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Listed 2 sub titles with search on: Monuments reported by ancient authors for destination: "ALIKARNASSOS Ancient city TURKEY".


Monuments reported by ancient authors (2)

Seven Wonders of the world

The grave of Mausolus

The grave at Halicarnassus was made for Mausolus, king of the city, and it is of such vast size, and so notable for all its ornament, that the Romans in their great admiration of it call remarkable tombs in their country Mausolea (Paus. 8.16.4).


The Mausoleum Sculptors

The only detailed descriptions of the Mausoleum are by Vitruvius and Pliny:
Vitruvius 7. Praef. 12-13
Satyrus and Pytheus wrote a book on the Mausoleum. On these men good fortune conferred the greatest and highest tribute. For their works of art are judged to possess merits renowned for all time and unfading for eternity, and from their deliberations were produced works of high distinction. For example, individual artists undertook one side each, competing against each other in embellishing and scrutinizing the work: Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas, and Praxiteles, while some add Timotheus. The outstanding quality of their art caused the fame of the building to be included among the Seven Wonders of the World.
Pliny, N.H. 36.30-1
The rivals and contemporaries of Scopas were Bryaxis, Timotheus, and Leochares, whom we must discuss together because they all worked on the carvings for the Mausoleum. This was the tomb built by Artemisia for her husband Mausolus, the satrap of Caria, who died in the 2nd year of the 107th Olympiad [351; he actually died in 353]. These artists were chiefly responsible for the work's inclusion among the Seven Wonders of the World. On the North and South sides it extends for 63 feet [actually 120 feet] but the length of the facades is less, giving a total circumference of 440 feet. It rises to a height of 25 cubits [probably the colonnade alone] and is enclosed by 36 columns . . . Scopas carved the east side, Bryaxis the north, Timotheus the south, and Leochares the west, but before they had finished, the queen died [351]. However, they refused to stop working until it was complete, since they had decided that it would be a monument both to their own glory and to that of their art, and even today their rivalry persists. A fifth artist also joined them. For above the colonnade is a pyramid that equals the building's podium in height, tapering in 24 steps to its peak; at the top is a marble chariot-and-four that Pythis made. With this added, the building's total height comes to 140 feet.
  The information given in these passages has been endlessly disputed, though recent excavation has resolved some problems; for a conjectural restoration of the building and a selection of the sculpture see Stewart 1990, figs. 524-38: head of Apollo (London 1058), bearded male (London 1054), Persian rider (London 1045), panther (London 1095), Amazon frieze (London 1014), Amazon frieze (London 1020), Carian lady and nobleman (London 1000) (London 1001), lion (London 1075), horse from the chariot group (London 1002); for earlier attempts, see the sketches in Pollitt 1990, 197 fig. 7.
  As to personalities, Pytheos of Priene (a noted theorist of the Ionic order) was clearly the building's architect and carved the great four-horsed chariot that crowned its summit; according to Vitruvius 1.12 and 7 Praef. 12, he later went on to design the temple of Athena Polias at Priene, which was still under construction when Alexander passed through in 334.

This extract is from: Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors: Their Careers and Extant Works. Cited July 2004 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains extracts from the ancient literature, bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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