use until ca. 150 B.C., when it was displaced by South Stoa II.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, South Stoa II

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; on the southern edge of the Agora, on the approximate location of the South Stoa I, between the Heliaia, and the Middle Stoa.
Date: ca. 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Doric single-aisled stoa opening north. On the north, 30 columns in antis; walls on the south, west and east sides. East wall had door communicating with southern end of the East Building. Off-center in the south wall was a small rectangular niche, possibly an exedra or fountain. The South Stoa II was the southern side of the area known as the South Square.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, State Prison

Site: Athens
Type: Prison
Summary: Almost rectangular building; just off the southwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 450 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
A long hall that led back to a courtyard. Five almost square rooms off the west side of the hall and 3 off the east side. At the northeast corner near the entrance, was a group of 4 rooms, possibly with a 2nd story.

History:
The location of the building near the law courts, its plan of separate cells with an easily guarded single entrance, and its provisions for bathing provide all the necessities for an ancient prison. The excavation of a small statue of Socrates and a quantity of medicine bottles, likely vessels for the poisons used to execute prisoners, have led to the identification of this building as the State Prison, where Socrates was executed in 399 B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 31 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa Basileios (Royal Stoa)

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; in the northeast corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 525 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Small two-aisled stoa opening east, 8 Doric columns in antis on the east, 4 Doric interior columns.

History:
After construction ca. 525 B.C., much of the stoa was rebuilt in the 5th century, probably to repair damage suffered in the Persian invasion of 480/79 B.C. Ca. 300 B.C., 2 small prostyle wings were added. The stoa is named for the office of the king archon, who was responsible for many of the city's legal and religious matters, and copies of the law codes were displayed in the building. Immediately east of the building is the large, rectangular oath stone, 2.95 m x 0.95 m, where council members took an oath to guard the laws of the city.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 8 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa of Artemis Brauronia

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa with wings; the south boundary of the Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia, on the Acropolis, southeast of the Propylaia, west of the Chalkotheke.
Date: ca. 440 B.C. - 430 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Four-part building. Main stoa, one-aisled opening north, running nearly parallel to the south wall of the Acropolis. Two small projecting wings on the west and east ends, with doors opening north. Both wings had 2 engaged columns on the walls which faced onto the sanctuary. There is slight evidence that later a small stoa was added on the northeast side, opening west and extending the line formed by the earlier eastern wing.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 11 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa of Attalos

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-storied stoa; on the eastern side of the Agora.
Date: ca. 159 B.C. - 138 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Doric lower outer colonnade, with Ionic lower inner colonnade. An upper outer colonnade of Ionic double half-columns, and an upper inner colonnade with palm capitals. Stairways to the 2nd story at each end of the stoa. Each story had 2 aisles and 21 rooms lining the western wall. The rooms of both stories were lighted and vented through doorways and small windows on the back wall.

History:
Identified by a dedicatory inscription on the architrave as built by Attalos II, ruler of Pergamon from 159 B.C. to 138 B.C. The building assumes particular importance in the study of ancient monuments because the reconstruction of 1952 - 1956 replicates the original form.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 31 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios)

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-aisled stoa; in the northwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 425 B.C. - 410 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Doric exterior, Ionic interior with projecting wings at both ends. Opened to the east.

History:
Dedicated to Zeus Eleutherios (Freedom), a cult founded after the Persian War. It was unusual for a religious building to take the form of a stoa rather than a temple, and considering its central location it is likely that the building also served other civic purposes. Possibly one of the accomplishments of Mnesikles, the architect of the Propylaia.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 19 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa Poikile (Painted)

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-aisled stoa; on the north side of the Agora
Date: ca. 475 B.C. - 450 B.C.
Period: Early Classical

Plan:
Doric outer colonnade and an Ionic inner colonnade, opening south.

History:
The building was originally known as the Peisianaktios, from its builder Peisianax. The name Poikile (Painted) is derived from its famous murals painted by artists such as Polygnotos.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Temple of Apollo Patroos

Site: Athens
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple, tetrastyle in antis; on the west side of the Agora between the Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios) and the Metroon.
Date: ca. 338 B.C. - 326 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
A rectangular cella with a pronaos of 4 columns in antis on the east. An adyton projected from the north side and communicated with the cella. On the north, in the L formed by the adyton and connected to the Temple of Apollo by a wall was the small, slightly older Temple of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria.

