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Πληροφορίες τοπωνυμίου

Εμφανίζονται 9 τίτλοι με αναζήτηση: Αρχαιολογικοί χώροι για το τοπωνύμιο: "ΕΡΕΤΡΙΑ Αρχαία πόλη ΕΥΒΟΙΑ".


Αρχαιολογικοί χώροι (9)

Perseus Site Catalog

Eretria

Region: Euboea
Periods: Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic
Type: Fortified city
Summary: One of the 4 major city states of Euboea.

Physical Description:
   
Eretria (the ancient city lies beneath the modern town) is located on the S edge of the Lelantine plain, on the W coast of Euboea, ca. 18 km S of Chalkis. The Classical city walls enclosed ca. 80 ha of flat ground between the harbor and the prominent acropolis to the N. The city, which was the most important in Euboea in the late 4th and early 3rd century B.C., was almost rectangular in shape, with the sanctuary of Apollo Daphnephoros at its center. The agora is between the Apollo temenos and the shore. Between the acropolis to the N and the Apollo temenos are the theater, stadium, gymnasium and other sanctuaries. Excavations at the West Gate (opening on the road to Chalkis) have located sections of the late Geometric walls and gate and a late Geometric heroon (hero shrine) beneath a later Hellenistic palace complex.
Description:
    Eretria was listed in the Homeric Catalogue of Ships, but the location of the earliest city remains uncertain. The Mycenaean and Dark Age settlement at Lefkandi has been proposed as the site of "Old Eretria," but also as the site of "Old Chalkis." The earliest evidence for the situation of Eretria at its present location dates to the late Geometric period. In the Geometric period, Eretria, along with Chalkis, led the cities of Greece in establishing colonies abroad. The maritime competition and possibly land disputes between Eretria and Chalkis may have caused the Lelantine War, one of the earliest reported conflicts between Greek city-states, which, according to tradition, continued throughout the 8th century B.C. One outcome of the war may have been the establishment of Eretria at its present location. The earliest remains at the city, including the West Gate Heroon, and sections of city walls and city streets (below the Classical levels) date to the 7th century B.C. In ca. 500 B.C. Eretria contributed ships and aid to the Ionian Revolt. This resulted in the Persian retaliation in 490 B.C. which caused the destruction of Eretria and enslavement of many of the inhabitants. In 480 B.C. Eretria had recovered sufficiently to join the Greek forces for the defeat of the Persians. Eretria then became a member of the Delian League and remained allied to Athens until 411 B.C. In 411 B.C. Eretria joined (or perhaps led) the rest of Euboea in a Spartan inspired revolt from Athens. During the short-lived period of the Euboean League, the city of Eretria flourished. But by the early 4th century Eretria had reestablished good terms with Athens and during the rest of the century Eretrian political allegiance wavered between Athens and Thebes. By the end of the century Eretria was under the control of the Macedonians. In 198 B.C. the city was plundered by the Romans and after this time no new building took place. In 87 B.C. it was finally destroyed in the Mithridatic wars and abandoned. The area reverted to and remained swamp land until a refugee settlement (Nea Psara) was located on the site in 1824 A.D.
Exploration:
   
Cyriacus of Ancona, the traveler, made drawings of sections of the city walls and the theater in 1436 A.D. Excavations: C. Tsountas, 1886; C. Waldstein and the American School, 1891-1895 (theater, temple of Dionysos, 2 gymnasia, and parts of city wall); K. Kourounotis between 1897 and 1917 (temple of Apollo and Archaic West gate); N. Papadakis, 1915; I. Konstantinou, 1952-1956; and since 1964 joint excavations by the Greek Archaeological Service and the Swiss Archaeological School.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 32 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Building Catalog

Eretria, Gymnasium

Site: Eretria
Type: Gymnasium
Summary: Partially excavated gymnasium of Greek type, with palaestra and flanking rooms adapted for bathing; located in the north of the city, at the foot of the acropolis and to the east of the theater.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 175 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
The plan of the gymnasium is irregular: a large colonnaded palaestra which is entered from the west anchors the plan, and to its north and north-east smaller rooms are arranged. Immediately to the north of the palaestra is a rectangular hall, oriented east-west and entered through a colonnade of four columns. In the north-east corner of this hall, a narrow passage forms the entrance to an elliptical tholos. A row of three small rooms lies in a north-south direction at the north-east of the palaestra; within the two northernmost of these rooms were seven stone basins with connecting U-shaped water channels. To the west of the tholos were three small rooms, entered through an exterior porch in the unexcavated western region.

