EL
Greek Travel Pages

Location information

Listed 48 sub titles with search on: Sights for wider area of: "THESSALONIKI Town MAKEDONIA CENTRAL" .


Sights (48)

Buildings

Ahmet Kapantzis Mansion


The 5th Municipal District


The 5th Boys' High School


The 3rd Army Corps


The customs house


Building of the School of Philosophy of A.U.T.


The house of K.Mitta


The Diikitirio


The Papafeio Orphanage


Villa Mordoch


Yahudi Turkish bath


Roofed Forum (Bezesteni)

  Το πιο χαρακτηριστικό κτίσμα του πρώτου αιώνα της τουρκοκρατίας, όπου είναι φανερή η τεχνική των βυζαντινών είναι η Σκεπαστή Αγορά ("Μπεζεστένι"), που βρίσκεται στη διασταύρωση των οδών Εγνατία και Βενιζέλου, σε ένα σημείο της παλιάς πόλης της Θεσσαλονίκης, που φαίνεται πως ανέκαθεν αποτελούσε το κέντρο του εμπορικού τομέα. Οι δύο άλλωστε δρόμοι (Εγνατία και Βενιζέλου) υπήρχαν στην ίδια θέση από τα αρχαία χρόνια και ακόμα λίγο πιο πάνω (βορειοανατολικά) υπάρχει η Αρχαία Αγορά της πόλης. Το Μπεζεστένι, για το οποίο μιλούν με θαυμασμό οι περιηγητές του 16ου αιώνα, θεωρώντας το ως την ομορφότερη αγορά των Βαλκανίων, στέγαζε διάφορα επαγγέλματα, κύρια όμως υφασματέμπορους και χρυσοχόους. Μάλιστα η αγορά λειτουργούσε με οργανωμένο τρόπο και με συντεχνιακούς κανονισμούς.
Οι πληροφορίες περιλαμβάνονται στο βιβλίο του Απόστολου Παπαγιαννόπουλου με τίτλο: ΜΝΗΜΕΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ.

Το κείμενο παρατίθεται τον Αύγουστο 2003 από την ακόλουθη ιστοσελίδα, με φωτογραφία, του Πανεπιστημίου Μακεδονίας


  The main market (Misir-tsarsi or Egyptian market) was concentrated outside the walls as far as the port; its more than 500 stalls and shops carried sugar, rice, coffee, linen and a host of other exotic products.
  There too were to be found the tanneries ('tabakika') and the Halitzatzilar (the famous rug market); markets for other products -- such as the Chalkeon (the coppersmiths' district, which went back to Byzantine times) -- were found throughout the town. The market on the quay, known later as Istira, was dominated by the presence of Jewish merchants and a few Europeans.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains image.


Hospital "Saint Dimitrios"


General Hellenik Consulate


Public buildings of Thessaloniki

  The buildings of those days are somewhat grandiose, often combining neoclassical features and baroque ornamentation with an Ottoman touch.
  Representative examples of the architecture of the period are the Customs House, which shows a strong French influence, the Ottoman Bank (now the State Conservatory) and the Army Barracks. Finally, the Government House with its austere dignity expresses the attitudes as well as the vigour of a threatened authority.
  The interweaving of Byzantium, the Renaissance, Islam and Classicism, so characteristic of Thessaloniki, reaches its peak in the majestic yet charming Yeni Cami (mosque).
Hamidye Boulevard
  Hamidye Boulevard (now Ethnikis Amynis) ended at the Fountain, a gift of the Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who had envisaged this long avenue. City residents long remembered the cherry flavored sirop that bubbled from the fountain at the street's inauguration.
  The boulevard, also known as the Rue Royale (since almost all the buildings lining it belonged to the Sultan), housed the foreign consulates, luxurious mansions and smart cafes, as well as the renowned Idadie School (now part of Thessaloniki's university).
  The Turks called the whole new waterfront area Hamidye, though the Greeks nicknamed it Pirgoi (mansions) or the district of Exohes (the countryside, as it was situated outside the city's walls).

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains images.


