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Listed 22 sub titles with search on: Geology  for wider area of: "GREECE Country EUROPE" .

Geology (22)

Active volcanos

Kos has solfatara fields and hot springs. Most of the rocks are Pleistocene in age. There have not been any eruptions in the last 10,000 years. The solfataras have feeble hydrogen sulfide emanations and thin sulfur deposits.

Commercial WebPages

The Mountains of Epirus

(Following URL information in Greek only)

The Rivers of Epirus

(Following URL information in Greek only)

The Rocks of Epirus

(Following URL information in Greek only)

The Lakes of Epirus

(Following URL information in Greek only)

The Coasts of Epirus

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Extinct volcanos


Official pages

Natural Environment

Euritania, with a total area of 2047 sq. klm. , borders with the Counties of Fthiotida, Karditsa and Aitelokarnania. It is an area with an historical tradition, national contribution with historic and archeological sites, religious worship and a richness of astounding natural beauty. That is, it has all of the elements to satisfy a visitor's every preference, offering rest and relaxation, action and adventure. According to 1991 UNESCO research, Euritania is considered one of top areas of the world in environmental cleanliness and the cleanest area in Europe. It represents the "basis" for research measurement as it is considered to have a zero pollution rate.
The County has a Mediterranean climate, mainland mountainous with frequent rain, mild winters and cool summers. It is a clearly mountainous area, most of which is at an altitude of over 1000 m., which offers great aquatic richness and vast forest cover. One large piece of the area of Euritania is spread over the main body of Pindos. It is surrounded by the mountains: Agrafa, Timphristo, Oxia, Panaitoliko, Helidona and Kalliakouda. It is traversed by the rivers: Karpenissioti, Tavropo (Megdova), Agrafioti, Krikelopotamo, Trikerioti and Acheloos. The aquatic wealth has been supplemented since 1965, by the Kremaston artificial lake, which is also Europe's largest earth dam.
About half of the County's area consists of forests. Fir trees dominate the highest mountain peaks. Lower down, there are oak forests, while below 1000 m. Mediterranean vegetation such as arbutus, olive trees etc. predominates. Mountain valleys, shaped by the rivers permit the creation of small, cultivatable areas. The fauna of the area is also rich. Large mamals such as bears, roe deer, wild boars, wolves and other, smaller animals find refuge here. Different kinds of birds of prey and the Episcopy lake wild trout complete the area's biodiversity.

This extract is cited May 2003 from the Municipality of Karpenission URL below, which contains images.

The island's geological formation, as in most of the Cycladic islands, is composed of sedimentary rocks, formed on the sea bed some ten million years ago. The subsoil consists almost entirely of schists. A small percentage of marble (6 - 7%) can be found mainly on the island's eastern coastline.

Geology - Geomorphology
  The Prespa lakes used to be a part of a former Dassaretic Lake in the Jurassic, and are still connected to Lake Ochrid. These are the only lakes still linked to the Adriatic Sea, and this distinguishes Prespa from the other western Macedonia lakes because the latter are connected to the Aegean Sea. It is thought that the water levels of both Mikri and Megali Prespa were about 80 m higher during the Pliocene than today, and their bottoms are of karstic collapsible features. Lime stones and dolomites are the common formations on the western and southern sides of the area, while on the eastern side they are predominantly granites and gneisses. This geological substrate influences the mineral composition of the soil and its ability to keep water, which in turn influence the kind of vegetation cover in the two sides.
The Climate
  Prespa has a mix of Mediterranean and mid European Climate, this being so partly due to the existence of the two lakes, which help to maintain milder climate conditions. The mean annual temperature is 12 °C. Summer is normally moderately dry and mean temperatures rice to about 22°C. Winters are quite cold, with long lasting frosts and mean temperatures around 0°C. Although during winter the mean air temperature is 0°C, the waters of Lake Mikri Prespa often freeze. Rains and snow fall mostly from October to April, and the mean annual precipitation is about 665mm.