History:
The original gymnasium dates to the fourth century B.C.; elements which belong to this early phase are the poros foundations, the peristyle palaestra, and some interior walls with carefully-constructed limestone socles. The gymnasium was substantially damaged or destroyed by the Romans in 198 B.C. After this, the gymnasium was restored in the second century B.C. At this time, the tholos was added, and the northern wall of the palaestra was extended to the east, cutting across the row of stone basins.

Other Notes:
The gymnasium was a fundamental structure of the late Classical city, with central palaestra and nearby rooms with some provision for bathing. The incorporation of a vaulted tholos or steam room may represent the influence of Italic bath architecture on Greek gymnasia; the construction technique of the vault, however, is rooted in the Greek architectural tradition, relying on cut stone instead of mortared cement. The building is securely identified as a gymnasium by a number of inscriptions referring to the donation of funds for oil, among other benefactions. The small room to the west of the tholos, with its central base of Eleusinian limestone, may have been a sanctuary in which a statue of a benefactor of the gymnasium was erected.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eretria, Heroon

Site: Eretria
Type: Heroon
Summary: Inhumation and cremation burials located near West Gate, surmounted by triangular structure and contained within a peribolos wall.
Date: ca. 750 B.C. - 630 B.C.
Period: Geometric

Plan:
Nineteen burials were located in an area south of the West Gate of the city. Seven of these were cremation burials, the remaining were inhumation burials. The cremation burials consisted of bronze cauldrons containing ashes, covered with a lead slab, the whole area being covered with slabs of stone. Above the burial area was built a triangular structure, an equilateral triangle of large horizontal stones. The stone triangle was later circumscribed by a rectangular peribolos wall.

History:
The earliest burials in the area date to ca. 740-730 B.C. At ca. 680 B.C., the triangular structure was built, effectively marking the end of use of the burial area. South of the triangle, a large bothros or pit was dug, into which were placed the remains of sacrifices and banquets which took place at the site throughout the seventh century. In the late seventh century, a rectangular peribolos wall was built around the triangle. An oikos or andreion was later built above the bothros in the archaic period. By the late sixth century, the sanctuary or heroon was no longer venerated. In the Hellenistic period, the stuccoed walls of the so-called palace covered the area.

Other Notes:
The area is interpreted as the site of a heroon: the main geometric necropolis of Eretria lay at least 700 m. to the south, and thus the burials beneath the triangle of stones represent important, possibly royal, burials. The location of the burial area, originally outside the city walls but later incorporated within the fortifications of Eretria, further supports the interpretation that the area was a sanctuary. The erection of the triangle, and later of the peribolos wall, indicate attempts to protect and indicate, in a monumental fashion, the burials below. The presence of the bothros or sacrificial pit also attests to the rituals which took place. A triangular structure as a feature of burials is rare in the Geometric and Archaic periods. The triangle is oriented with one of its angles pointing directly north; this may have been intentional. The triangle appears to suggest a sacred interdiction of the zone, and its form may be related to the crossing of ways and the worship of Hekate. Since each burial below was not marked individually, the triangle also served as a SEMA or sign. The heroon provides important information concerning the nature of Geometric burials: the form which the burials took complies with epic, Homeric descriptions of burials of heroes. The presence of weapons as the most common form of grave goods indicates that a feudal nobility memorialized their dead, who may have died in battle, and commemorated them with annual (?) sacrifices at the burial location.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eretria, Temple of Apollo Daphnephoros

Site: Eretria
Type: Temple
Summary: Site of the cult of Apollo Daphnephoros at Eretria, with three principal building phases dating to the eighth, seventh and sixth centuries.
Date: ca. 800 B.C. - 520 B.C.
Period: Geometric

Plan:
The earliest structure at the Apollo sanctuary, an eighth century Geometric hut, was apsidal in plan, with curving side walls stabilized with posts; this hut-like structure had a door in its south end, with a porch in front of one central room or cella. A second structure located just to the east of the first Geometric temple is interpreted as a hekatompedon of the Geometric period. It is long and narrow in plan, with an apsidal rear wall and side walls which converge slightly towards the front (south-east) entrance. There appears to have been no porch. A central row of posts may have stood in the cella. The early archaic temple is reconstructed in plan as an Ionic hekatompedon with a peripteros of 6 x 19 columns surrounding a long, narrow cella without interior colonnade. This temple had neither opisthodomos nor pronaos. The influence of Ionian temple design is apparent in its plan: the cella building is related to the peripteros through the alignment of the axes of the cella walls with the second columns of the facade; similarly, the rear walls of the cella building are aligned with the second columns on the flanks. The temple was oriented south-east/north-west, with no apparent explanation for this unusual orientation. The late archaic temple was a Doric peripteros of 6 x 14 columns, distyle in antis, with pronaos and opisthodomos. Two rows of eight columns each stood in the cella, aligned with the central two columns of the facade. The late archaic temple repeats some of the characteristic features of the plan of the early archaic temple, for example the deep frontal colonnade and the relationship between the cella building and the peripteral columns.