Greek institutions in Thessaloniki around 1900

  Thanks to donations from Athenian societies and benefactors, the Greek community erected a series of buildings at the turn of the century. Most of them were schools and philanthropic institutions (the Papafeio Orphanage, the Hariseio Hospital, the Hariseio Old People's Home, the Konstantinidis School, etc.).
  In addition the Greek community built the big complex at the cathedral of Ayios Grigorios Palamas, which included the metropolitan's residence, the high school, the teachers' college and the Greek consulate.
  Thus the Greek community had begun to make its presence felt with more self-confidence; the spare neoclassicism that distinguishes most of these buildings copied the style adopted in free Athens.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains images.


The district of "Pirgoi" in Thessaloniki

  The first neighbourhood to be planned outside the walls, thus representing the new European Thessaloniki, was that of Pirgoi (mansions). Greek and foreign architects, educated in Europe and Constantinople, built luxurious villas here for wealthy Jews, Greeks, Turks, Donmeh and Franco-Levantines (Europeans who had long made their home in the Ottoman Empire).
  The waterfront villas even had small private jetties from which to bathe in summer. Artisans connected with the building trades came to Thessaloniki on a seasonal basis, as had the old guilds. Among them the master builder G. Siagas and his sons stand out; they constructed the Casa Bianca and the Red Mansion for the Georgiadis family from Siatista.
  The Allatini were the most distinguished family not only of the Jewish community but of the whole city.
  Paul Lindau, who visited their mansion in 1888, remembered that "the forecourt, where the members of the Allatini family had gathered to welcome their guests, was lit up by many portable lampstands, each with six lamps, arrayed at every point of the courtyard. As we entered, a host of servants received us... Albanians wearing their characteristic fustanellas (pleated kilts)... The younger members of the family, who had exchanged the beautiful costumes of their ancestors for dull Western clothes, led us from the wide staircase, carpeted with impressive, beautiful, thick rugs, to the wonderfully illuminated ceremonial hall on the first floor..."
  Lindau was also impressed by the mansion's guest rooms, which lay off the courtyard, and extolled the view over the Thermaic Gulf, the view at which, twenty years later, Abdul Hamid would gaze in frustration for hours on end, exiled and imprisoned in the Allatini villa after his failed coup.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains images.


MIET Cultural Centre of Thessaloniki

Tel: +30 2310 295170-1, 295149, Fax: +30 2310 295276

Byzantine churches

Church of Acheiropoietos

Tel: +30 2310 227369

   Three-aisled basilica with a narthex on the west side and a second entrance with a monumental propylon in the middle of the south wall. To the east of the propylon a building is attached, probably a baptistery or a diaconicon. A small parecclesion (chapel) is formed at the east end of the north aisle. Of the interior decoration a few fragments of mosaics have survived in the soffits of the arches of the colonnades, dated to the 5th century A.D. Several parts of the wall paintings dated to the 13th century, are also preserved in the south aisle.
   The church was built in the middle of the 5th century, on the remains of a Roman bath. It was dedicated to the Holy Virgin "not made by human hands" (Acheiropoietos)-the name most probably refering to the cult image - and it was the first church in Thessalonike to be converted into a mosque after the conquest of the city by the Turks, in 1430. During the turkish occupation, pracically all the figurative decoration of the church in mosaics and frescoes was hammered down. In 1930, it was turned over to the Christian cult.
   Excavations were carried out in 1927-28, in 1946-47 in the precinct of the church and in 1961, in the area to the west of the church. Following the earthquake of 1978, in the course of the study for the restoration of the building, several trenches were opened on the interior and in the courtyard.
   Extensive restoration work was undertaken at the beginning of the century, in 1927-28 and again, in 1949. After the earthquake of 1978, restoration of the monument began once again and the work is still in progress.
   The monument is used as a church.