History:
Under this temple are the remains of a smaller, apsidal Temple of Apollo, dated to the 6th century B.C. The earlier temple was probably destroyed by the Persians in 480/79 B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 14 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Temple of Hephaistos

Site: Athens
Type: Temple
Summary: Peripteral temple; on the west side of the Agora, on the Kolonos Agoraios.
Date: ca. 449 B.C. - 444 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Doric peripteral temple, 6 x 13 columns. Cella with a pronaos and an opisthodomos, both distyle in antis. Interior with superimposed Doric colonnade along 3 of the cella walls, but the original number of columns is uncertain.

History:
Usually referred to as the Hephaisteion, the building was previously called the Theseion, a name still in common use. It has also been proposed that the temple was dedicated to Eukleia (Artemis). The temple was richly decorated. Planting pits dating from the 3rd century B.C. show that the temple grounds were fully landscaped. In the 7th century A.D. it was converted to a Christian church.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Temple of Zeus and Athena

Site: Athens
Type: Temple
Summary: Small temple; on the west side of the Agora, between the Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios) and the Temple of Apollo Patroos.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 338 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
Simple cella with small altar in front; joined by a small wall to the Temple of Apollo Patroos and forming and architectural unit with it.

History:
The temple is dedicated to Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria. In the 2nd century B.C. a small porch was added.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Tholos

Site: Athens
Type: Tholos
Summary: Circular building; on the west side of the Agora, south of the Bouleuterion.
Date: ca. 465 B.C.
Period: Early Classical

Plan:
Circular building. Six interior columns for additional support of the roof. On the north side was a small annex that served as a kitchen.

History:
Often called the Skias (a type of sun hat) because of its conical roof. The Tholos served as a state dining room for the Prytaneis of the Boule (Council), and is located on the ruins of the earlier Prytanikon.

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Athens, Triangular Shrine

Site: Athens
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Triangle-shaped open air sanctuary; located just outside the southwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 450 B.C. - 425 B.C.
Period: Classical

History:
The shrine may be dedicated to Hekate, whose sanctuaries are commonly found at crossroads.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Theater

Site: Athens
Type: Well
Summary: Circular well surrounded by a curb; north of the Leokoreion at the north end of the Agora.
Date: ca. 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

History:
The public well came into use about the same time as the Leokoreion was built and may have been part of the shrine. It has also been associated with the Athenian cavalry corps of the 3rd century B.C. due to lead tablets, each bearing the name and description of a cavalry mount, found during excavation. Perhaps the Hipparcheion, or office of the cavalry, was near here.

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EGOSTHENA (Ancient fortress) ATTICA, WEST

Aigosthena, North Wall Tower and Gate

Site: Aigosthena
Type: Fortification
Summary: Fortification wall with towers; a city at the northeastern end of the Gulf of Corinth.
Date: ca. 450 B.C. - 275 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Roughly rectangular area walled from shore to acropolis and divided into 2 sections, the town with the acropolis citadel at its southeast end. The citadel has 4 towers on its east side with a postern gate between the center 2 towers. The southeast tower is known as Tower A. The citadel is separated from the town by an interior wall with towers and gate. Walls extended on the north and south from the citadel to the sea. In the north wall is a well-preserved two-storied tower and gate, illustrated here.

History:
Probably built by Demetrios Poliorcetes.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ELEFSIS (Ancient city) ATTICA, WEST

Eleusis, Bouleuterion

Site: Eleusis
Type: Bouleuterion
Summary: Council building; on the southwest corner of the 4th century B.C. wall of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: ca. 400 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Three main rooms, with semi-circular area in middle room.

History:
Probably 2 columns within the semi-circular area. Hellenistic building with successive alterations through Roman times.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Eschara

Site: Eleusis
Type: Altar
Summary: Ground altar; to the northeast outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, near the northwest corner of the Temple of Artemis Propylaia and Poseidon Pater.
Date: ca. 600 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Wall enclosing a rectangular open space. Eschara was a brick-lined pit covered with a metal grid.

