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Ancient works of art (149)

Ministry of Culture WebPages

Memorandum of the Greek Government

  In 1999 a team of Greek experts visited the British Museum in order to examine the extent of the damage done to the surface of the Parthenon Marbles, during the cleaning of 1937-1938. Following this, the British Museum organized an international conference in London ("Cleaning the Parthenon Sculptures", 30 November - 1 December 1999) in order to examine the issues concerning the conservation of the Parthenon Sculptures; the results of the Greek experts' visit to the British Museum were presented among others during this conference.
  During the same year, the British Government assigned the Committee on Culture, Media and Sport to consider all the issues relevant to British cultural heritage polices. The Greek request for the return of the Parthenon Marbles was among the examined issues.
  In 1999 members of the Select Committee visited Athens and the Acropolis, and saw the area where the New Acropolis Museum will be constructed. After appointing a special task force, the Greek Ministry of Culture sent to the Committee a memorandum concerning the Greek request for the return of the Parthenon Marbles (Memorandum on the Parthenon Marbles submitted by the Government of the Hellenic Republic to the House of Commons Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport). Moreover, in 2000 relevant oral testimonies from the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, the former Secretary General of the Ministry of Culture and the President of the Melina Mercouri Foundation were presented before the Committee. Later, in July 2000, the Select Committee published its report entitled "Cultural Property: Return and Illicit Trade" (House of Commons, Session 1999-2000, Culture, Media and Sports Committee, "Cultural Property: Return and Illicit Trade"). The report includes comments by Mr Graham C Greene, Dr Robert Anderson and Mrs Vivian Davies (The British Museum), Mr Donald Toon and Mr Roger Sanbrook (HM Customs and Excise), Ms Isabel Letwin, Mr Hurh Corer and the former Minister of Culture Mr Alan Howarth (Ministry of Culture, Media and Sport). Mr Howarth encouraged the bilateral discussion between Greece and the United Kingdom in view of finding a ground of mutual understanding: "I think there needs to be a closer meeting of minds, a closer mutual understanding of each other's point of view".

The Memorandum on the Parthenon Marbles submitted by the Government of the Hellenic Republic to the House of Commons Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport (text)

APPENDIX 1
a. Ground plan of the Parthenon indicating current location of Parthenon Marbles.
b. "Disjecta Membra. The Plunder and Dispersion of the Antiquities of the Acropolis", by Alexandros Mantis. Anthemion, Bulletin of the Friends of the Acropolis. Reprinted in shortened form from Vol. 4, December 1997.
c. Selected bibliography.
APPENDIX 2
Texts by the Greek General Makriyiannis and by K. Pittakis, General Keeper of Antiquities of Greece.
APPENDIX 3
UNESCO, European Parliament and United Nations resolutions and recommendations.
APPENDIX 4
English written source of the 19th century: letters by Elgin and his staff, texts by travellers and intellectuals.
APPENDIX 5
Summary of a preliminary report by the team of experts from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture on their findings concerning the Parthenon Marbles in the British Museum.
APPENDIX 6
The Unification of the Archaeological Sites of Athens (brochure and plans).
APPENDIX 7
Conservation programme of the Acropolis Monuments and the Parthenon:
a. "Conservation of the Surface of the Acropolis Monuments", Committee for the Preservation of the Acropolis Monuments, Athens 1994.
b. Articles by H.C. Perkins and E. Papakonstantinou on air pollution in Athens and London.
APPENDIX 8
Restoration programme of the Acropolis Monuments and the Parthenon:
a. "The Restoration of the Acropolis Monuments 1975-2000", by F. Mallouhou- Tufano.
b. "Documentation of the Column Capital and Drum from the Parthenon in the British Museum", by C. Zambas.
APPENDIX 9
Results of archaeological research on the Acropolis and the Parthenon: offprints by I. Trianti, Ephor of the Acropolis and A. Mantis, Archaeologist, Ephorate of Acropolis.

This text is cited Aug 2005 from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture URL below.


The Restitution of the Parthenon Marbles

A review of the seizure

  In 1799 Lord Elgin was appointed ambassador of Great Britain to the Sublime Porte at Constantinople. In 1800 he dispatched a team of artists to Athens, which then formed part of the Ottoman Empire. They were charged initially with drawing the monuments and making casts to adorn the lord's country house in Scotland. At that time Elgin was not considering the removal of anything from the Athenian Acropolis.
  When, in the course of international political events, Turkey forged a fruitful alliance with Britain against France, the Sultan became favourably disposed towards Elgin, as British Ambassador, who seized the opportunity for personal gain by acquiring an enormous collection of antiquities. His attention was focused primarily on the monuments on the Acropolis (the Parthenon topmost) which were very difficult of access and from which no one ever had been granted permission to remove sculptures.
  Concurrently, by showering Turks in Constantinople and Athens with gifts and money and by using methods of bribery and fraud Elgin persuaded the Turkish dignitaries in Athens to turn a blind eye while his craftsmen removed those parts of the Parthenon they particularly liked. Elgin never acquired the permission to remove the sculptural and architectural decoration of the monument by the authority of the Sultan himself, who alone could have issued such a permit. He simply made use of a friendly letter from the Kaimakam, a Turkish officer, who at the time was replacing the Grand Vizier in Constantinople. This letter, handed out unofficially as a favour, could only urge the Turkish authorities in Athens to allow Elgin's men to make drawings, take casts and conduct excavations around the foundations of the Parthenon, where some part of an inscription or relief might be buried, with the inevitable proviso that no harm be caused to the monuments.
  Between 1801 and 1804 Elgin's team was active on the Acropolis, hacking off and causing considerable damage to the sculptures and the monument, eventually detaching and dismembering a significant part (more or less half) of the remaining sculpted decoration of the Parthenon, together with certain architectural members such as a capital and a column drum. London and Athens now hold dismembered pieces of many of the sculptures.
  Of the 97 surviving blocks of the Parthenon frieze, 56 have been removed to Britain and 40 are in Athens. Of the 64 surviving metopes, 48 are in Athens and 15 have been taken to London. Of the 28 preserved figures of the pediments, 19 have been removed to London and 9 are in Athens.
  The shipping of these precious antiquities to Britain was fraught with difficulties, since they were moved from port to port. One ship sank and the sculptures, after prolonged exposure to the damp in various harbours, eventually arrived in England. In London they were shifted from sheds to warehouses, because Lord Elgin had been reduced to such penury by the enormous costs of wages, transportation, gifts and bribes to the Turks, that he was unable to accommodate them in his own house. So, after the mortgaging of the collection by the British state, he was obliged to sell the Parthenon Marbles to the British government, which transferred them to the British Museum in 1816.
  Prior to this transaction a select Committee was appointed to consider the purchase and the evidence it gathered was placed before Parliament. A debate took place, where many voices expressed their skepticism and disapproval. Even thoughts about the return of the Marbles were expressed for the very first time. Strenuous objections were heard outside Parliament as well, the most impassioned being that of Lord Byron.

This text is cited Aug 2005 from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture URL below.