Church of Panagia Chalkeon

Tel: +30 2310 272910

   Longitudinal church of the cross-in-square type, with a square naos, a narthex on the west side and a triconch sanctuary on the east. Four columns and four arches form a cross inscribed in the square area of the naos. The centre of the cross is covered by an eight-sided dome and smaller domes cover the two ends of the narthex. Two successive layers of wall paintings are distinguished in the church, dated to the 11th and the 14th century A.D., respectively.
   The church was built in 1028 by the protospatharios (Byzantine official) Christophoros, as is attested by the inscription on the marble lintel of the main west entrance. After the conquest of Thessalonike by the Turks, in 1430, it was converted into a mosque and again became a Christian church, with the liberation of the city, in 1912.
   In 1987, in the course of a study on the structural stability of the building, several excavation trenches were opened in the courtyard of the church.
   After the liberation of the city, the wall paintings of the church were cleaned from the turkish plaster that covered them. The building was damaged by the earthquake in 1932 and was subsequently restored; the narthex and the south pediment were then reconstructed. Similar work was also undertaken after the earthquake of 1978.
   The monument is now used as a church.


Church of Agios Demetrius

Tel: +30 2310 270008, 260915, 268480, Fax: +30 2310 268480

   The monument is a five-aisled basilica, with a narthex and a transept. Under the sanctuary and the transept there is the crypt. A chapel of Saint Euthymios is attached to the south-east corner of the church. Very few fragments of the sculptural and pictorial (mosaics, wall paintings) decoration of the church, survived the disastrous fire of 1917 but they are representative of the successive phases of the monument's history.
   The first church was a small oratory, built shortly after 313 A.D. on the ruins of a Roman bath. In the 5th century A.D., the eparch Leontios founded on the same site a large, three-aisled basilica which was burnt down in 626-634. Shortly thereafter, the five-aisled basilica was erected. It was converted into a mosque in 1493, it was restored to Christian worship in 1912 but it was again destroyed in the great fire of 1917. It was rebuilt and started to function again in 1949.
   During the restoration of the monument after the fire of 1917, several trenches were opened in the naos and the crypt. Systematic excavations were carried out in 1946-49.
   Restoration of the church was undertaken immediately after the catastrophe of 1917. Work was stopped in 1938 and was again resumed in 1946. The monument was rebuilt and started to function again in 1949. Today the monument is used as a church.
   In the crypt of Aghios Demetrios, an exhibition is on display to the public. It includes the items that survived the fire of 1917 and those that were brought to light by the recent excavations in the monument.


Church of Agios Panteleimon

Tel: +30 2310 204150

  The church is a rectangular building with a narthex, a domed, cross-in-square naos and a tripartite sanctuary with a five-sided conch. A smaller dome covers the central part of the narthex. Two chapels are attached at the east ends of the north and south sides. The chapels originally flanked the ends of the U-shaped ambulatory that once surrounded the naos.
  The church was the catholicon (main church) of the Monastery of Theotocos Perivleptos, built at the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century, by James, the metropolitan bishop of Thessalonike. During the Turkish occupation it was converted into a mosque, probably between the years 1568-1571. Nearly all the frescoes that adorned the interior of the church were then hammered down and its walls whitewashed. After the liberation of the city in 1912, the monument was restored to Christian worship.
  Excavations in the front courtyard of the church were conducted by the 9th E.B.A. in 1973. After the earthquake of 1978, several trenches were opened inside the building and in the surrounding area.
  The restoration of the monument is still in progress.
  When the monument is completely restored, it will be turned over to Christian worship.


Moni Latomou

Tel: +30 2310 221506

   The original church was small and square in plan, with an apse at the east end and an entrance in the west wall. In each of the four corners of the building, a small chamber was constructed, thus forming a cross with equal arms in the area of the naos. The whole west side of the church is now ruined and the entrance is located on the south side. Of the interior decoration is preserved the famous mosaic in the conch of the sanctuary, dated to the 5th-6th century and fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 12th century A.D.
   The church was built at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, over an earlier, Roman building. It was the catholicon (main church) of the Latomos Monastery but in 1430, after the conquest of Thessalonike by the Turks, it was converted into a mosque and the mosaic and fresco decoration was plastered over. The famous mosaic was discovered when the monument was turned over to the Christian cult with the liberation of the city, in 1921.
   In 1929, excavations were conducted on the interior of the church.
   The monument has undergone several phases of restoration and consolidation over the years. Recently, in 1980 the west wall was restored and in 1991 the propylon on the south side was reconstructed.
   The monument is used as a church.