History:
The pit was used to burn sacrifices and although the visible remains are Roman, excavation has revealed 6th century B.C. remains at the same location.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Fountainhouse

Site: Eleusis
Type: Fountainhouse Summary: Rectangular fountain; to the northeast outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, south of the Temple of Artemis, Propylaia and Poseidon Pater.
Date: ca. A.D. 50 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
Approached from the north by 3 steps into a U-shaped building with 6 columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Greater Propylon

Site: Eleusis
Type: Gate
Summary: Gate building; northeastern gate to the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: ca. A.D. 170 - A.D. 180
Period: Roman

Plan:
Doric hexastyle amphiprostyle building approached by 6 steps on the east. Continuing from the east, an Ionic inner colonnade of 6 columns divided the building into 3 aisles. Beyond, was a cross wall pierced by 5 doorways. The central passage between the columns and through the doors was wider than the side passages.

History:
Probably built by Marcus Aurelius on the same site as an earlier gate from the time of Kimon. It copied the central form of the Mnesiklean Propylaia in Athens.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Hiera Oikia

Site: Eleusis
Type: House
Summary: Many roomed house; west and outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, within the Precinct of the Hiera Oikia.
Date: ca. 700 B.C. - 600 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Irregular shape with almost apsidal west end . Entrance in the center of the southern wall to a long narrow room or court. Five rooms lined the northwestern wall.

History:
The Sacred House was probably dedicated to a hero, and though the building was destroyed in the 7th century B.C., cult activity continued in the precinct.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Hiera Oikia Precinct Wall

Site: Eleusis
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Trapezoidal wall; enclosing an area west and outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, surrounding the Hiera Oikia.
Date: ca. 600 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Entrance in the northeast wall.

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Eleusis, House of the Heralds

Site: Eleusis
Type: House
Summary: Many-roomed house; west of the Greater Propylon, in the northeast section of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Roman house with numerous rooms, surrounded by a wall of earlier date.

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Eleusis, Hypostyle Silo

Site: Eleusis
Type: Silo
Summary: Storage silo; east of the Telesterion and within the Periclean wall of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: ca. 450 B.C. - 425 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Triangular building with 12 interior pillars arranged irregularly.

History:
Built by Pericles, also known as the Siroi. The first fruits of the harvest would have been stored here.

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Eleusis, Kallichoron Well

Site: Eleusis
Type: Well
Summary: Circular well; near the eastern corner of the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. 600 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

History:
This is the well around which dances to Demeter and Kore were once performed, hence the name meaning Well of the Fair Dances.

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Eleusis, Lesser Propylon

Site: Eleusis
Type: Gate
Summary: Gate building; proper entrance to the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, south of the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. 60 B.C. - 10 B.C.
Period: Roman

Plan:
Ionic attached columns along 2 parallel walls enclosing a passage. Antae extended forward of the doors on the south. Two Corinthian columns supported roof of long vestibule. Inner end divided into 3 by short walls, parallel to exterior walls. Inner portico 2 Caryatids.

History:
This gate replaced an earlier Peisistratid gate at the same location.

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Eleusis, Peisistratid Grain Silo

Site: Eleusis
Type: Silo
Summary: Oblong structure; west of the Greater Propylon, northwest and the Lesser Propylon.
Date: ca. 550 B.C. - 510 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Rectangular shape. Entrance in center of the southeast side facing the Lesser Propylon.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Plutonian Sanctuary Wall

Site: Eleusis
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Triangular wall; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, next to the Lesser Propylon, on its western side.
Date: ca. 400 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Peribolos wall and small temple with cella and pronaos opening east.

History:
Sanctuary to Pluto-Hades, the wall encloses a cave through which Pluto brought Kore back from the underworld. The small temple is ca. 328 B.C., displacing an earlier one on the same location.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Prytaneion

Site: Eleusis
Type: Prytaneion
Summary: Group of rooms; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, northwest of the Greater Propylon.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Groups of rooms around courtyards, of varying size and all roughly rectangular.

History:
Served as housing for pilgrims to the sanctuary. The northwest corner is older than the rest of the structure, dating ca. 475 B.C.

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Eleusis, Roman Temple (B)

Site: Eleusis
Type: Temple
Summary: Small temple; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, on a platform north of the Telesterion.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Cella opening southeast onto a pronaos with 4 columns in antis.

History:
May have been a temple to Sabina, wife of Hadrian.