This text is cited September 2004 from the Municipality of Prespes URL below, which contains image

(Following URL information in Greek only)

Natural Geography - Climate

  Rethymno is one of the four prefectures of Crete. It is situated between the prefectures of Chania and Heraklion, abutting the Cretan Sea in the north and the Libyan Sea in the south.
  Its capital, which has the same name as the prefecture, is situated 58 km from the town of Chania and 78 km from the town of Heraklion. The central part of the town of Rethymno is built on the cape of the northern shore of the prefecture. The developing town stretches along the northern sandy beach, which has a total length of 13 km, whilst a range of low mountains of which the highest peak is Mount Vrysina (858 m), rises up south of the town centre. The prefecture terrain is mainly mountainous with small but interesting morphological changes such as imposing gorges, a large number of caves, lush valleys and small rivers. Areas of flat land can be found primarily in the northern coastal region as well as between massifs. Equally restricted is the number of rivers. The Geropotamos, or Avlopotamos from the mountainous area of Mylopotamos flows into the sea west of Panormo, and the Megalo Potamos flows into the lagoon at Preveli. All the other rivers in the northern part of the prefecture are of minor importance and usually carry water during the winter period only.
  Thus mountains and mountain ranges dominate the terrestrial morphology of the prefecture. In the east Mount Ida, or Psiloritis, rises up. With a height of 2456 m it is the highest peak of the island of Crete, its massif covering approximately 1/5 of the total territory of the prefecture. The mountain range of Kedros (1777 m) rises southwest of Psiloritis. Together the two massifs border the beautiful valley of Amari. On the northeasterly border of the prefecture is Mount Kouloukounas, also called Talaia Mountain (1083 m), and south of the town of Rethymno is Mount Vrysinas (858 m). Mount Kryoneritis (1312 m) lies south west of the town and is the most easterly peak in Crete's second large massif, the White Mountains.
  Due to the hot summers and the long periods of rainfall, which lasts from autumn almost to April, the climate can be characterised as "temperate Mediterranean". Temperatures range around 14C in winter and 29C in summer. Furthermore, strong northerly and southerly winds play a significant role in this area with respect to meteorological phenomena.

Springs & waters


  Millions of years ago, Syros, along with all the other islands of this group, formed part of the sea bed. A series of mighty earthquakes lifted the rocks above the sea-level. In the course of countless millenniums, the island progressively took on its actual shape.
  Today, it has a mountainous structure, especially in its northern part (Pano Meria), with Pirgos (442 m) as its highest peak. Here, the hills slope down abruptly, particularly towards the eastern side of the island, where erosion has gouged out medium to large sized holes on the slopes and in the gorges.
  The edge to the right of one of such gorges constitutes a natural border between the northern and southern part of the island, leading down to the bay of Kini and its shallow, sandy beach.
  On the opposite side of Pano Meria, the largest part of northern Syros presents wide and relatively fertile large valleys such as Vari, Possidonia etc.
  The rocky layers that prevail on the island consist of marble and slate, in great diversity. They are the source of important historical information.

This text is cited Apr 2003 from the University of Patras' XENIOS DIAS website URL below.

  The highest peak of the island is Tsiknias (725 m.). It is situated in the eastern part of Tinos and towers above a channel which bears its name. Here starts the Ikarean Sea. Strong winds often whip through the channel and buffet the mountain. That is why, according to ancient mythology, it was the home of Eol, "the king of winds". The steep and rocky mountain of Xompourgou ( 640 m.) dominates the central part of Tinos.
  The surroundings of the village of Volax are especially beautiful, with round granite rocks cropping out of the infertile soil. Slate prevails on the island, while limestone exists only in the form of marble.
  The island counts several quarries providing an abundance of white and green marble (used in the construction of Buckingham palace and of the Louvre). Minerals are also mined on Tinos, where one finds deposits of chromium, lead, ferrous and manganese minerals, etc.

This text is cited Apr 2003 from the University of Patras' XENIOS DIAS website URL below.


Ammonites of Kestrini

There are ammonites near the village of Kestrini, on the Mount Mavronoros.

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