Church of Agioi Apostoloi

Tel: +30 2310 537915

   The church is of the complex cross-in square type, with a triconch sanctuary in the east, a U-shaped ambulatory surrounding the three other sides of the naos and an exonarthex to the west of the ambulatory. The decoration of the interior is a combination of mosaics (on the upper part of the walls) and wall paintings (on the lower part).
   The church was the catholicon (main church) of a monastery, probably dedicated to the Virgin. It was founded in 1310-14, by Patriarch Niphon I, as is attested by an inscription on the marble lintel over the entrance and the three monograms on the dosserets of three capitals on the west facade of the church. During the Turkish occupation of the city, in the years 1520-1530 it was converted into a mosque. At this time the golden tesserae of the mosaics were hammered down and the rest of the paintings whitewashed. After the liberation of the city in 1912, it was restored to Christian worship.
   Excavations in the area around the monument began in 1995 and are still in progress.
   The monument was restored in 1940-41 and again after the earthquakes of 1978. At the same time, the wall paintings were cleaned and restored.
   Today the monument functions as a church.


Church of Agia Sophia

Tel: +30 2310 270253

   It is a rectangular church, with a cross-in-square nucleus, which is covered with a dome. It is surrounded by a U-shaped ambulatory on the three sides, while the east is occupied by the tripartite sanctuary. The present architectural form of the monument is in many aspects, quite different from the original 7th century structure. Several parts of the interior pictorial decoration are preserved: mosaics on the dome and the sanctuary, dated to the 8th-12th centuries A.D. and wall paintings of the 11th century, in the narthex.
   The church was built in the 7th century, on the ruins of a large, five-aisled basilica dated to the 5th century A.D. It was the metropolitan church of Thessalonike, dedicated to the Wisdom (Sophia) of God and soon became the nucleus of a large building complex, with administrative and religious functions. In 1524, it was converted into a mosque, it was burnt down in 1890 and was repaired between 1907 and 1909. After the liberation of the city, in 1912, it was restored to Christian worship.
   Excavations were conducted in the years 1936-40, 1946, 1948 and 1961 and, after 1978, during the restoration of the building which was damaged by the earthquake.
   The building was restored in 1907-1909, 1941 and again, after the earthquake of 1978. In 1961, the wall paintings of the narthex were uncovered and cleaned, after the turkish plaster was removed.
   The monument is now used as a church.


Church of Agios Nikolaos Orphanos

Tel: +30 2310 202978

   The nucleus of the rectangular church is a long timber-roofed chamber with a U-shaped ambulatory along the three sides and a triconch sanctuary at the east. The marble iconostasis is preserved almost intact as well as a considerable amount of the painted decoration, which has been dated to 1310-1320 and is of a very high aristic quality.
   The church was the catholicon (main church) of a monastery, dated to the early 14th century A.D. The name is related either to the philanthropic works of St. Nicholas for the sake of the orphans, or to the probable founder of the monastery, a member of the Byzantine Orphanos family. According to another suggestion, the church was founded by the Serbian kral, Milutin. It is actually a metochion (dependence) of the Vlatades Monastery and it functioned as a church even during the Turkish occupation.
   Excavations on the interior of the church were conducted in 1959-60 and again, in 1971, at the propylon.
   The monument was restored in 1959-60. The monument is used as a church.


Castles, fortresses & fortifications

Byzantine Walls of Thessaloniki

Tel: +30 2310 968860, Fax: +30 2310 968869

  The lie of the Byzantine walls of Thessalonike coincides with that of the Roman ones. Built of wide courses of undressed stones and narrow ones of brick over a length of five miles, they were almost square in plan and 30-36 feet in height, while to the north they were joined to the walls of the Acropolis.
  Fortified at intervals with towers and gates, the wall was a double one, at least in the more level sections, the inner and outer wall having a distance of ten metres between them. There were no gates in the sea walls, while the artificial harbour built by Constantine the Great within the walls had a low wall around it facing the city and a breakwater, the Tzeremboulon, on its seaward side.
  Extensive rebuilding of the walls was carried out in Early Christian times (late 4th-early 5th centuries) by Ormisdas, while frequent barbarian raids in the 5th and 6th centuries necessitated frequent reinforcement of the walls. The ease with which the Saracens captured the city in 904 through the defenders' negligence led to the walls being strengthened to resist the danger presented by the Bulgarians.
  Major repair work was undertaken in the 13th and 14th centuries by the Palaeologan dynasty both to the walls (e.g. the Anna Palaeologina Gate) and to the Eptapyrgion (Acropolis). Venetian indifference facilitated the capture of Thessalonike by the Turks, who then paid great attention to the city's fortifications.