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Eleusis, Stepped Platform

Site: Eleusis
Type: Platform
Summary: Platform (with later tetrastyle in antis building), with L-shaped stepped approach; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, south beyond the Plutonian.
Date: Unknown

Plan:
Rectangular area with L-shaped stepped approach.

History:
In the inner sanctuary and overlooking the Sacred Way, the platform may have served as a place to observe the beginning of the pageant. At its southern end, just beyond the Unknown Treasury, was a high rock used for dedications.

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Eleusis, Stoa of the Great Forecourt

Site: Eleusis
Type: Stoa
Summary: L-shaped stoa with rooms; northeast of the Greater Propylon, outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, bounding east and west sides of a court.
Date: ca. A.D. 100 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
L-shaped stoa opening southeast and southwest. Northwestern wing had 12 columns, 6 rooms behind. Southeastern wing with 14 columns and open southern end.

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Eleusis, Telesterion

Site: Eleusis
Type: Hall
Summary: Large, nearly square hall with many columns; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, at the end of the paved Sacred Way.
Date: ca. 435 B.C. - 421 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Eight tiers of seats on 4 sides divided by openings for 2 entrances on each of 3 sides. A total of 42 superimposed columns arranged in a 6 x 7 pattern supported the opaioned roof. Directly below the opaion was a rectangular chamber.

History:
Serving as the initiation Hall and Temple for the Eleusinian Mysteries, the Telesterion was located on the same spot through many building enlargements. The interior chamber housed the hiera (sacred objects) and was known as the Anaktoron (Palace). In all renovations after the Archaic period this area remained unaltered. The earliest building traces on the site are of a Mycenaean megaron opening east. This was replaced by a Geometric building, and by Solon's time (ca. 600 B.C.) a rectangular hall, probably columned, running southwest-northeast had been built to accommodate a larger number of participants. The Anaktoron may have been separated from the rest of the building. There were other additions under Peisistratos, ca. 550-510 B.C., and Kimon, ca. 479-461 B.C. The Classical building (ca. 435 B.C.) by the architect Koroibos, was designed to hold large groups, up to 3000, to witness the ceremonial proceedings. In the 4th century B.C. a colonnaded porch was added to the southeastern side of the building and was known as the Stoa of Philon.

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Temple in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore

Site: Eleusis
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, on the northern end of the terrace north above the Telesterion.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Distyle in antis cella opening southwest onto a pronaos with 6 columns in antis.

History:
May have been a temple to Faustina, wife of Antoninus Pius.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Temple of Artemis and Poseidon

Site: Eleusis
Type: Temple Summary: Amphiprostyle temple; outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, in the courtyard northeast of the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. A.D. 100 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
Cella opening southeast onto a pronaos. Four Doric columns at each end. Stepped platform.

History:
This temple is dedicated to Artemis Propylaia and Poseidon Pater.

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Eleusis, Triumphal Arches

Site: Eleusis
Type: Arch
Summary: Two arches of identical plan; outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, in the southeastern and southwestern corners of the forecourt outside the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. A.D. 130 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
Copies of Hadrian's Arch in Athens. Single wide arch with 2nd story of columns and entablature above. Corinthian columns on piers to either side of the arch opening (front and rear).

History:
Built by Antoninus Pius: one marking the end of the road from the harbor, the other the end of the road from Megara.

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Eleusis, Unnamed Treasury

Site: Eleusis
Type: Treasury
Summary: Small temple-like building; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, adjoining the southern end of the Stepped Platform.
Date: ca. 350 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
Single cella opening east, possibly with interior dividing screen.

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INOI (Ancient demos) ATTIKI

Oinoe, Fortification

Site: Oinoe
Type: Fortification
Summary: Rectangular fortification at the eastern end of the Mazi plain in Northern Attica.
Date: ca. 450 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Fortified wall with projecting towers. Towers on 4 corners, 1 tower between corners on the east and west walls, 2 towers along the north wall.

History:
Only the north wall is well preserved. The southern boundary is uncertain. Also known as the Myoupolis fort. The pottery, masonry and the location of the site correspond to the known history of the fortified deme of Oinoe. Oinoe is known to have been walled before 431 B.C. and served as an important outpost for the Athenians until the latter phases of the Peloponnesian War. It apparently controlled the roads from Boeotia through the Mazi plain, between Eleusis and Athens. The limestone construction of the west wall could date ca. 420-380 B.C. The conglomerate construction is no earlier than the 2nd half of the 4th century B.C. Black-glazed pottery found inside the wall dates from the 2nd half of the 5th century B.C. through the Hellenistic period.

