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Ancient literary sources (3)

Strabo

They say that the poet calls the Sporades "Calydnian Islands," one of which, they say, is Calymna. But it is reasonable to suppose that, as the islands which are near, and subject to, Nisyros and Casos are called "Islands of the Nisyrians" and "Islands of the Casians," so also those which lie round Calymna were called "Islands of the Calymnians" -Calymna at that time, perhaps, being called Calydna. But some say that there are only two Calydnian islands, Leros and Calymna, the two mentioned by the poet. The Scepsian says that the name of the island was used in the plural, "Calymnae," like "Athenae" and "Thebae"; but, he adds, the words of the poet should be interpreted as a case of hyperbaton, for he does not say, "Calydnian Islands," but those who held the islands Nisyros and Carpathos and Casos and Cos, the city of Eurypylus, and Calydnae. Now all the honey produced in the islands is, for the most part, good, and rivals that of Attica, but the honey produced in the islands in question is exceptionally good, and in particular the Calymnian.

This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo (ed. H. L. Jones, 1924), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Apr 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Herodotus

I find it a great marvel that a woman went on the expedition against Hellas: after her husband died, she took over his tyranny, though she had a young son, and followed the army from youthful spirits and manliness, under no compulsion. Artemisia was her name, and she was the daughter of Lygdamis; on her fathers' side she was of Halicarnassian lineage, and on her mothers' Cretan. She was the leader of the men of Halicarnassus and Cos and Nisyrus and Calydnos, and provided five ships. Her ships were reputed to be the best in the whole fleet after the ships of Sidon, and she gave the king the best advice of all his allies. The cities that I said she was the leader of are all of Dorian stock, as I can show, since the Halicarnassians are from Troezen, and the rest are from Epidaurus.

This extract is from: Herodotus. The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley, 1920), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Apr 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


  Herodotus will not allow any impurity or miscegenation in the population of the Dorian Hexapolis; it all goes back to the Dorians of the Argolid, the Halikarnassians to Dorian Troizen, the rest (i.e. Kos, Nisyros, Kalymnos, or Kalymna, or Kalymnai) to Dorian Epidauros. The doctrine of the purely Dorian character of these settlements--as indeed of the remaining Dorians both within and without the Hexapolis is anything but indisputable.
(1) That the Dorian invaders of the Peloponnesos could have spared sufficient drafts to colonize SW. Asia Minor is on the face of it improbable.
(2) Nor is the purely Dorian character of the Peloponnesian Dorians itself to be admitted: apart from the question of intermarriage, many passed for Dorians, as others for Achaeans, who had little right to the name.
(3) The Homeric catalogue makes Kos (Il. 2. 677) Hellenic before the Trojan War, as also Lindos (656), Karpathos (676), Syme (671), etc.
   Rawlinson regards all that as anachronism, so likewise the prae-Dorian date assigned by some authorities to the colonisation of Halikarnassos; but we must now be prepared to recognize that 'Peloponnesians' and others passed freely across the Aegean long before the days of the Return of the Herakleids. There are two possibilities to be reckoned with:
(a) The 'Dorians' were a much earlier and more primitive element in the Aegean population than the legend of the 'Return' recognizes; or
(b), as is more probable, the 'Dorian' colonization in Asia was merely an Epoikism, the Dorian element small and nominal, confined at first perhaps to the leaders, or new oikists;
   That it was, however, a real presence is proved by the appearance of the Dorian tribes in Halikarnassos, Kalymna, Kos (though late?); How factitious, 'pragmatic,' or tendenzios such legends may be is illustrated by the stories of Thera and Kyrene;


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