The text is cited from the webpage: www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/C2.3.D.html


Byzantine Walls of Thessaloniki

Tel: +30 2310 968860, Fax: +30 2310 968869

  The lie of the Byzantine walls of Thessalonike coincides with that of the Roman ones. Built of wide courses of undressed stones and narrow ones of brick over a length of five miles, they were almost square in plan and 30-36 feet in height, while to the north they were joined to the walls of the Acropolis.
  Fortified at intervals with towers and gates, the wall was a double one, at least in the more level sections, the inner and outer wall having a distance of ten metres between them. There were no gates in the sea walls, while the artificial harbour built by Constantine the Great within the walls had a low wall around it facing the city and a breakwater, the Tzeremboulon, on its seaward side.
  Extensive rebuilding of the walls was carried out in Early Christian times (late 4th-early 5th centuries) by Ormisdas, while frequent barbarian raids in the 5th and 6th centuries necessitated frequent reinforcement of the walls. The ease with which the Saracens captured the city in 904 through the defenders' negligence led to the walls being strengthened to resist the danger presented by the Bulgarians.
  Major repair work was undertaken in the 13th and 14th centuries by the Palaeologan dynasty both to the walls (e.g. the Anna Palaeologina Gate) and to the Eptapyrgion (Acropolis). Venetian indifference facilitated the capture of Thessalonike by the Turks, who then paid great attention to the city's fortifications.

The text is cited from the webpage: www.macedonian-heritage.gr/HellenicMacedonia/en/C2.3.D.html


Links

Religious monuments

Hamza-Bey Mosque


Yeni Mosque


Alatza-Imaret Mosque


Towers

The White Tower

  The White Tower, nowadays the emblem of Thessalonike, once stood at the south-eastern corner of the city walls. Its uncertain history is an invitation to further research.
  Undoubtedly some building or other used to stand on this site throughout the centuries-long existence of Thessalonike, but whether or not the White Tower is Byzantine remains an unanswered question. It does not seem improbable that it was one of the earliest buildings erected in Thessalonike by the Ottomans, shortly after 1430.
  The Turks in fact named it the Red Tower back in the 15th century (perhaps because of its masonry). In Greek tradition this name was translated as Bloody Tower, since the place was connected with the torments suffered in it by Greeks who had revolted in 1822; it was changed in 1883 to White Tower, a name which it acquired when it was whitewashed following the Sultan's instructions, as British archival sources testify.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains image.


Traditional settlements

The Jewish neighbourhoods in modern Thessaloniki

  The arrival of tens of thousands of Jewish settlers swelled Thessaloniki's population at the end of the 15th century. In some cases, the Jewish districts took their name from the nearest synagogue, in others they mapped the Community's lost homelands: Pulia (Apulia), Castilia, Calabria, Lisbon, and so forth.
  Community worship was conducted in spare, simple buildings so as to provide no pretext for persecution. The oldest synagogue was the Ets Chaim, while the Talmud Tora -- an important religious, education and social centre from 1520 up to the early 20th century -- was famous throughout Europe.
The houses of the Jews in modern Thessaloniki
  The 16th century was the golden age of the Jews in Thessaloniki, which at that time became the centre of Hispano-Jewish intellect and economic power. The houses in the Jewish quarters were tightly crammed into narrow, winding alleyways.
  Simply constructed of unbaked bricks, with one or two storeys, painted, usually blue, but only in the interior, they exhibited many sanitation problems, indicative of the desperate economic plight of the vast majority of the Jewish community. Although no building from that period has survived, paintings of the district known as Las Incantadas (the enchanted; "Idols" to the Greeks) give us a picture of the Jewish houses of those days.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains images.