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PIRAEUS (Ancient city) GREECE

Piraeus, Shipsheds

Site: Piraeus
Type: Shipshed
Summary: Stoa-like boathouse; several located on the shores of the harbors at Piraeus.
Date: ca. 480 B.C. - 390 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Floors, with slotted slipways cut to accommodate trireme keels, that sloped and descended into the water between rows of tall columns alternating with rows of shorter columns. Parallel roofs supported by taller columns at the ridges and the shorter columns at the valleys.

History:
Slipways cradled and protected the keel and undersides of ship when it was hauled from the water.

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Piraeus, Theater of Zea

Site: Piraeus
Type: Theater
Summary: Theater; west of the Zea harbor.
Date: ca. 200 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Cavea with stone seats facing a stage building which extended the width of the orchestra. Orchestra surrounded by a covered channel. Fourteen flights of steps creating 13 kerkides at the level below the diazomata.

History:
Modeled after the Theater of Dionysos in Athens. Design and proportions matched those of the theater in Athens.

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VRAVRON (Ancient city) ATTICA, EAST

Brauron, Temple of Artemis

Site: Brauron
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple; on the northwest side of the acropolis, directly south of the west wing of the stoa.
Date: ca. 500 B.C. - 450 B.C.
Period: Archaic/Classical

Plan:
On a stepped terrace. Cella opening east onto pronaos distyle in antis. An adyton behind the cella. Two rows of 4 columns each in the cella.

History: Constructed to replace an earlier Archaic temple. A church now stands on the probable location of the Artemis altar. On the slope below the northwest corner of the Temple of Artemis was a Sacred Spring and pool, from which thousands of dedications were excavated, most dating pre-480 B.C.

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Brauron, Heroon of Iphigeneia

Site: Brauron
Type: Temple
Summary: Small building; located in a cleft in a rock on the southern edge of the Sanctuary of Artemis.
Date: ca. 450 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Cella and pronaos opening northwest.

History:
The structure is associated with an earlier grave or cenotaph of Iphigeneia, probably located in a sacred grotto or the complex of rooms to the south. In mythology Iphigeneia was a daughter of Agamemnon, who became a priestess of Artemis.

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Brauron, Parastas

Site: Brauron
Type: Stoa
Summary: Narrow hall; on the north side of the Stoa at Artemision in the Sanctuary of Artemis.
Date: ca. 410 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
A long narrow hall with roofed stoa on north side and open paved court running its length. Communicating with the Stoa at Artemision by a narrow passage on the south and opening on the east and west through propyla each with one column in antis and a double door.

History:
This stoa is tentatively identified as the parastas referred to in inscriptions. Built as an addition to the Stoa at Artemision, its function is uncertain. Possibly animal stalls or shelter for dedications. The court in front had numerous pedestals to support statues and other dedications.

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Brauron, Stoa at Artemision

Site: Brauron
Type: Stoa
Summary: Three-sided stoa; surrounding the northern end of the Sanctuary of Artemis.
Date: ca. 425 B.C. - 416 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
U-shaped stoa with 3 colonnaded wings framing the west, north, and east sides of a central courtyard, opening onto the court. The east wing was longer than the north and west wings. The north wing had 11 Doric columns and a passage leading to a more northerly stoa or court (Parastas) with which it shared a wall. The center room on the west wing was a gate. The north and west wings had dining rooms behind their colonnades, 9 rooms in total, each containing 11 couches and 7 small tables.

History:
East and west wings were never completed. The girls who served Artemis may have been house in the west wing, and the stoa may have been referred to as the parthenon after the residents. Papidimitriou does not restore dining rooms in the west wing.

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Brauron, Stone Bridge

Site: Brauron
Type: Bridge
Summary: Bridge; ca. 7 m west of the Stoa at Artemision, crossing the stream flowing north to the Erasinos from the Sacred Spring.
Date: ca. 430 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Approximately square bridge of slabs placed horizontally across 5 rows of vertical slabs.

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Perseus Site Catalog

ACHARNAI (Ancient demos) ACHARNES

Acharnai

Region: Attica
Periods: Classical
Type: Settlement
Summary: Attic deme site.