Links


                Perseus Sculpture Catalog

                THE PARTHENON SCULPTURES


                Parthenon, West Pediment

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment
                Collection:
                London, British Museum and Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Athena's Strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Athena's Strife with Poseidon (West pediment):
                The subject and setting are given by Pausanias (Paus. 1.24.5), who says the pediment represents the struggle between Athena and Poseidon for the land of Attica. Help in reconstructing the composition and identifying individual figures is provided by the drawings made by Carrey in 1674, when most of the sculptures were still in place. (Where already missing, the drawings indicate the voids left by their removal.)
                  The identity of the central figures is clear. Athena (L) moves left, Poseidon (M) right, away from the center of the pediment where some event has just occurred. Immediately on the left, Hermes (H) and Nike (G) driving her team rush to Athena. On the right, Iris (N) and Amphitrite (0) as Poseidon's charioteer and messenger rush toward him. Vases which depict the same subject and may reflect the pediment sometimes show an olive tree, sometimes a thunderbolt. An olive tree may have been added in bronze, though there is not much space in the center of the composition for an object of any size. (Marble fragments of olive sometimes attributed to the pediment are now usually thought Roman.) The tree would represent Athena's gift to Attica; Poseidon's gift was a salt spring. Simon has suggested that, rather than the moment of the contest itself, the aftermath is shown. Angered by his loss of the contest, Poseidon threatened to send a flood. Zeus intervened by throwing his thunderbolt. Simon has suggested the thunderbolt was represented in the center between Poseidon and Athena; a vase found at Pella now appears to support her conjecture.
                  As in the east pediment, it is the subsidiary figures to either side whose identities are much debated. The possibilities include personifications, heroes or gods. Modern scholarly opinion appears to be leaning in the direction of heroes, primarily because the subject is specifically Attic. The figures are essentially spectators or witnesses of the struggle in process. Since the prize is the land of Attica, it is appropriate that those most concerned be on hand. Furthermore, the number of children in family groups suggests the representation of linked generations.
                  For the left side a widely accepted interpretation sees Kekrops, a legendary king of Attica, as the older man (B) sitting on a rock beside a snake. Beside him is surely one of his daughters, probably the oldest, Aglauros (C). The other two young women (D and F) presumably represent the other two daughters, Pandrosos and Herse. The young man (E) is probably either his son Erysichthon or his adopted son Erichthonios, the foster child of Athena by Hephaistos and later king of Athens. In the corner (A and A*) are either personifications in the manner of the Olympia pediments -- the river god Ilissos or Kephisos is usually suggested -- or yet more ancient Attic hero kings, such as Aktaios, or Boutes and Erechtheus.
                  On the right hand side of the pediment three female figures are often correspondingly identified as the daughters of Erechtheus. The figure seated close to Amphitrite with billowy drapery and two children (P,Q,R) is suggested as Oreithyia, wife of Boreas and mother of twins. The other females (T,U) would be Kreousa and Prokris. The young male (S) is sometimes identified as Ion, although strong evidence is lacking. The aforementioned identifications make these figures Athenians. A recent proposal instead views the figures on the right hand side of the pediment as Eleusinians, descendants of Poseidon. Such an identification suggests the contest between Athena and Poseidon was seen as a metaphor for the struggle between Athens and Eleusis. The two subjects are known to be related on vases and in literature. According to this theory, the figures named above are identified as Metaneira, wife of the legendary king Keleos, and his children. The adopted son Triptolemos would parallel Erichthonios on the opposite half. Near the corner Eumolpos (V), son of Poseidon, priest/king of Eleusis and founder of the Eleusinian Mysteries, had previously been proposed and fits with the new theory as well. The figure next to him would be his mother Chione (W). An alternate interpretation of her is as Kallirhoe, an Athenian spring.
                Condition Description:
                Single fragment preserving upper torso of Athena and another large piece preserving entire torso plus upper thighs of Hermes. Part of head of Athena is in Acropolis Museum. Surfaces chipped and abraded.


                Louvre Ma 740

                Title: Parthenon, Weber-Laborde Head
                Collection: Paris, Musee du Louvre
                Subject: Female head
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: West Pediment ?
                Subject Description:
                Female head, broken at the neck. The head is set at a strong angle on the neck, turned toward the proper right side of the figure. The ripple of the Venus rings on the neck accentuate the turn. The outline of the face is full. The eyes are widely set. The nose, mouth and chin are heavily restored. The face is surrounded by a mass of loose curls. In the back the hair is brushed up off the neck and held in place by a diadem, whose position is clearly indicated by the carving. Holes for the attachment of metal are located along its line, as well as on both ear lobes.
                  The head has long been attributed to the Parthenon pediments on the basis of style as well as scale. The attribution has been almost universally accepted, although the question of which particular figure or even which pediment is represented has not been determined. Brommer gives a summary of the bibliography and various hypotheses up to 1963 in his publication of the pediments. The most frequent suggestion gives the head to Nike, charioteer of Athena in the West Pediment. The break of the neck, however, furnishes no clear join with any of the extant figures. In her publication of a roughly contemporary head from the Athenian Agora, Harrison notes that the upper eyelid overlaps the lower in the outer corner of the left eye, though not of the right eye. This treatment, together with the more careful rendering of the left ear and the hair on the left side of the face, leads her to believe that the head was designed to be seen in a three-quarter view from the proper left side and hence would come from the right half of the pediment, whether East or West. This would eliminate the attribution to Nike, Figure West G, as a possibility. The figure of Amphitrite on the East Pediment is a possibility. Brommer, on the other hand, believes the optimal view is essentially from the front and suggests more can be determined by the fault lines of the marble. However, the much heavier weathering on the left side of the face may not reflect its original position, but rather its later history, such as the period when it was built into a Venetian wall. Similarly, the depression on the back of the head may reflect some later vicissitude rather than an original reworking of the head. In any case, the theory once advanced by Sauer that it was cut to fit under the overhanging lip of the geison is probably not the correct explanation.
                Condition Description:
                Head, broken at mid-neck. The central section of the face--nose, lips and chin--is heavily restored. The recutting at the back of the crown may also date to a later time. There are holes for the attachment of a diadem and earrings in metal. Substantial weathering, especially of the left side of the face. This may well date from its more recent history, such as the period when it was built into a Venetian wall.


                Parthenon EF.5.33-37 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, East Frieze slab 5
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Handing over of the peplos and Athena and Hephaistos
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: East side
                Subject Description:
                Left to right: Woman wearing chiton and himation (probably priestess of Athena), facing left, reaches out with her right hand to take stool from girl. Man wearing himation (probably the Archon Basileus, i.e. Royal Archon) turns to right and reaches out to grasp peplos for Athena being offered by a child facing left. The child wears a garment fastened at both shoulders, either a peplos or chiton. Behind the child are Athena and Hephaistos, both seated on stools to right. The aegis of Athena lies in her lap and she once held a bronze spear. Hephaistos, supported by a staff under his right arm, turns back towards Athena to engage in conversation. The child has long been identified as a boy because of similarities with the last figure on the North frieze, no. 134, but some scholars now favor a female identification based primarily on the Venus-rings at its neck. If female, the child could appropriately be considered as an arrhephoros. The peplos for Athena was always woven with scenes of a Gigantomachy, i.e. a battle of Gods and Giants, which may have originally been rendered in paint on the frieze. Note that the deities are rendered on a larger scale than the humans and that mortals and gods are apparently unaware of each other.
                Condition Description:
                Upper right corner of slab missing. Surface much battered, especially the heads.


                Parthenon WP.A

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. A
                Collection:
                Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Naked torso and thighs of a river god (Ilissos?), leaning to the right
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Form and Style::

                This figure is commonly thought not to have received the "finishing touches".


                Parthenon WP.A (London)

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. A
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Hero or personification of river god from Athena's strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Strife between Athena and Poseidon (West Pediment):
                Hero or personification of the river god Ilissos or Kephissos reclines with a mantle draped loosely about his arms. If this is a personification of either the Ilissos or Kephissos rivers in Athens, then the figure may be seen as providing a topographical limit to the scene. This identification is based on the reclining pose comparable to that of the Alpheios and Kladeos figures in the corners of the East Pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. The identification of these two Olympia figures, however, is made on the basis of the testimony of Pausanias whose information could be faulty and in any case is not binding on the sculpture of the Parthenon pediments.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: lower legs, parts of both arms and head. Surface heavily scored and abraded


                Parthenon WP.M (London)

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. M
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Poseidon from Athena's Strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Athena's Strife with Poseidon (West pediment):
                Poseidon, nude, is moving to right while looking back to left towards his opponent Athena. His right hand is raised and held a trident. Powerful torso originally with drapery which was hacked off at back of left shoulder, possibly in order to fit it into pediment.
                Condition Description:
                Torso and upper arms of nude male with very large fragment missing from chest area. Chest fragment is Acropolis Museum no. 885. Surface is chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon EP.O

                Title: Parthenon, East Pediment, fig. O
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Horse from Quadriga of Selene/Nyx
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: East pediment
                Subject Description:

                East pediment (Birth of Athena): Head of one of four original horses pulling chariot of Selene (Moon) or Nyx (Night), dipping down into floor of pediment in right corner. Weariness of the horse shown by its dropping jaw and flaring nostrils. This is the famous Urpferd of Goethe.
                Condition Description:
                Missing a few fragments of mane. Surface weathered and chipped.