The Muslim neighbourhoods in modern Thessaloniki

  The most important homogeneous Muslim neighbourhood was the Bairi (hillside), inside the walls of the Old Town, though there were many others scattered near the Kalamaria Gate and what is today Navarinou Square.
  The Bairi district, free of the asphyxiating crush that typified the rest of the city and endowed with a better climate, impressed visitors with its clean, flagstoned streets, its large courtyards with their cypress trees and its picturesque architecture. The houses were decorated with sayings from the Koran, and had their upper storeys painted red, while the lower one was painted black to ward off bad luck.
Ottoman public buildings in Thessaloniki
  In the course of five centuries of Ottoman occupation, countless religious and public buildings were erected in Thessaloniki. New mosques went up, such as the Alaca Imaret built in 1484 by Ishak Pasha, and the Hamza Bey Cami (the present day Alkazar), erected around 1468.
  The Turks also built 'meskit' (small places of worship), 'medreshe' (religious schools), 'mekteb' (schools), 'turbe' (mausoleums) and 'tekke' (monasteries), such as the Mevlevihane Tekkesi. 'Imaret' (poor houses), aqueducts, fountains, markets and 'karavan-serai' (inns) were scattered throughout the better districts.
  The cleanliness of the population was provided by public baths, such as the Bey Hammam, the city's first and largest Turkish bath, constructed by Murad II in 1444, the Pasha's Hamam and Yeni Hamam.
The Old Town of Thessaloniki
  The Old Town, within the Byzantine walls, was inhabited mainly by Turks, Donmeh (from the late 17th century), and Turkish refugees from Bosnia after 1878. The area was organized by narrow streets, some ending in squares, others in culs de sac. The houses, of one to three storeys, were surrounded by gardens or lush inner courtyards enclosed by a high stone wall.
  Particularly impressive were the three-storey stone seraglios (mansions), with their projecting enclosed balconies ('sachnisia') and wooden lattice partitions, where, as in all Turkish houses, there was a clear separation between male and female quarters.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains images.


The Greek neighbourhoods in modern Thessaloniki

   The foreign regime dictated the appearance of the enslaved population's homes: they had to be lower than those of the Turks, while the facades of Greek churches were forbidden to face the street.
  The size of the Greek neighborhoods shrank steadily as the conquerors installed themselves in the city; the moving of the Rotunda community to a location further south in 1591 was indicative of this trend.
  The most densely populated Greek district was that of Ayios Athanasios, though there were others scattered about the town, around the Vlatadon Monastery (Tsaous Monastir), along the Egnatia and around the cathedral of Grigorios Palamas, and interspersed among the Jewish quarters. The wooden houses, with their enclosed balconies and tile roofs, were typical of the Balkan architecture during the Ottoman occupation.
The Egnatia neighbourhood in modern Thessaloniki
  The Christians were concentrated in the lower part of the city, mainly in the parishes of Ayios Athanasios, Ayios Panteleimon, Lagoudiani and the eastern sections of town, up to the area around the Hippodrome and Nea Panayia.
  The houses, with simple exteriors, one or two storeys, covered balconies and small courtyards, lined the narrow lanes of these medieval-looking quarters. Because the older Byzantine churches, such as the Acheiropoietos and Ayios Demetrios, had been converted into mosques, many other churches were erected in the model of the three-aisled, wooden roofed basilica, of which Ayios Antonios is an example.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Nov 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains images.


UNESCO - World Heritage List

Moni Latomou

Tel: +30 2310 221506

   The original church was small and square in plan, with an apse at the east end and an entrance in the west wall. In each of the four corners of the building, a small chamber was constructed, thus forming a cross with equal arms in the area of the naos. The whole west side of the church is now ruined and the entrance is located on the south side. Of the interior decoration is preserved the famous mosaic in the conch of the sanctuary, dated to the 5th-6th century and fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 12th century A.D.
   The church was built at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, over an earlier, Roman building. It was the catholicon (main church) of the Latomos Monastery but in 1430, after the conquest of Thessalonike by the Turks, it was converted into a mosque and the mosaic and fresco decoration was plastered over. The famous mosaic was discovered when the monument was turned over to the Christian cult with the liberation of the city, in 1921.
   In 1929, excavations were conducted on the interior of the church.
   The monument has undergone several phases of restoration and consolidation over the years. Recently, in 1980 the west wall was restored and in 1991 the propylon on the south side was reconstructed.
   The monument is used as a church.