Physical Description:
   
Acharnai was the largest of the Attic deme sites and known to have been located 60 stades from Athens. Although its exact position remains uncertain, it is believed to have been S of Mt. Parnes, in the area of the modern village of Menidi (where inscriptions with Acharnaian names have been found). Ancient sources refer to sanctuaries of Apollo Argyieus and Herakles and a temple of Ares and Athena Areia at the site, but no trace of these remains have been found.
Description:
   
In 431 B.C. the Spartans under King Archidamos occupied the site and used it as a base from which to ravage the Attic countryside. In 404 B.C. the forces of the Thirty Tyrants also used the deme site as a base.
Exploration:
   
Little exploration has been done.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
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ATHENS (Ancient city) GREECE

Athens

Region: Attica
Periods: Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, Dark Age, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Modern
Type: Fortified city
Summary: Fortified city and center of a major city-state.

Physical Description:
   
Located in the center of a large plain, enclosed on all but S side by mountains, Athens is ca. 7 km inland from its seaport at Piraeus. The site has been continuously inhabited from Neolithic times to the present. The plateau and the slopes of the Acropolis hill were the area of earliest settlement and later became the religious center of the ancient city. S of the Acropolis, in the Ilissos district, were many sanctuaries and athletic establishments. N of the Acropolis is the Agora, the civic and social center of the ancient city and N of the Agora is the Kerameikos (the potters' quarter), the Sacred Gate (opening toward Eleusis) and, beyond the city walls, the cemetery. W of the Acropolis are the hills of the Areopagus (site of the most ancient court of Athens), the Pnyx (meeting place of the popular assembly), and the Hills of the Muses and the Nymphs. The NW quarter of the city was occupied by artisans and tradesmen and farther W the Long Walls linked Athens to the harbor city of Piraeus.
   Description: The natural defenses of the Acropolis, with fresh water springs at its base and a vista of the plain and distant coast, was a focus for prehistoric settlement, and by the Late Bronze Age a Mycenaean citadel occupied the summit. This citadel was one of the few Mycenaean centers to survive the upheavals and destruction of the later 13th century B.C. and may have served as a refuge for those fleeing other parts of the collapsing empire. According to tradition, Theseus, the king of Athens at this time (or somewhat later) unified the towns of Attica in the synoecism (amalgamation) and founded the first city-state of Athens. Although the city does not seem to have had a circuit wall until the 6th century B.C. (when it was built by Solon or Peisistratos), the 13th century citadel continued to serve the city and, in fact, these defenses were still in use at the time of the Persian invasion in 480 B.C. The Acropolis began its transformation into a purely religious area in 566 B.C. when Peisistratos instituted the festival and games of the Great Panathenaia and the great ramp and 1st temples were built on the Acropolis. Religious constructions, although interrupted by the Persian invasion, continued from the 6th century through the Roman period. Numerous sanctuaries, shrines and other buildings of religious character were established on the Acropolis slopes (where prior to the 6th century, habitations, shops, and cemeteries had been located). The Agora of Theseus' time was located on the NW slope of the Acropolis while the later Agora of Solon was placed to the N of the Areopagus. In the mid 6th century the Agora shifted to its 3rd and final location. After the Persian destruction of Athens and the Acropolis in 480 B.C., major rebuilding began under the archonship of Themistocles. A new and much extended wall was built around the city and the fortification of the Piraeus which had been initiated in 493 B.C. were completed. Under the rule of Pericles in the 5th century, the masterworks of the classical age were created on the Acropolis, and in the lower city. The Athenian city walls were destroyed by the Spartans in 404 B.C., but again rebuilt by Konon in 394 B.C. In 86 B.C. the walls of Athens and Piraeus were demolished by Sulla and the city remained unwalled until the time of Valerian (253-260 A.D.). The new walls included the new city which had been built by Hadrian. Valerian also re fortified the Acropolis. In spite of Valerian's fortifications of the city, Athens suffered a devastation by the Herulians in 267 A.D. After the Herulian destruction a smaller circuit wall (known as the Late Roman Wall) was built to the N of the Acropolis. The outer ancient circuit wall was repaired in Justinian's time and in use up to 1204 A.D. In 529 A.D. Justinian closed the internationally famous philosophical schools of Athens, but it retained its reputation as an intellectual center throughout the Byzantine period.
Exploration:
   
Excavations began after Independence in 1833 and continue almost without interruption to the present under Greek and foreign auspices.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 671 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


EGINA (Ancient city) ATTIKI

Aegina City

Region: Saronic Gulf
Periods: Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, Dark Age, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Modern
Type: Fortified city
Summary: Capital city of the island of Aegina.