                Parthenon WP.H

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. H
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: 'Hermes' from Athena's Strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Strife between Athena and Poseidon (West Pediment):
                Hermes, striding to right.
                Condition Description:
                Only torso and upper thighs preserved. Chest and shoulder area badly battered


                Parthenon WP.L

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. L
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Athena from Athena's Strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Athena's Strife with Poseidon (West pediment):
                Draped female upper torso with aegis running diagonally across chest. Identified with certainty as Athena.
                Condition Description:
                Single fragment preserving upper torso of Athena. Part of head in Acropolis Museum. Surface chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon WP.M (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. M
                Collection:
                Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Nude torso of Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Poseidon's muscular, naked torso twists slightly to his left, while he raises his right shoulder, presumably in striking his trident at the rock from which his salt spring emerges.
                Condition Description:
                Broken off just above the waist, and below each shoulder; the head and neck are also missing.


                Parthenon WP.N

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. N
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: 'Iris' from Athena's Strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Athena's Strife with Poseidon (West pediment):
                Draped female figure moving vigorously to left with arms outstretched, her thin chiton windblown and clinging to reveal her body underneath. Usually identified as Iris because of the cuttings in her back for the attachment of large bronze wings.
                Condition Description:
                Several joining fragments comprise thighs, torso, and right shoulder of draped female figure. Much of right breast missing. Surface chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon WP.O

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. O
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: 'Amphitrite' from Athena's Strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Athena's Strife with Poseidon (West pediment):
                Draped female figure bent at hips, arms extended, with garment bound at chest and shoulders as appropriate to a charioteer. Most likely Amphitrite, consort and charioteer of Poseidon.
                Condition Description:
                Thighs, torso and left upper arm are preserved. Surface badly chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon WP.Q

                Title: Parthenon, West Pediment, fig. Q
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: 'Oreithyia' from Athena's Strife with Poseidon
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: West pediment
                Subject Description:

                Athena's Strife with Poseidon (West pediment):
                Draped seated female figure who originally held two children, one on each side. Torso of child on right is preserved though no longer attached to female. Most often identified as Oreithyia, an Attic princess, with her two children.
                Condition Description:
                Draped seated female figure preserved from knees to ankles. Break on right side is point of join for figure of child. Surface chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon East Pediment

                Title: Parthenon East Pediment
                Collection:
                London, British Museum and Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Birth of Athena
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: East pediment
                Subject Description:

                Birth of Athena (East Pediment): The setting is apparently Olympus with Helios (figures A-C) and Selene-Nyx (N-O) in the corners providing a temporal element. Central scene comprises Athena, fully grown and armed, standing before her father Zeus (enthroned), Hephaistos who springs back upon witnessing the miraculous birth in which he assisted, and probably Hera. This scene is flanked by many other figures who are all probably Olympian deities present at the birth, possibly including two chariot groups (though this is controversial). Figure D, a nude male reclining on an animal skin, is most commonly identified as Dionysos, though suggested alternatives are Herakles, Ares and Theseus. E and F, both wearing peploi, are usually identified as Demeter and Kore because of the boxes on which they are seated which some would see as Eleusinian cistae. The running peplophoros G is variously identified as Artemis or Eileithyia. Torso H could be Poseidon or Hephaistos. Of the famous group of KLM (which used to be called the Three Fates), K, who is seated on what may be a household altar, is now identified as either Hestia (patron of the hearth) or Leto, L now Dione (mother of Aphrodite), Themis or Artemis, and reclining M is agreed to represent Aphrodite. K, L and M all wear chitons and have himatia across their legs.
                Form and Style:
                Figure D has been called the reclining Doryphoros because of his powerful musculature, heavy proportions and the chiastic contrapposto position of his limbs, all considered to be Polykleitan characteristics. Figures E and F are soberly clad in heavy material that falls in deep folds. The strong indentation below the ribs of torso H links this in style with Figure H from the West pediment. The drapery of Figures K, L and M is diaphanous and clinging, revealing in particular the voluptuous form of M beneath.
                Condition Description:
                Parts of limbs of all figures are missing. Figure D is the only sculpture from the Parthenon pediments with its head intact. Most surfaces chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon EP.A

                Title: Parthenon, East Pediment, fig. A
                Collection:
                Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Torso of a goddess (Selene), wearing a sleeveless, belted chiton, with straps crossing her chest diagonally
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: East pediment
                Condition Description:
                Broken roughly on all sides, missing thighs and below, arms and shoulders, most of the neck and head.


                Parthenon EP.D

                Title: Parthenon, East Pediment, fig. D
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: 'Dionysos' from Birth of Athena
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: East pediment
                Subject Description:

                Birth of Athena (East Pediment): Figure D, a nude male reclining on an animal skin, is most commonly identified as Dionysos, though suggested alternatives are Herakles, Ares and Theseus.
                Form and Style:
                Figure D has been called the reclining Doryphoros because of his powerful musculature, heavy proportions and the chiastic contrapposto position of his limbs, all considered to be Polykleitan characteristics.
                Condition Description:
                Missing hands and feet. Figure D is the only figure from the Parthenon pediments with its head intact. Surface chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon EP.G

                Title: Parthenon, East Pediment, fig. G
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: 'Artemis'? from Birth of Athena
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: East pediment
                Subject Description:

                Birth of Athena (East Pediment): Female running to left towards Figures E and F (probably Demeter and Kore). Her peplos skirt blows back in deep, arcing folds which complement the lines of her widely striding legs. Her rapid movement also causes her cloak to billow out behind her. Variously identified as Artemis, Eileithyia (goddess of childbirth) or simply a running messenger.
                Condition Description:
                Draped female figure missing right forearm, left arm, and part of billowing cloak. Surface is chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon EP.U

                Title: Parthenon, East Pediment, fig. U?
                Collection:
                Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Legs of a woman seated on a rock, wearing a himation over a chiton with a double overfold
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: East pediment
                Condition Description:
                This fragment constitutes the back of a female figure seated on a rock.


                Parthenon Metopes

                Title: Parthenon, Metopes
                Collection:
                London, British Museum and Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Metope overview
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: Exterior Doric frieze
                Subject Description:

                Each metope of the exterior Doric frieze of the Parthenon was carved with sculptural decoration. Each side of the building apparently had its own subject. Each subject depicted a battle. The general theme of each side is apparent, although the identification of the subject of specific metopes or groups of metopes is often debated. The general themes are identified as follows.
                West: Greeks versus Orientals.
                Usually identified as an Amazonomachy, although Brommer reserves the possibility that the Easterners may be Persians. The extensive damage makes it difficult to determine the sex of the opponents. However, the bare limbs of at least one of these figures suggest Amazon rather than Persian dress, which usually includes long sleeves and leggings. The horses are also characteristic of an Amazonomachy. The three central metopes of the west are damaged beyond recognition. Nonetheless it is clear that each metope appears as a sculptural unit with no obvious relationship to the metopes on either side, other than the regular alteration of equestrian scenes with scenes of unmounted opponents. There is no clear narrative progression.
                North: Greeks versus Trojans.
                Although the entire central section -- more than half the side -- is lost, related subjects at both ends framed by Helios rising and Nyx or Selene descending on her horse (a device also used in the East Pediment) suggest a single subject and a single time frame. The three westernmost metopes depict gods and goddesses, probably as "witnesses" of a sort as on the east frieze. Reading from left to right, the first metopes after Helios include men debarking from a ship and arming, apparently stages before the battle. Among the later, NM.24-25 show Menelaos pursuing Helen who has run to the Palladion for sanctuary. The identification is certain, for the scene was copied by a vase painter who inscribed the names of the figures. Since this scene takes place at the end of the battle, a sense of narrative progression is implied.
                East: Gods versus Giants.
                Severe damage leaves individual identification difficult, but enough remains to determine the general theme and suggest specific identities. Each metope apparently includes at least one god. Their pronounced presence on the east side, i.e. the principal facade, is clearly intentional. There is a certain link here with the east frieze and east pediment. There is also a clearly planned progression of scenes compositionally, with the movement toward the center from each side, as in the east frieze. However there is no sense that one scene precedes another in narrative fashion. Despite the poor condition the symmetry of the overall design is clearly apparent and its original impression must have been even stronger. The composition of the fourth slab from each end is much fuller, and the charioteer next to each of these moves toward the center, focusing attention on the four central slabs. Whatever the significance here, Athena is not the focus. Her identification is reasonably clear owing to the presence of Nike beside her. She is off to one side (E.4), not particularly prominent within the design.
                South: Centaurs versus Lapiths.
                By far the best preserved, even the missing slabs are known from the drawings of Carrey, who carefully recorded the entire side. All but the central nine (S.13-21) depict centaurs fighting men or, in a few cases, carrying off women. The central group, at least in part, is clearly set off from the battle. The problem, specific interpretation aside, is to what extent its subject relates to the fighting centaurs. The best known story of the Centauromachy involves the disruption of a wedding, and several interpretations offer a variation on this premise. The large number of women, their poses and attributes appear to support this. Some scholars see a specifically Attic myth represented. Robertson suggests that episodes in the life of Daedalus are depicted. Brommer believes that, whatever the subject, it relates directly to the centaurs so that the overall theme of the side is a unified one. The metopes involving centaurs appear, like those on the west side, to be individual units whose arrangement is not of great importance. The central metopes, however, suggest a definite relationship and order within the group
                Date Description:
                Setting aside the hypothesis which attributes some of the south metopes to an earlier, unfinished temple, there is no hard evidence to suggest that any of the sculpture predates the earliest Parthenon building accounts of 447 B.C. The metopes were carved on the ground and then hoisted into position in the exterior Doric frieze. Construction required that they be in place before the pediments were erected or the roof put on. This need, together with the early style exhibited by some of the metopes, suggests they were the first of the sculptural elements begun. One can assume they were finished before the statue of the Parthenos was dedicated in the temple in 438 B.C., since by that time the roof was presumably done and all supporting architectural members in place. The metopes can thus be reasonably dated to the years 447-438 B.C.
                Form and Style:
                The variation in style is much greater among the metopes than in the frieze or pediment. Several explanations have been offered. One hypothesis, no longer much in favor, holds that some of the metopes are in fact significantly earlier because they were carved for an earlier version of the Parthenon never built. Other theories hold that, as the first of the sculpture to be assigned, they were not yet subject to a stylistic norm. Along related lines, the overall design may have been so general in nature that sculptors were left to their own devices for all but the loosest compositional guidelines. Whatever the reason, the diversity is greater on the south and west, which share a division by metopal unit and concentration of equine bodies as well. The most stylistically conservative of the metopes -- some strikingly reflective of sculpture from the Temple of Zeus at Olympia -- occur in this group as well, although there are also stylistically more advanced sections on the south. The north and east metopes appear more closely related to each other than to the west or south. They share a more carefully planned design and a richness of style. It may be significant that they occupy the more important and visible sides. Brommer finds the hand of at least one sculptor (N.29) also present in the west frieze, evidence of an overlap of work assignments among the different sculpted elements of the building. The great depth of the carving, which results in many figures sculpted nearly in the round, is also noteworthy. The overall design is generally attributed to Pheidias on the basis of his responsibility for the temple sculpture as a whole, although the degree to which the metopes reflects his style must remain entirely hypothetical.
                Condition Description:
                East and West: all slabs preserved but heavily damaged. North: 13 slabs preserved, all but NM.32 badly damaged. E, W, N metopes in Athens. South: Well preserved and/or known through Carrey drawings of 1674. 18 slabs extant. SM.2-9 and SM.26-32 in London, SM.10 in Paris, SM.1 and SM.12 in Athens.


                Parthenon SM.2 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 2
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Head of a Lapith, facing left (perhaps from the Parthenon, South Metope 2)
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Condition Description:
                Broken off at the top of the neck, all around the head, and missing most of the nose.


                Parthenon SM.2 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 2
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Dominant Lapith male with mantle over shoulders wrestles with Centaur by bracing his right foot on ground and bent left leg against body of his opponent while his left arm is round the neck of Centaur. Right arm of Lapith was raised. Forelegs of Centaur fold under him as he twists at the waist and grapples with Lapith.
                Condition Description:
                Both upper corners are restored in plaster. Missing: right foot, right arm and head of Lapith, right front foreleg and left arm of Centaur. Surface abraded.


                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 3
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: centaur (left) moves to left but twists back around at waist in response to attacking Lapith male. Left arm of centaur, wrapped in animal skin (?) cloak, is stretched back to push away his opponent. Lapith (right), with mantle clasped at his throat, braces himself with left leg on ground and right knee on rump of centaur while reaching out with right arm to grab neck or hair of centaur.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: both upper corners of slab, most of both front legs, right forearm and head of Centaur, left foot, left forearm and head of Lapith. Abraded surface. Head of Centaur preserved in Carrey drawing.


                Parthenon SM.4 (Copenhagen)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 4, head of Lapith
                Collection:
                Copenhagen, National Museum
                Subject: Head of Lapith youth
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side


                Parthenon SM.4 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 4
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: naked Lapith male (left) crouching with shield raised vs. centaur (right) who rears up with hydria raised over head, ready to attack.
                Condition Description:
                Upper corners missing. Lapith: right hip and right arm missing. Centaur: all lower legs, tail and parts of both arms missing. Heads of both figures in Copenhagen. Many chips and some abrasion.


                Parthenon SM.5

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 5
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Centaur (left) rears up with right arm back and left arm forward, most of his animal skin cloak flying out behind him. Pose of Lapith (right) unknown.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: Both upper corners of slab, right rear foreleg, right front leg, left foot, most of both arms, head and parts of cloak of Centaur, all of Lapith. Only indentations for head and part of upper body of Lapith are preserved. Surface abraded.


                Parthenon SM.6 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 6
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Centaur (left) moves to right, upper body twisted at oblique angle, right arm raised, left arm wrapped around back of Lapith and grasping his left shoulder. Frontal Lapith (right), with right arm raised, has mantle draped over left arm and trailing to ground in wide sweep behind him.
                Condition Description:
                Upper half of slab is restored in plaster. Missing: right rear and front forelegs, right arm and head of Centaur, legs, right arm, left forearm and head of Lapith. Head of Lapith elsewhere. Lapith fully preserved in Carrey drawings. Surface abraded. Large fragment of equine torso of Centaur is missing.


                Pathenon SM.6 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 6
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Lapith head
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Condition Description:
                Broken off at the middle of the neck; the face bears a gouge on the left cheek and most of the nose is broken off.


                Parthenon SM.7 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 7
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Centaur head
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side


                Parthenon SM.7 (Paris)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 7
                Collection: Paris, Musee du Louvre
                Subject: Head of Lapith
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                The head of a young Lapith belongs to metope S7, now in the British Museum. He has short hair, large eyes rimmed with thick lids, a mouth with a full lower lip and no beard. The head is represented in an almost frontal view, though the left side is not completely finished.
                Condition Description:
                Head in relief, broken across back. Nose in broken and worn. Heavily weathered


                Parthenon SM.7 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 7
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Lapith (left) charges against Centaur with left arm forward, mantle clasped at right shoulder. Centaur (right) rears up, his left foreleg against stomach and groin of Lapith, his cloak flying out to right.
                Form and Style:
                Note veins in left arm of Lapith -- a Severe Style trait.
                Condition Description:

                Missing: upper right corner of slab, most of right leg, left foot, right hand, and lower mantle of Lapith, left rear foreleg and left arm of Centaur. Heads in Athens and Paris (Louvre Ma 737). Surface abraded.