Church of Agios Nikolaos Orphanos

Tel: +30 2310 202978

   The nucleus of the rectangular church is a long timber-roofed chamber with a U-shaped ambulatory along the three sides and a triconch sanctuary at the east. The marble iconostasis is preserved almost intact as well as a considerable amount of the painted decoration, which has been dated to 1310-1320 and is of a very high aristic quality.
   The church was the catholicon (main church) of a monastery, dated to the early 14th century A.D. The name is related either to the philanthropic works of St. Nicholas for the sake of the orphans, or to the probable founder of the monastery, a member of the Byzantine Orphanos family. According to another suggestion, the church was founded by the Serbian kral, Milutin. It is actually a metochion (dependence) of the Vlatades Monastery and it functioned as a church even during the Turkish occupation.
   Excavations on the interior of the church were conducted in 1959-60 and again, in 1971, at the propylon.
   The monument was restored in 1959-60. The monument is used as a church.


Church of Agia Sophia

Tel: +30 2310 270253

   It is a rectangular church, with a cross-in-square nucleus, which is covered with a dome. It is surrounded by a U-shaped ambulatory on the three sides, while the east is occupied by the tripartite sanctuary. The present architectural form of the monument is in many aspects, quite different from the original 7th century structure. Several parts of the interior pictorial decoration are preserved: mosaics on the dome and the sanctuary, dated to the 8th-12th centuries A.D. and wall paintings of the 11th century, in the narthex.
   The church was built in the 7th century, on the ruins of a large, five-aisled basilica dated to the 5th century A.D. It was the metropolitan church of Thessalonike, dedicated to the Wisdom (Sophia) of God and soon became the nucleus of a large building complex, with administrative and religious functions. In 1524, it was converted into a mosque, it was burnt down in 1890 and was repaired between 1907 and 1909. After the liberation of the city, in 1912, it was restored to Christian worship.
   Excavations were conducted in the years 1936-40, 1946, 1948 and 1961 and, after 1978, during the restoration of the building which was damaged by the earthquake.
   The building was restored in 1907-1909, 1941 and again, after the earthquake of 1978. In 1961, the wall paintings of the narthex were uncovered and cleaned, after the turkish plaster was removed.
   The monument is now used as a church.


Church of Agios Demetrius

Tel: +30 2310 270008, 260915, 268480, Fax: +30 2310 268480

   The monument is a five-aisled basilica, with a narthex and a transept. Under the sanctuary and the transept there is the crypt. A chapel of Saint Euthymios is attached to the south-east corner of the church. Very few fragments of the sculptural and pictorial (mosaics, wall paintings) decoration of the church, survived the disastrous fire of 1917 but they are representative of the successive phases of the monument's history.
   The first church was a small oratory, built shortly after 313 A.D. on the ruins of a Roman bath. In the 5th century A.D., the eparch Leontios founded on the same site a large, three-aisled basilica which was burnt down in 626-634. Shortly thereafter, the five-aisled basilica was erected. It was converted into a mosque in 1493, it was restored to Christian worship in 1912 but it was again destroyed in the great fire of 1917. It was rebuilt and started to function again in 1949.
   During the restoration of the monument after the fire of 1917, several trenches were opened in the naos and the crypt. Systematic excavations were carried out in 1946-49.
   Restoration of the church was undertaken immediately after the catastrophe of 1917. Work was stopped in 1938 and was again resumed in 1946. The monument was rebuilt and started to function again in 1949. Today the monument is used as a church.
   In the crypt of Aghios Demetrios, an exhibition is on display to the public. It includes the items that survived the fire of 1917 and those that were brought to light by the recent excavations in the monument.


