The river has its sources in the prefecture of Ioannina
and empties into the Ionian
sea. (it rises near Parakalamos
and its mouth is by Sagiada).
Gormos, Smolitsas, Tyria, Zaloggitikos, Kousovitikos and Kalpakiotikos are its
tributaries. Its ancient name was Thymiatis, and for quite some time it used to
separate the Kestrini
from the Thesprodida.
It used to be navigable, at least until the ancient Gitani,
which is situated near Ragio,
at the point where Kalamas receives the waters of the river Kalpakiotikos.
Up to the Middle Ages, the small ships used to go up the river up to the skala of Zorgianos, below Sideri. In the middle era, its ancient name was forgotten (so much so that many travelers of the previous century identified it with Acheron), and its place was taken up by Kalamas, due to the canes which grew in the swampy mouth at "Parakalamos". Kalamas, a large waterway from the ancient times, gathered by its banks important towns, such as Lygia, Gitani, Fanoti, Osdina, Raveni, etc. The Mycenean findings which were found along the river bed, prove the importance which the river had in trading during those faraway years, a trade which was continued later on in the archaic years by the Ellines settlers from Peloponnisos. During the Hellenistic times, the multitude of seals which were found in Gitani, confirm the development of trade through the river, while the powerful venetian castle at the "skala of Zorgianos" shows the continuance of trade up to the Ottoman domination. (It was then that, possibly due to the change of the mouth of the river, that Kalamas seized to be used as the main road and paths and wagon roads were traced by its banks. New statio -towns, - such as Filiati - appeared, while bridges for crossing it were built.) Kalamas is today a challenge for the visitor, who has to choose between the routs in the wild nature of the river with exceptional fauna and flora, the visits to the archeological sites and the stroll in traditional villages with folklore museums.
Places of natural beauty: Delta of Kalamas. It has recently been pronounced a protected area due to its important marsh, in which rare birds nest. At the skala of Sagiada an information center operates as well as a museum for the nature, not only of Kalamas, but also of the passes of Kalamas.
The Passes of Kalamas. A protected area between Vrosyna and Pente Ekklisies. Rare bird species and extremely rare types of flowers are in the gorge.
Theogefyro (God's bridge). A natural bridge from huge rocks, which was used as a natural bridge for many centuries. It is situated by the village Lithino. Stone stairways that lead below the Theogefyro to the river.
Katarraktes (waterfalls). Two exceptionally beautiful waterfalls are found in a luxuriant vegetation of plane-trees. They caused a sensation to the travelers of the previous century who visited it, beginning with Lord Byron. They are found near the village Katarraktis (Glyziani) of the Prefecture of Ioannina.
This text is cited January 2004 from the Thesprotia Prefecture Tourism Promotional Committee URL below, which contains images.
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