                Parthenon SM.8

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 8
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Lapith (left) is kneeling in corner with lower body at oblique angle and upper body frontal. Both of his arms are raised with mantle falling over left arm, behind and under him. Centaur (right) moves to left and rears slightly, left foreleg bent and pressing down on left knee of Lapith. Centaur was in the act of hurling an object down on Lapith.
                Condition Description:
                Upper half of slab is restored in plaster. Missing: left foot, most of both arms and head of Lapith, left rear leg and most of upper human body of Centaur. Composition preserved in Carrey drawing. Surface abraded.


                Parthenon SM.9

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 9
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Lapith (left), with mantle draped over left arm falling behind and under him, falls back over water jar as he and Centaur grapple. Centaur pulls up left leg of Lapith with his left hand and raises right arm over head.
                Condition Description:
                Upper half of slab is restored in plaster. Missing: right leg, right forearm and head of Lapith, left rear leg, tail, and most of torso and head of Centaur. Surface much abraded.


                Parthenon SM.10

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 10
                Collection: Paris, Musee du Louvre
                Subject: Centaur carrying off a female Lapith
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                A centaur rears up in order to grab a fleeing Lapith woman with his forelegs. He also grabs her shoulder with his left arm. His right hand, now missing, must have clutched her right hand or wrist. His torso is turned in three-quarter view. His long beard hangs over his upper chest. The woman is also shown in three-quarter view, fleeing to the right. Her peplos has fallen off her left shoulder. Both breasts and her left arm are entirely exposed. Her left leg has also emerged. With her left hand she is trying to keep the garment from being pulled off altogether.
                Condition Description:
                Head of the woman and fingers of her right hand already broken when Carrey saw it in 1674. Since then other losses: head, right arm (2 fragments in the Akropolis Museum: 737 + 787), part of right leg of centaur. Right hand, wrist and elbow, left elbow with much of arm and left leg of woman. Surface heavily weathered.


                Parthenon SM.11

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 11
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Centaur head
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side


                Parthenon SM.12

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 12
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: A centaur seizing a Lapith woman
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Condition Description:
                Missing the heads of both figures, the left arm, tail, and left leg of the centaur, the right hand, right arm, and some drapery of the Lapith woman, as well as most of the background.


                Parthenon SM.26

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 26
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Lapith male (left) with mantle falling behind him pushes against Centaur with his left arm and leg. Centaur (right) rears up and raises both arms over head preparing to heave something at the Lapith.
                Form and Style:
                Archaic zig-zag folds in mantle. Pyramidal composition.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: both upper corners of slab, right arm and head of Lapith, tail, both rear forefeet, left front leg, left arm and right hand of Centaur. Surface abraded.


                Parthenon SM.27

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 27
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Frontal Lapith male (left) strides to left while turning head to right, gripping head of Centaur with left hand and plunging bronze spear (missing) into back of Centaur with right hand. Centaur (right) moves to right but rears with upper torso bending back in response to attack of Lapith. Widely spread cloak of Lapith serves as backdrop to scene. Some scholars suggest the male figure is Theseus.
                Form and Style:
                Ingenious composition of predominantly horizontal and vertical lines with spear as diagonal. Catenary folds of cloak contrast with skin and rippling musculature of figures.
                Condition Description:
                Upper left portion of slab is restored in plaster. Missing: Lower right leg, right forearm, head and lower edge of mantle of Lapith, right rear and front forelegs, left arm and most of head of Centaur. Surface abraded.


                Parthenon SM.28

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 28
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Dominant centaur rears up over dead Lapith male who is prostrate on ground, legs in profile and torso at oblique angle with his left arm, still wrapped in his mantle, tucked back under him. Centaur wears an animal skin over his outstretched left arm, its paws and tail streaming out behind him.
                Form and Style:
                Relief so high that figures rest on the epistyle.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: upper corners of slab, right rear hoof, most of two front legs, right arm and head of Centaur, right knee, right hand, left arm and face of Lapith. Surface abraded.


                Parthenon SM.29

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 29
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith Woman and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: centaur, moving to right with his torso at oblique angle, lifts Lapith woman in his left arm to carry her off. Lapith woman, whose chiton has slipped down to reveal her left breast, wraps her right arm around neck of centaur and clutches left wrist of centaur with her left hand. Both of her legs are bent at the knees. Movement is also indicated by the flow of both her chiton and himation.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: upper corners of slab, tail, right rear leg, both forelegs and right arm of Centaur, right toes, left foot, right forearm and head of Lapith Woman. Surface abraded.


                Parthenon SM.30

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 30
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Dominant centaur (left) rears up while seizing hair of Lapith male with left hand and preparing to strike a blow with weapon (missing) in right. Animal skin cloak of centaur flares out behind him. Lapith male, whose mantle is draped over right shoulder and forms curtain behind him, kneels in right corner and faces obliquely outward. He reaches out with his right arm to stab midsection of Centaur and downward with his left to grasp a stone on the ground.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: upper corners of slab, right forearm and front and back right forelegs of Centaur. Plinth for Lapith fragmentary. Surface abraded. Face of Lapith battered.


                Parthenon SM.31

                Title:Parthenon, South Metope 31
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: Rearing centaur (left) grasps nude Lapith male by throat with left hand while raising right to strike blow. Lapith (right) balances on left leg while his right leg is wrapped around right foreleg of centaur and with his right hand clutches hair of centaur while left arm is extended down and to right.
                Condition Description:
                Missing: upper right corner of slab, right forearm and right rear foreleg of centaur, left forearm, genitalia, and part of left foot of Lapith. Surface abraded. Face of Lapith battered.


                Parthenon SM.32

                Title: Parthenon, South Metope 32
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Lapith and Centaur
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Centauromachy: centaur (left) rears to confront naked Lapith male (right) whose right arm was drawn back over head in preparation to strike a blow with his sword (missing). Lapith may have worn a helmet.
                Form and Style:
                Tyrranicidal pose of Lapith has led some to identify this figure as Theseus.
                Condition Description:

                Missing: upper left corner of slab, right forearm, both front forelegs and one back foreleg of Centaur, head, both forearms and lower left leg of Lapith. Head of Centaur badly battered. Much chipping of edges.