History:
Four phases of the temple have been recognized: a Geometric hut-like structure with apsidal walls and a second Geometric temple with apsidal walls, a hekatompedon, contemporary with or slightly later than the Geometric Daphnephoreion. These structures are believed to have been levelled at the end of the eighth century B.C. The third important structure was an early archaic hekatompedon dating to ca. 670-650 B.C.; the foundations of this early archaic temple lie beneath the Doric peripteral temple of the late archaic period (ca. 530-520 B.C.) The excavators doubted that the final temple was completely destroyed by the Persian invasion of 490 B.C., as inscriptions indicate that the site remained a cult center in the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. The pedimental sculpture depicting Theseus and Antiope fell and may have been intentionally buried in antiquity, perhaps as a memory of the Persian destruction. The temple was heavily quarried in the Roman period.

Other Notes:
The earliest structure at the sanctuary, the Geometric period hut, may have had some sacral function: a foundation deposit was discovered underneath its southwest anta, and when the Geometric hekatompedon was constructed next to it, the walls of the apsidal hut were respected, perhaps implying its sacred nature. The absence of an altar, however, makes the identification of the apsidal hut as a temple uncertain. An altar located just to the south-east of the Geometric hekatompedon makes the identification of the structure as a temple almost certain. A building identified as a bronze foundry dating to the mid-eighth century B.C. was located ca. 5 m. north of the Geometric hekatompedon; votive figures may have been produced here. There is little conclusive evidence for the reconstruction of the early archaic temple as peripteral; the argument for reconstructing columns at this phase appears to be largely based on an analogy with the second temple of Hera at Samos. Certain characteristics of the early archaic temple which reappear in the late archaic temple - wide facade colonnade, relationship of cella building to peristasis (if it existed in the early archaic temple) - have led scholars to reflect that these Ionicizing features were already apparent in mainland Greek architecture of the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. The pediment of the late archaic temple was decorated with a marble sculptural group depicting Theseus abducting Antiope, evidence of close political links between Eretria and Athens at this time.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 6 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eretria, Temple of Dionysos

Site: Eretria
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple of Dionysos, located in the north-west of the city, adjacent to the West Gate; forms an architectural complex with the Theater at Eretria
Date: ca. 350 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
The temple is peripteral in plan, with 6 x 11 columns, distyle in antis, with a deep pronaos and no opisthodomos. The facade pteron is wider than those of the rear and flanks. The cella building is aligned with the axes of the second columns of the short sides, and with the second column from the rear along the flanks. Due to the wide facade pteron, the antae of the cella building align with the front face of the third column of the flanks. The temple is reconstructed as having a three-stepped stylobate.

History:
The construction of the temple was contemporary with the second building phase of the Theater at Eretria , in the mid-fourth century B.C. The temple was destroyed by ca. 200 B.C., when elements of the frieze of the temple were reused in the West Gate nearby. After this date, the temple was quarried and nothing is preserved of its superstructure.

Other Notes:
Foundations in front of the temple (to the east) indicate the location of the altar, and statues. The altar is not axially aligned with the temple, but lies slightly to the south. It has been proposed that the altar was a religious focal point for the Theater at Eretria which lies just to the north, as well as for the temple. The altar was approached by steps which were probably flanked by projecting walls. The temple combines Doric and Ionic features: the alignment of the antae of the cella with the second columns of the facade, in Doric fashion, and the deep pronaos, typical of Ionic temples. The proportions of the cella building, 20:50 attic feet, are also characteristically Ionic.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eretria, Theater

Site: Eretria
Type: Theater
Summary: Theater located inside the West Gate, in the north-west of the city beneath the acropolis and to the north of the Temple of Dionysos
Date: ca. 400 B.C. - 150 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
A theater with central circular orchestra and semi-circular arrangement of seats, divided by stairs into eleven wedges or cunei. In front of the orchestra stood the stage building with proscenium and parascenia. The auditorium is calculated to have been able to accommodate ca. 6300 people. A curious feature of the plan is the presence of a below-ground staircase leading from the rear of the stage building to the center of the orchestra; characters representing underworld figures could emerge via this passageway.