Church of Agios Panteleimon

Tel: +30 2310 204150

  The church is a rectangular building with a narthex, a domed, cross-in-square naos and a tripartite sanctuary with a five-sided conch. A smaller dome covers the central part of the narthex. Two chapels are attached at the east ends of the north and south sides. The chapels originally flanked the ends of the U-shaped ambulatory that once surrounded the naos.
  The church was the catholicon (main church) of the Monastery of Theotocos Perivleptos, built at the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century, by James, the metropolitan bishop of Thessalonike. During the Turkish occupation it was converted into a mosque, probably between the years 1568-1571. Nearly all the frescoes that adorned the interior of the church were then hammered down and its walls whitewashed. After the liberation of the city in 1912, the monument was restored to Christian worship.
  Excavations in the front courtyard of the church were conducted by the 9th E.B.A. in 1973. After the earthquake of 1978, several trenches were opened inside the building and in the surrounding area.
  The restoration of the monument is still in progress.
  When the monument is completely restored, it will be turned over to Christian worship.


Church of Agioi Apostoloi

Tel: +30 2310 537915

   The church is of the complex cross-in square type, with a triconch sanctuary in the east, a U-shaped ambulatory surrounding the three other sides of the naos and an exonarthex to the west of the ambulatory. The decoration of the interior is a combination of mosaics (on the upper part of the walls) and wall paintings (on the lower part).
   The church was the catholicon (main church) of a monastery, probably dedicated to the Virgin. It was founded in 1310-14, by Patriarch Niphon I, as is attested by an inscription on the marble lintel over the entrance and the three monograms on the dosserets of three capitals on the west facade of the church. During the Turkish occupation of the city, in the years 1520-1530 it was converted into a mosque. At this time the golden tesserae of the mosaics were hammered down and the rest of the paintings whitewashed. After the liberation of the city in 1912, it was restored to Christian worship.
   Excavations in the area around the monument began in 1995 and are still in progress.
   The monument was restored in 1940-41 and again after the earthquakes of 1978. At the same time, the wall paintings were cleaned and restored.
   Today the monument functions as a church.


Church of Panagia Chalkeon

Tel: +30 2310 272910

   Longitudinal church of the cross-in-square type, with a square naos, a narthex on the west side and a triconch sanctuary on the east. Four columns and four arches form a cross inscribed in the square area of the naos. The centre of the cross is covered by an eight-sided dome and smaller domes cover the two ends of the narthex. Two successive layers of wall paintings are distinguished in the church, dated to the 11th and the 14th century A.D., respectively.
   The church was built in 1028 by the protospatharios (Byzantine official) Christophoros, as is attested by the inscription on the marble lintel of the main west entrance. After the conquest of Thessalonike by the Turks, in 1430, it was converted into a mosque and again became a Christian church, with the liberation of the city, in 1912.
   In 1987, in the course of a study on the structural stability of the building, several excavation trenches were opened in the courtyard of the church.
   After the liberation of the city, the wall paintings of the church were cleaned from the turkish plaster that covered them. The building was damaged by the earthquake in 1932 and was subsequently restored; the narthex and the south pediment were then reconstructed. Similar work was also undertaken after the earthquake of 1978.
   The monument is now used as a church.


Church of Acheiropoietos

Tel: +30 2310 227369

   Three-aisled basilica with a narthex on the west side and a second entrance with a monumental propylon in the middle of the south wall. To the east of the propylon a building is attached, probably a baptistery or a diaconicon. A small parecclesion (chapel) is formed at the east end of the north aisle. Of the interior decoration a few fragments of mosaics have survived in the soffits of the arches of the colonnades, dated to the 5th century A.D. Several parts of the wall paintings dated to the 13th century, are also preserved in the south aisle.
   The church was built in the middle of the 5th century, on the remains of a Roman bath. It was dedicated to the Holy Virgin "not made by human hands" (Acheiropoietos)-the name most probably refering to the cult image - and it was the first church in Thessalonike to be converted into a mosque after the conquest of the city by the Turks, in 1430. During the turkish occupation, pracically all the figurative decoration of the church in mosaics and frescoes was hammered down. In 1930, it was turned over to the Christian cult.
   Excavations were carried out in 1927-28, in 1946-47 in the precinct of the church and in 1961, in the area to the west of the church. Following the earthquake of 1978, in the course of the study for the restoration of the building, several trenches were opened on the interior and in the courtyard.
   Extensive restoration work was undertaken at the beginning of the century, in 1927-28 and again, in 1949. After the earthquake of 1978, restoration of the monument began once again and the work is still in progress.
   The monument is used as a church.


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