Physical Description:
   
The ancient capital of Aegina is located on the NW coast of the island, partially under the modern town. The city had a larger commercial harbor and N of this a rectangular military harbor. The latter was protected on the N by a low promontory which served as the acropolis. The Classical city walls enclosed both harbors and the acropolis promontory. On the promontory beneath the levels of the ca. 500 B.C. temple of Apollo and the remains of an earlier temple, excavations have uncovered levels of continuous occupation extending back through the Bronze Ages to the Neolithic. The successive settlements on the acropolis were each fortified, at least since the Early Bronze Age. The 6th century temple of Apollo was replaced by a late Roman fortress.
Description:
   Aegina is located in a key maritime position and since prehistoric times has had close trade contact with the mainland and the islands. It may have been depopulated in the Dark Ages and then resettled by colonists from the Peloponnese in the 10th century B.C. By the end of the 8th century, however, Aegina was independent of any mainland ties. During the 7th and 6th centuries, Aegina was a major maritime power and had trade contacts from Egypt to Spain. The island was especially noted for its fine pottery and bronze products. Aegina was apparently the first Greek city state to adopt coinage and its system of weights became one of the earliest standards for trade in the Greek historical period. During the 6th century B.C. the growing power of Athens came into conflict with the interests of Aegina. Although Aegina fought along side the Greeks at Salamis, conflict with Athens continued and in 458 B.C. Athens defeated the combined navies of Aegina and Corinth. In 431 B.C. Athens expelled the inhabitants of Aegina and established an Athenian cleruchy on their territory. In 404 B.C. the remaining Aegina citizens returned from exile, but the city was no longer a major power. Aegina came under Macedonian control and finally in 210 B.C. it passed to the rule of Pergamon.
Exploration:
   
Excavations: 1894, B. Stais; 1901, Thiersch; 1904, Keramopoullis. German excavations directed by P. Wolters 1924-1926; by G. Welter 1926-1931, 1941-43; and by H. Walter 1966-1972.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 36 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


EGOSTHENA (Ancient fortress) ATTICA, WEST

Aigosthena

Region: Megarid
Periods: Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman
Type: Fortified city
Summary: A Megarian fortified city.

Physical Description:
   Aigosthena is at a sheltered bay at the E end of the Gulf of Corinth. The site commanded the ancient route from Boeotia to the Peloponnese. It was never of great importance in antiquity and was mentioned by only one ancient writer, Xenophon in 378 B.C. It has not been excavated, but is considered one of the best surviving examples of Classical Greek military architecture.
Description:
   Although surface finds suggest occupation in the area from Geometric to late Byzantine periods, the fortifications themselves belong to the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. Aigosthena belonged to Megara and formed part of the Achaean League in 244 B.C., although it had been under the control of Boeotia for a short time before the 2nd Macedonian War.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 37 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ELEFSIS (Ancient city) ATTICA, WEST

Eleusis

Region: Attica
Periods: Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, Dark Age, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman
Type: Sanctuary
Summary: Panhellenic sanctuary of Demeter and Kore and center for the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Physical Description:
   
The city of Eleusis (birthplace of Aeschylus) is located 22 km W of Athens on a ridge above the bay of Eleusis and at the S side of a large plain. The site has been occupied since the Early Bronze Age and the acropolis fortified at least as early as the Late Bronze Age. The location commands the land routes from Athens to the Peloponnese and NW Greece. The sanctuary of Demeter is located within the city walls of Eleusis, occupying the area between the E slope of the acropolis and the E fortification wall, and is isolated from the rest of the city by a separate cross-wall at the NE. Within the sanctuary another cross-wall, breached by the Lesser Propylaia divides the N area of the priests' dwellings and administration buildings from the sacred inner peribolos. The main architectural features of the inner sanctuary are the Kallichoron or sacred well, the cave of Pluto adjacent to a triangular court and the Telesterion of Demeter (an almost square building that could seat 3000) where the secret initiation rites were completed and entrance to the uninitiated was forbidden on pain of death. An anaktoron or separate shrine was maintained within the Telesterion. From the outer sanctuary the Greater Propylaia opened onto the grand Sacred Way which joined the sanctuary to Athens.
Description:
   