                Parthenon Frieze

                Title: Parthenon Frieze
                Collection:
                London, British Museum and Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Parthenon frieze overview
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: Exterior crown of cella
                Subject Description:
                The traditional interpretation of the Parthenon frieze is that it depicts, in some sense, a Panathenaic procession, part of the festival of the same name celebrated each year on the occasion of Athena's birthday. Beginning with the institution of Panhellenic games in 566/65 B.C., a more elaborate festival was held every fourth year known as the Greater Panathenaia. Eventually certain rituals such as the presentation of the peplos were reserved for the Greater Panathenaia (see Shear), leading most scholars to assume the procession depicted on the frieze is associated with this festival. The frieze forms a single, continuous band around the exterior of the inner building (i.e., along the top of the wall on the north and south and over the columns of the porch on the east and west). Compositionally its plan is somewhat more complex. It begins at the southwest corner of the building. Strictly speaking the west end is the "back" of the temple, but in fact is the side first approached by any visitor to the Acropolis. The procession then proceeds in two directions. On the west side a figure heads up a cavalcade of horses and riders, many not yet mounted, who move across the west end of the building, around the northwest corner and on up the long north side. On the south side a similar cavalcade parallels the one on the north. The design thus envisages a procession which has split and moves around both sides of the building, converging toward the east end where it will rejoin for the enactment of the culminating ritual.
                  A large proportion of the frieze, i.e. all of the west and most of the north and south sides, is devoted to the cavalcade. The beginning sections depict individual horses, horsemen and marshals. On the north and south sides the riders are separated into ranks. On the south there are ten such groups; on the north side the number is greater, possibly twelve. The precise number is impossible to confirm beyond doubt owing to the extensive damage, but the number may well be significant (it has been suggested that the ten groups on the south are a reference to the ten Attic tribes). In front of the ranks of riders are chariot groups, again ten on the south and eleven or twelve on the north. Many take part in the apobates' contest in which a warrior jumps off and eventually back onto a moving chariot, a technique of ancient warfare long since abandoned on the actual battlefield but retained as a military exercise performed at the festival. Farther along both sides the focus changes to groups of men carrying objects: on the north, olive branches (somewhat hypothetical, since the painted objects are no longer extant), musical instruments (4 of each kind), hydriai (water jars) (4) and trays (3 visible). Still ahead are attendants with the sacrificial animals, on the north both horned sheep (4) and cows (4). The south side shows a similar arrangement but with some difference in the objects and numbers of figures: tablets instead of instruments (although Boardman suggests lyres) and only cows (10) as sacrificial victims.
                  The east side is treated somewhat differently, as it represents both a continuation of the procession and its culmination. Women head up both streams of the parade: a group of sixteen from the south and thirteen from the north. Several men accompany them. The women are sometimes identified as attendants for the sacrifice, sometimes as the Ergastinai who wove the peplos. Next to these but clearly separated from them compositionally are ten mature men, apparently one category of figures though separated by the gods and peplos scene into two sub-groups of six (to the south) and four (to the north). These figures are most frequently identified as the eponymous heroes of the ten Attic tribes. A recent suggestion is that they represent the athlothetai. The sub-group of four may be a reference to the original number of tribes. Next in order to the center is a group of seated figures, again divided by the peplos scene but united by their unquestionably larger scale. Clearly they represent the gods. They communicate neither with the heroes nor with the mortals involved in the ritual scene. They are apparently there as witnesses though invisible to the other participants and should be understood as occupying a different plane. The rocks under their feet have been thought to refer to Olympos. Finally, positioned over the center of the front porch of the cella, is the small group whose activity is the focus of the frieze. It includes an older man, usually identified as the archon basileus or chief magistrate of Athens, a woman thought to be a priestess of Athena or perhaps his wife, and three children. The two girls on the left may represent the Arrhephoroi, whose responsibilities include the weaving of the peplos. The sex of the child holding the folded peplos is much debated and his or her role in the ritual, clearly important, remains as generally mysterious as the scene itself. For though it certainly involves the ritual exchange of Athena's peplos, there is some question as to which peplos and which moment: the old one or the new, the presentation or the putting away?
                  It is often noted that the Parthenon frieze breaks ground in depicting a historical rather than a mythological event. Yet the frieze includes divinities and probably heroes, and though accounts of the procession are incomplete, it is certain that this representation does not seek to realistically depict the event. The single largest element of the procession consisted of the citizen body on foot, yet this aspect is entirely absent on the Parthenon frieze. Also missing is the ship from whose mast and yard-arm the peplos was suspended. Instead, attention is lavished on the cavalcade. In an attempt to explain this, Boardman counts 192 participating males exclusive of the charioteers and sees a heroization of the 192 killed at Marathon celebrated in the frieze. Other scholars have difficulty confirming the numbers but given the historical connection of the Older Parthenon with the Persians, it is conceivable that the sculptural program would include a reference to that event. Boardman's hypothesis seeks to explain the inconsistencies between the historical sources and the frieze while continuing to accept the basic premise that the frieze depicts the Panathenaic procession in some sense. Some scholars reject only Boardman's hypothesis, while others believe that the premise itself must be discarded.
                  If it is difficult to relate the frieze to a specific time frame, it may be possible to relate it to a specific place. Robertson, noting the emphasis on preparation rather than movement and siting the apobates contests near the Eleusinion, interprets those activities on the frieze as taking place within the Agora. He thus retains the basic premise of the Panathenaic Procession by including events which took place prior to the procession proper. Boardman agrees with the Agora setting and would place even the peplos scene there. Fehl sees the landscape elements as references to the Panathenaic Way, the Acropolis and Olympus.
                  The interpretation of the various carriers is yet another problem. The possible inappropriateness of horned sheep (if rams) as offerings to Athena, as pointed out by Simon, has led to a hypothesis of two distinct sacrifices. Perhaps the greatest difficulty of interpretation, however, involves the east frieze. Harrison and Kron have made a case for the identification of eponymous heroes, yet some still believe these figures to be magistrates or festival officials. A difference of opinion still confounds the identification of the various deities and, more importantly, their precise role in the scene. As already noted, the interpretation of the peplos scene, like many aspects of the frieze, is still open to question and highly controversial. Two recent proposals reject the premise that the frieze represents the Panathenaic procession. Connelly offers a new mythological interpretation: the sacrifice of the Erechtheids. Pollitt suggests the frieze celebrates aspects of contemporary Athenian society of special concern to Perikles, as expressed in his funeral oration.
                Date Description:

                The frieze, like the metopes and the pediments, is dated within the 15-year span 447-432 B.C. covered by the Parthenon accounts. Stylistically at least some of the metopes appear to precede the frieze. The frieze, in turn, logically precedes the pediment, since it must be installed long before the pedimental figures can be hoisted into place. Because some of the same sculptors apparently worked on the metopes and frieze, and perhaps the pediments as well, it is generally assumed that the metopes were begun first, followed by the frieze and lastly the pediments. The only intervening date of importance is 438 B.C., when the cult statue was dedicated, implying, as the argument goes, that the roof must have been completed and the frieze course thus in place. This date is relevant to the frieze sculpture for those who believe the slabs were carved in workshops on the ground, in which case the dedication provides a terminus ante for the completion of the carving. Other scholars, beginning with Dinsmoor, believe the frieze blocks were hoisted into place in a rough state, and the sculpting was done in situ. One piece of evidence for this theory is the narrow band which runs along the base of the slabs. It was apparently pre-cut, and its function was to provide a setting line for the as-yet-unfinished slabs. In some cases a similar band runs across the top. The way in which the composition cuts across slabs with little regard for their edges, especially on the north and south sides, is also cited as evidence for this view. According to this school of thought the bulk of the carving was done in the 430s rather than the 440s. Scholars who believe the frieze is stylistically closer to the pediments than to the metopes find confirmation here. Within the frieze some scholars believe the south was finished last and possibly in a hurried fashion, thus accounting for the looser style of carving. Nonetheless, given the immense length of the frieze and the number of sculptors who must have worked on it, the style is remarkably uniform.
                Condition Description:
                The east and west sides of the frieze are essentially complete. The north and south sides have suffered significantly more damage, particularly in the middle of those sides.


                Parthenon, Head from frieze (Head of youth)

                strong>Title: Parthenon, Head from frieze
                Collection: Paris, Musee du Louvre
                Subject: Head of youth
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: Frieze, north or south side
                Subject Description:
                Head of a youth in three-quarter view facing right. The hair is styled in loose locks, waves rather than curls. From the general style, relief height and subject, the head has been attributed to the Parthenon frieze. As Brommer points out, the fragment of relief ground attached to the head eliminates a position on the west and east sides. Past attributions have generally been to the north side (Michon, N19 or N18; Picard, N36 possibly), in which case the figure is looking back, toward his horse or toward the procession behind him. However, a position on the south side remains a possibility. The head does not form a join with any existing slab and thus may come from one of the slabs otherwise destroyed.
                Condition Description:
                Head, broken all around outline of hair, neck and face. In the right upper corner the hair and upper portion of the face remain attached to the background of the relief. Weathered with incrustations along proper right side of the face and neck. Pitting in parts of the hair and background.


                Parthenon SF.1.4

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 1
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: one horse and rider group moving to right. Rider wears chiton.
                Condition Description:
                Three joining fragments forming the right third of slab. Surface badly battered.


                Parthenon SF.5

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 5
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: several horse and rider groups move to right. Rider in center whose chest is bare turns his head to look behind him.
                Condition Description:
                Left side and both right corners missing. Most of surface is lost.


                Parthenon SF.6

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 6
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: Two and one half groups of horse and rider move rapidly to right. Riders wear chitons, and one apparently a mantle.
                Condition Description:
                Both left and upper right corner missing. Most of surface badly damaged.