History:
Three major construction phases of the stage building have been recognized. The date of the earliest stage building is disputed: some place it in the fifth century B.C. (Fiechter 1937, 39); others dispute this early date and place the earliest stage building, with wooden proscenium, in the late fourth century B.C. (Dinsmoor 1975, 249). The first stage building consisted of a rectangular structure with five rooms and three central doorways, facing a circular orchestra and an auditorium, probably of wooden scaffolding. The parascenia or projecting rooms were linked across the facade by a row of columns, whose stylobate is preserved. The southern wall of the western parodos is preserved from this early period. In keeping with the change in dramatic representation required by the demands of New Comedy, this first stage building was altered. First, a stone substructure elevated the old (wooden) stage building, transforming it into an episcenium. This lower structure then received additional alterations, including a new stone proscenium. The most significant alteration of the second construction phase, however, was the sinking of the level of the orchestra by ca. 3.35 m., and the removal of the orchestra ca. 8 m. to the north. A vaulted passageway was built below the second stage building to connect the new level of the orchestra with the area to the south of the old stage building. At this time, the seats of the auditorium were also constructed out of poros. Again, there is uncertainty over the date of this alteration, which is stated to have taken place either in the mid-fourth or mid-third century B.C. After the destruction of the city by the Romans in 198 B.C., the theater was again restored, although it is unclear whether the marble proscenium was built before or after this destruction. The foundations of the earliest stage building were again employed, and many reused blocks were used, for example in the thresholds between the doors of the proscenium.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 6 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Ανασκαφές

Eretria Project

The Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece, has been excavating the remains of the ancient site of Eretria in Euboea.


Αρχαία θέατρα

Αρχαίο θέατρο Ερέτριας

  Από τη δυτική Πύλη περνάει ο δρόμος που οδηγεί σ’ ένα μοναδικό μνημείο των αρχαιοτήτων της Ερέτριας, το αρχαίο θέατρο.
  Είναι κτισμένο πάνω σε τεχνητό λόφο που δημιούργησαν οι Ερετριείς, λόγω έλλειψης αμφιθεατρικού χώρου. Έχει πραγματικά μεγαλειώδη μορφή (προοριζόταν για 6.300 θεατές) και θαυμάσια αρχιτεκτονική. Η πρώτη και κύρια φάση του θεάτρου είναι ο πρώιμος 4ος π.Χ αι. Ακολουθεί μία άλλη φάση της ύστερης κλασικής περιόδου. Το 198 π.Χ. υπέστη μεγάλη ζημιά από τους Ρωμαίους, αλλά επανοικοδομήθηκε και τότε προστέθηκαν και παρασκήνια. Από τη σκηνή, που ήταν διπλή, σώζονται κίονες της δεύτερης περιόδου, ιωνικού ρυθμού, και περισσότεροι δωρικού ρυθμού.
  Σύγχρονος με το θέατρο είναι ο ναός του Διονύσου, με τον οποίο είναι στενά συνδεδεμένο.
Το κείμενο (απόσπασμα) παρατίθεται τον Μάιο 2003 από τουριστικό φυλλάδιο (1997) της Νομαρχίας Εύβοιας.


Αρχαίοι ναοί

Ναός του Απόλλωνα Δαφνηφόρου

  Από τα πρώτα μνημεία που ανασκάφηκαν ήταν ο ναός του Απόλλωνα Δαφνηφόρου, χτισμένος στη διάρκεια του Ληλάντιου πολέμου (8ος ή 7ος π.Χ. αι.), ναός περίπτερος με πρωτότυπη σύνθεση δωρικού και ιωνικού ρυθμού. Το επίθετο Δαφνηφόρος φανερώνει δεσμό με τους Δελφούς. Η λατρεία του θεού στις δύο πόλεις, Ερέτρια και Δελφούς, έχει ιδιαίτερη σχέση, όπως φαίνεται από τον πρώιμο αψιδωτό ναό του Απόλλωνα στην Ερέτρια, που είναι απομίμηση του μυθικού πρώιμου ναού του στους Δελφούς, και από τον μαρμάρινο ομφαλό που βρέθηκε εκεί και εκτίθεται στο μουσείο της Ερέτριας.
Το κείμενο (απόσπασμα) παρατίθεται τον Μάιο 2003 από τουριστικό φυλλάδιο (1997) της Νομαρχίας Εύβοιας.


Έχετε τη δυνατότητα να δείτε περισσότερες πληροφορίες για γειτονικές ή/και ευρύτερες περιοχές επιλέγοντας μία από τις παρακάτω κατηγορίες και πατώντας το "περισσότερα":

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