According to tradition, Mycenaean Eleusis was the home of an early cult of Demeter and one of the 12 Attic cities to unite in the Synoecism formed by Theseus of Athens. Although the association with Demeter is not definite, remains of a Mycenaean shrine have indeed been found under the later sanctuary of the goddess. In the Geometric period (at ca. 750 B.C.) the earliest Telesterion (the building where the mysteries were conducted) was built. At ca. 600 B.C. a larger Telesterion, known as the Solonian was built and the Eleusinian Mysteries became a Panhellenic cult. In the 2nd half of the 6th century B.C., under the influence of Peisistratos and his sons, the size of the sanctuary doubled and new walls and an enlarged Telesterion were constructed. The Peisistratean Telesterion was destroyed during the Persian War. Kimon initiated reconstruction in 470 B.C., but his plans were never completed. The new Telesterion was built during the Periklean age in the 2nd half of the 5th century B.C. and the sanctuary became one of the most renowned in Greece. The fame of the Mysteries spread beyond the Greek borders. During the Peloponnesian War (431-404) the sanctuary was respected by the warring states. In the 2nd half of the 4th century the sanctuary of Demeter and the city of Eleusis increased in size to attain its greatest extend. The Roman Emperors favored the sanctuary and the city of Eleusis. When the Kostovoks burned the Telesterion of Perikles in 170 B.C., it was rebuilt and slightly enlarged by Marcus Aurelius. Many Roman officials (including Hadrian in 125 A.D.) were initiated into the Mysteries. The destruction of the sanctuary by the Visigoths in 396 A.D. and the anti-pagan decree of Theodosius ca. 390 A.D. ended religious activity at the sanctuary.
Exploration:
   
G. Wheler reported on the site in 1676. In 1811 the Dilettanti Society carried out the first excavation. The Greek Archaeological Society has excavated from 1882 to present.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 47 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


PIRAEUS (Ancient city) GREECE

Piraeus

Region: Attica
Periods: Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman
Type: Port city
Summary: Port located on the Munichia peninsula 7 km from Athens.

Physical Description:
   
The 3 natural harbors (Zea and Munichia on the E and Kantharos on the W) of the peninsula were enhanced with fortified moles and narrowed entrances that could be closed by chains. The peninsula was enclosed by fortifications and 3 long walls provided a secure corridor to Athens. Piraeus was laid out and built on a grid plan by Hippodamos of Miletus. In addition to a spacious agora at the center of the city and numerous public and religious buildings, many quays, warehouses, arsenals, dry docks and over 300 ship-sheds served the Athenian fleet and commercial interests. A majority of the inhabitants were "Metics" or resident aliens which gave the city a cosmopolitan character.
Description:
   
Prior to the 5th century B.C., the Athenians kept their warships at the beach of Phaleron Bay, E of the Munichia peninsula. As Athens grew to rival the major maritime powers of Corinth and Aegina, Themistocles created an Athenian fleet of 200 ships and in 493 expanded the fortifications of the Piraeus which Hippias had started in 527-510 B.C. In addition to the fortifications, ship sheds, dry docks, storage buildings, and arsenals were built to serve as base for the fleet. After the interruption of the Persian invasion in 480 B.C., the work continued and at ca. 450 B.C. the architect Hippodamos of Miletus laid out a new city grid plan (one of the earliest employment of this plan in Greece), and the Long Walls to Athens were constructed. The Long Walls and fortifications were destroyed on order of the Spartans at the end of the Peloponnese War in 404 B.C., but rebuilt by Konon in 393 B.C. Piraeus was pillaged by Sulla in 86 B.C., but enjoyed a revival under Hadrian and the Antonines in the 2nd century A.D. In 267 A.D. the city was raided by the Herulians, and after another destruction by Alaric in 396 A.D. it lost its importance as a major port city.
Exploration:
   
1885 excavation gave plan of ship-sheds. 1887, French School of Archaeology excavated the Aphrodision Gate. Little systematic excavation, but many chance finds and salvage digs by the Greek Archaeological Service.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 54 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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