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Listed 11 sub titles with search on: Various locations  for wider area of: "PONTOS Ancient country TURKEY" .

Various locations (11)

Ancient place-names

Amnias river

PONTOS (Ancient country) TURKEY
  Amnias (Amnias, Amneios), a river in Pontus. In the broad plain on the banks of this stream the generals of Mithridates defeated Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, and the ally of the Romans, B.C. 88. (Appian. Mithridat. c. 18; Strab. p. 562.) The plain through which the river flowed is called by Strabo Domanitis. Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. i. p. 362) identifies the Amnias with an affluent of the Halys, now called Costambol Chai, and sometimes Giaour Irmak. It appears that the river is also called Kara Su.


Lithrus (Lithros), the name of the northern branch of Mount Paryadres in Pontus, which, together with Mount Ophelimus in the north-west of Amasia, enclosed the extensive and fertile plain of Phanaroea. (Strab. xii. p. 556.) Hamilton (Researches, vol. i. p. 349) believes that these two ancient hills answer to the modern Kemer Dagh and Oktap Dagh.

Melanthius river

(Melanthios), a small river on the north coast of Pontus, forming the boundary between Pontus Polemoniacus and Cappadocius, and flowing into the Euxine a little to the east of Cotyora. (Plin. H. N. vi. 4; Arrian, Peripl. p. 17; Anonym. Peripl. p. 12; Tab. Peut., where it is called Melantus.) It is probably the same river as that now bearing the name of Melet Irmak. (Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 267.)


A port-town on the coast of Pontus, at the mouth of the river Genius, which still bears its ancient name of Oenoe under the corrupt form Unieh. (Arrian, Peripl. Pont. Eux. p. 16; Anonym. Peripl. p. 11; comp. Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 271.)

Paryadres mountain

  Paryadres (Paruadres, Paruathris, or Paruardes), a range of lofty and rugged mountains in the north of Pontus, which is connected with Mount Taurus and Mount Caucasus (Strab. xi. p. 497, xii. p. 548; Plin. v. 27, vi. 9, 11). It commences at the western extremity of the Montes Moschici, proceeds in a south-western direction round Pontus, and there forms the frontier between Armenia and Cappadocia. A more southern branch of the same mountain is the Scoedises. Ptolemy (v. 13. § § 5, 9) describes this mountain as containing the sources of the Euphrates and Araxes, and accordingly includes within its range Mount Abus, from which others make those rivers flow. The Paryadres contains the sources of only small rivers, of which the largest is the Absarus. The mountain was in ancient times thickly covered with wood, and the population upon and about it consisted of robbers (Strab. xii. p. 548). Many parts of the mountain are extremely rugged, and almost inaccessible, whence Mithridates of Pontus built many of his treasure-houses there, and when pursued by Pompey, concealed himself in its fastnesses. In a climatic point of view the mountain divides Pontus into two distinct regions ; for while the north side is stern and cold, its southern side is delightfully warm. Hence the ancients called the point of transition in a pass between Trapezus and Satale, the Frigidarium. The modern name of the mountain is generally Kuttag, but it is also called Kara Bel. (Tournefort, Voyage i. lettre 18. p. 107.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Phanaroea (Phanaroia), a broad and extensive valley in Pontus, watered by the rivers Iris, Lycus, and Scylax, and enclosed between the chain of Paryadres to the east, and Mounts Lithrus and Ophlimus to the west. The soil there was the best in Pontus, and yielded excellent wine and oil and other produce in abundance. (Strab. ii. p. 73, xii. pp. 547, 556, 559; Plin. vi. 4; Ptol. v. 6. § 3, where it is erroneously called Phanagoria.) Phanaroea contained the towns of Eupatoria, Cabira, Polemonium, and others.


Scydises (Skudises), a chain of rugged mountains in the east of Pontus, which was connected in the north with the Moschici Montes on the east, and with Mons Paryadres on the north-west, while in the south-west it was connected with Antitaurus. (Strab. xi. p. 497, xii. p. 548; Ptol. v. 6. § 8, where it is called Skordiskos.) Modern travellers identify it with the Tshambu Bel (Wiener Jahrbucher, vol. cv. p. 21.)


Sidenus a small river of Pontus, having its sources in Mount Paryadres, and flowing through the district of Sidene into the Euxine; at its mouth was the town of Side or Polemonium (Plin. vi. 4), from which the river is now called Pouleman Chai. (Comp. Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 270.)


A fortress in Pontus Polemoniacus, on a river of the same name, and with a tolerably good harbour. It was situated at a distance of 90 stadia from Cape Zephyrium. (Arrian, Peripl. P. E. p. 17; Anon. Peripl. P. E. p. 13; Plin. vi. 4.) The place still exists under the name of Tireboli, and is situated on a rocky headland. (Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 257.)

Zagatis river

Zagatis, a coast river in the E. part of Pontus, discharging itself into the Euxine about 7 stadia to the east of Athenae; probably the same river as the modern Sucha Dere. (Arrian, Peripl. P. E. p. 17; Anon. Peripl. P. E. p. 15.)

Mountain peaks


Theches, one of the highest points of Mount Paryadres in Pontus, south-east of Trapezus, on the borders of the country inhabited by the Macrones. From it the Ten Thousand Greeks under Xenophon for the first time descried the distant Euxine. (Xenoph. Anab. iv. 7. § 21.) Diodorus Siculus (xiv. 29) calls the mountain Chenion oros; but it still bears its ancient name Tekieh. (Ritter, Erdkunde, ii. p. 768.)

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