                Parthenon SF.7

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 7
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: Two and one half groups of horse and rider moving quickly to right. At least one rider wears a chiton and turns head slightly outward (three-quarter view) toward viewer.
                Condition Description:
                Parts of left and top sides missing. Most of surface badly damaged.


                Parthenon SF.8

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 8
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: Two and two halves of horse and rider groups move rapidly to right. At least one rider wears a chiton.
                Condition Description:
                Lower left and upper right corners of slab missing. Surface badly damaged.


                Parthenon SF.9

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 9
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: Two and one half groups of horse and rider moving rapidly to right. Riders wear chitons and mantles.
                Condition Description:
                Both corners missing. Lower half of slab badly damaged.


                Parthenon SF.12

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 12
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: two and one half horse and rider groups move to right.
                Condition Description:
                Left side of slab missing; most of surface is split and battered.


                Parthenon SF.13

                Untitled Document Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 13
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: two and one half horse and rider groups move to right. Riders wear leather cuirasses over their chitons.
                Condition Description:
                Missing lower left corner and upper right.


                Parthenon SF.14

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 14
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Cavalry
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of two or more rejoined fragments; much of the surface has flaked off.


                Parthenon SF.15

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 15
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: parts of two horses and two riders move to right. Rider wears chiton.
                Condition Description:
                All corners of slab missing. Majority of surface lost.


                Parthenon SF.16

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 16
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Cavalry
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Condition Description:
                Broken roughly on all sides, and cracked/scratched on the surface.


                Parthenon SF.17

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 17
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Cavalry
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of several rejoined fragments, on most of which the surface is well preserved.


                Parthenon SF.18

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 18
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Cavalry
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of several rejoined fragments, with weathered surfaces, comprising the lower right half of this frieze block.


                Parthenon SF.29

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 29
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Chariot with Two Horses
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Chariot and horses step lively to right.
                Condition Description:
                Significant loss in left and upper sides. Both right corners also missing. Acropolis Museum no. 1111 is a fragment of this slab. Surface chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon SF.30

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 30
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Apobasis
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                The two figures on left are the charioteer and the warrior performing in the apobasis, a contest known as early as the Homeric epics in which an armed warrior leaped in and out of a moving chariot. The warrior turns to look back.
                Condition Description:
                All edges of slab damaged, with largest fragment missing from lower left corner. Surface pitted and abraded.


                Parthenon SF.36

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab36
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Thallophoroi
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                At least five men, probably thallophoroi, or branch bearers in the Panathenaic procession, wear himatia, and advance to the right.
                Condition Description:
                Broken on all sides, this fragment preserves most of the center of the frieze block; surface details, such as hands, are worn off.


                Parthenon SF.39

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 39
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Sacrificial Cattle and Drivers
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                The cow rushes forward suddenly, causing one youth to restrain it by pulling on the halter (originally in paint), his cloak slipping from him with the exertion, and another (largely lost) youth at the far right to move violently. The effects of this movement carry over into the adjoining slab (S.40).
                Condition Description:
                Both left and right sides of slab are badly damaged. Much of surface chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon SF.40

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 40
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Sacrificial Cattle and Drivers
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Three youths, all wearing himatia, struggle to control a resistant ox who lifts its head.
                Condition Description:
                Both left and upper right corners are missing. Surface badly damaged at upper left corner and far right side. Acropolis Museum no. 1151 is another fragment of this slab.


                Parthenon SF.41

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 41
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Sacrificial Cattle and Drivers
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cow and all four drivers move sedately to right. Drivers all wear the himation.
                Condition Description:
                Left and top sides of slab badly damaged. Also large gash diagonally across lower right side. Surface chipped and abraded.


                Parthenon SF.42

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 42
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Sacrificial Cattle and Drivers
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Two sacrificial cattle and four drivers move to right. Second driver from left, however, has stopped, turned back to left and raises his right hand to head. All drivers are unbearded youths and wear the himation. Both men and beasts are calm.
                Condition Description:
                Both upper corners and lower right corner are missing. Surface is badly chipped in places.


                Parthenon SF.44

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 44
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Sacrificial Cattle and Drivers
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cow and three himation-clad men move sedately to right.
                Condition Description:
                Only central portion of slab preserved. Surface badly battered.


                Parthenon NF.2 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 2
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Sacrificial cattle and drivers
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Three youths, all wearing himatia, drive cattle to left. First cow is docile but second is struggling.
                Condition Description:
                Right corners of slab missing. Surface battered.


                Parthenon NF.2 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 2
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Three youths driving cattle to sacrifice, and the hands of a fourth youth
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Two cows, led by three draped youths, the third of whom is shown with his garment slipping off his arms. The hands of a fourth youth are shown at the far right. The head of the second cow is shown, thrown up in the air, with corresponding raised forelegs, to indicate her resistance.
                Condition Description:
                Most of a large slab, preserving the left edge and most of the top and bottom edges, but broken roughtly on the right; some solution cracks and pitted areas mar the surface; the faces of the second and third figures have been broken off.


                Parthenon NF.4 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 4
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Sacrificial horned sheep with drivers and marshal
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Two drivers lead three or four horned sheep (ewes) to left, though first driver looks back towards second. Behind second driver stands a marshal who turns back towards the approaching tray-bearers on Slab N.V. The drivers may be metics. Considerable overlapping of figures.
                Condition Description:
                Much of left side and upper right corner missing. Surface badly split and chipped.


                Parthenon NF.4 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 4
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Four youths leading ewes to sacrifice
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Four youths, each wearing a himation, lead at least three ewes to sacrifice. The third youth, advancing profile to the left, lays his hand on the back of a sheep, while the second turns to look at him, with his body in 3/4-view to the left and his head 3/4-view to the right. The fourth youth turns 3/4-view to the right, presumably to view to the advancing procession.
                Condition Description:
                Most of the bottom edge and some of the top edge is preserved, whereas the slab is roughly broken off on both sides. Horizontal solution cracks and severe chipping on all figures, particularly the second youth, have erased much of the detail on the surface; only the feet of the first youth, for example, are now visible.


                Parthenon NF.6 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 6
                Collection:
                Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: The Hydriaphoroi
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Three youths wearing himatia move to left carrying hydriai on their left shoulders, holding them with the right arm brought over the head, the front two steadying the vessel with their left hand. A fourth hydriaphoros, largely hidden by the drapery of an oncoming piper, is stooping to hoist his jar from the ground.
                Condition Description:
                All edges damaged. Surface much battered.


                Parthenon NF.6 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 6
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Four hydriaphoroi, or water carriers and a double-flute player
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Three youths, dressed in himatia, advance in 3/4-view to the left and carry water jars (hydriae) on their left shoulders, holding the handles with their upraised right hands. A fourth youth crouches to raise his hydria off the ground. A musician, playing the double flutes, is shown on the far right, although only his/her hands and some drapery appear.
                Condition Description:
                One large fragment and at least one small fragment (preserving the upper right corner) comprise this slab, which is heavily chipped on all sides and on the drapery, with several diagonal solution cracks; it is otherwise well preserved.


                Parthenon NF.8

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 8
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Musicians playing the kithara
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description: Several musicians (at least three), standing in a variety of poses, advance in the procession to the left, and play the kithara; another musician (now lost) was originally shown on the left, as indicated in a drawing by Jacques Carrey.
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of at least seven rejoined fragments, preserving some of the top and bottom edges but none of the side edges. The surface is worn, with cracks, chips, and adhesions.


                Parthenon NF.9

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 9
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Thallophoroi, or men carrying olive branches
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description: At least three men, standing close together, in near profile to the left, advance in the procession. Each wears a himation and carries an olive branch (missing, as the painted detail has now deteriorated) in his right hand.
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of four or more rejoined fragments, with some restorations in the gaps, preserving some of the bottom and right edges, but broken on the other sides, and the bodies of three of a group of men. The surface is weathered, with cracks and eroded patches.


                Parthenon NF.10 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 10
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: One thallophoros and seven bearded men, perhaps Attic heroes
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                A thallophoros, or olive branch bearer, draped in a himation, at the left of this slab, clearly belongs with the group on slab 9 (Athens, Acropolis 865 ). Following him is a group of seven bearded men, perhaps Attic heroes, standing in a variety of poses; the first turns slightly to the right to face the others, while he raises both hands to his head, probably to crown himself with a wreath.
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of one large piece and another separate fragment that fills much of the lower left corner. Much of the right and bottom edges are preserfed, along with some of the top and left edges; Both top corners are missing. The surface is eroded, and facial details have worn away.


                Parthenon NF.10 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 10
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Elders
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                The first figure (whose head is missing) has his back to the other six men and is actually part of the group on the next slab forward. The other six elders, all wearing himatia, are posed at different angles and apparently engaged in conversation.
                Condition Description:
                All edges damaged. Lower left corner fragmentary. Surface, especially heads, is battered.


                Parthenon NF.11

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 11
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Apobates contest
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description: A pair of galloping horses approaches a youth, facing nearly frontal, but slightly to the right, with his legs astride. He wears only a himation draped loosely over his shoulders.
                Condition Description:
                Two rejoined fragments preserve part of the left edge of this slab, which is roughly broken on all other sides. Some of the surface has dissolved, but it is otherwise in good condition.


                Parthenon NF.12

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 12
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Head and upper body (of figure 47) of an apobates, facing left, wearing a cuirass and helmet, jumping onto a chariot
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side


                Parthenon NF.17

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 17
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: A four horse chariot in the apobates contest passes in front of a marshall
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Condition Description:
                This slab lacks only the top and the lower left corner. The surface is marred with adhesions, stains, solution cracks, and other losses.


                Parthenon NF.18

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 18
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Chariot scene
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Four horse chariot moving quickly to left with charioteer driving and armed apobates partially dismounted. A third man, the attendant in himation, stands behind horses.
                Condition Description:
                Upper right corner and top edge of slab missing. Surface abraded and chipped.


                Parthenon NF.19

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 19
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Apobates contest
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                An apobates athlete, armed and wearing a short exomis, leaps onto a chariot, and is shown 3/4-view to the left. The charioteer, standing profile to the left, behind the apobates, holds the reins of the chariot. A youth, striding to the left, but turning his head to the right, serves as marshall for the procession. He wears a himation over his shoulders, but his his nude front is revealed. The head and forelegs of a horse--at the front of the procession--appear at the far right of the slab.
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of a single slab, broken roughly on the top and right side and chipped on the other edges. Some of the heads have eroded.


                Parthenon NF.21

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 21
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Four horses from chariot scene
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Rear portions of four horses moving quickly to left. Originally connected with slab to right forming chariot scene of apobasis.
                Condition Description:
                Single large fragment of slab, from lower portion. Acropolis Museum no. 1130 is a fragment of this slab. Surface chipped and worn.


                Parthenon NF.22 (London)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 22
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Apobasis
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                The two figures on left moving rapidly to the left are the charioteer and the warrior performing in the apobasis, a contest known as early as the Homeric epics in which an armed warrior leaped in and out of a moving chariot. On the right stands a groom facing right tending to the horses of another chariot which has not yet entered the contest.
                Condition Description:
                Many fragments missing. Upper half of slab is a plaster cast from original in British Museum.


                Parthenon NF.22 (Acropolis)

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 22
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Apobates contest
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description: An armed apobates contestant, wearing a cuirass over his chitoniskos, runs profile to the left, and is flanked by a charioteer, also shown profile to the left. Behind them stands a groom, 3/4-view to the right, wearing a chlamys, who attends to two (or more) horses, probably a chariot group that is about to begin the contest.
                Condition Description:
                Comprised of several rejoined fragments, preserving most of the center of the relief and the lower right corner. The only other edges that are preserved are parts of the left edge and the top (left) edge. The upper part is in the British


                Parthenon NF.23

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 23
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Chariot scene
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Four horses quietly pull chariot to left. Charioteer and apobates are in wagon, the latter partially dismounted. Both men wear chitons.
                Condition Description:
                Left side and upper right corner of slab are missing. Acropolis Museum no. 1170 is another fragment of this slab. Surface chipped.


                Parthenon NF.24

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 24
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade and Apobasis
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Several groups of horse and rider move rapidly to left behind chariot. Rider and apobates wear chitons.
                Condition Description:
                Top and left sides badly damaged with much missing. Acropolis Museum nos. 940 and 1149 are other fragments of this slab. Surface heavily abraded.


                Parthenon NF.26

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 26
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Two and one half groups of horse and rider move rapidly to left. Riders wear chitons.
                Condition Description:
                All edges damaged, much along top missing. Surface scored and abraded.


                Parthenon NF.29

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 29
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade with Marshall
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: two and one half horse and rider groups move rapidly to left. The rider on left, wearing only a cloak fastened at his neck, turns back to look behind him. In the center of the slab stands a marshall, wrapped in a himation, signalling to the riders behind to keep coming. The other visible rider wears both tunic and cloak.
                Condition Description:
                Parts of all edges missing. Surface battered.


                Parthenon NF.31.97

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 31
                Collection: Athens, Acropolis Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Rider from cavalcade. He wears a long-sleeved tunic and has his right hand raised to his head.
                Condition Description:
                Surface abraded.


                Parthenon NF.32

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 32
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: two and one half overlapping horse-and-rider groups move to left. The riders wear chitons.
                Condition Description:
                Upper and lower right corners of slab missing. Much of surface split and abraded.


                Parthenon NF.33

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 33
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: three horse and rider groups plus half of two others move to left. One rider wears a chiton and another only a mantle.
                Condition Description:
                Both upper corners of slab missing. Only one rider head intact. Surface is heavily chipped and sparred.


                Parthenon NF.34

                Title: Parthenon, South Frieze slab 34
                Collection:
                London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building:
                Athens, Parthenon Placement: South side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: Two and one half horse and rider groups moving to left. Riders wear chiton, chlamys and shoes or sandals.
                Condition Description:
                Upper left corner of slab is missing. Surface heavily damaged, especially right side. Much surface abrasion.


                Parthenon NF.35

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 35
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: two and one half groups of horse and rider. Riders wear chitons and some also have mantles.
                Condition Description:
                Two joining fragments. Upper left corner and piece of central upper slab are missing. Some spalling and abrasion of surface.


                Parthenon NF.37.115-N.38.119

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 37-38
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: Four and a half groups of horse and riders moving rapidly to left. Some riders wear chiton and chlamys and some wear skin caps.
                Condition Description:
                Upper corners of slab 38 missing. Surface chipped and abraded. Acropolis Museum no. 1110 is another fragment of slab 37.


                Parthenon NF.39

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 39
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: most of three groups of horse and rider move to left. Riders wear chitons, mantles and one wears a skin cap.
                Condition Description:
                Both left corners of slab missing and some damage at right corners. Surface in comparatively good condition.


                Parthenon NF.40

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 40
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: three and one half overlapping groups of horse and rider move to left. Riders wear chitons and mantles. One rider turns his head back to right.
                Condition Description:
                Lower left and upper right corners missing.


                Parthenon NF.41

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 41
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Cavalcade: three and one half groups of overlapping horse and rider groups move to left. All four riders wear chiton and chlamys. Last rider on right, whose cloak billows up behind him, turns to look back to right.
                Condition Description:
                Both upper corners and lower left corners are missing. Acropolis Museum no. 1150 is a fragment of this slab. Surface is in relatively good condition.


                Parthenon NF.42

                Title: Parthenon, North Frieze slab 42
                Collection: London, British Museum
                Subject: Cavalcade and Preparation to Mount
                Associated Building: Athens, Parthenon Placement: North side
                Subject Description:
                Two riders (nos. 130 and 132) are already mounted and moving to left while two others (nos. 131 and 133) prepare to do so. Figure 131 wears only a chlamys while a small boy ties the belt around the tunic of no. 133. This slab is the first on the north side and hence the preparations of the two figures prior to mounting form a transition with the West frieze.
                Condition Description:
                Upper left corner of slab missing. Surface gouged and abraded. Acropolis Museum no. 1145 is another fragment of this slab.


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