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Information about the place (3)
The Catholic Encyclopedia
- The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908)
Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
(he Pisidike). An inland district of Asia Minor, lying north
of Lycia and Pamphylia. It was a mountainous region, inhabited by a warlike people,
who maintained their independence against all the successive rulers of Asia Minor.
The Romans never subdued the Pisidians in their mountain fortresses, though they
took some of the towns on the outskirts of their country--for example, Antiochia,
which was made a colony with the ius Italicum. In fact, the northern part, in
which Antiochia stood, had originally belonged to Phrygia, and was more accessible
and more civilized than the mountains which formed the proper country of the Pisidians.
Nominally, the country was considered a part of Pamphylia, till the new subdivision
of the Empire under Constantine, when Pisidia was made a separate province. The
country is still inhabited by wild tribes, among whom travelling is dangerous;
and it is therefore little known. Ancient writers say that it contained, amidst
its rugged mountains, some fertile valleys, where the olive flourished; and it
also produced the gum storax, some medicinal plants, and salt. On the southern
slope of the Taurus several rivers flowed through Pisidia and Pamphylia into the
Pamphylian Gulf, the chief of which were the Cestrus and the Catarrhactes; and
on the northern the mountain streams form some large salt lakes-- namely, Ascania
(Hoiran and Egerdir), south of Antiochia, Caralius, or Pusgusa (Bei Shehr or Kereli),
southeast of the former, and Trogitis (Soghla) further to the southeast, in Isauria.
Special names were given to certain districts, which are sometimes spoken of as
parts of Pisidia, sometimes as distinct countries--namely, Cibyratis, in the southwest,
along the north of Lycia, and Cabalia, the southwest corner of Cibyratis itself;
Milyas, the district east of Cibyratis, northeast of Lycia and northwest of Pamphylia;
and Isauria, in the east of Pisidia, on the borders of Lycaonia.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
- Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)
Pisidia (he Pisidike :Eth. Pisidai, Pisidae), a province in the south
of Asia Minor, which was in the earlier times always regarded as a part of Phrygia
or Pamphylia, but was constituted a separate province in the division of the Roman
empire made by Constantine the Great. It bordered in the east on Isauria and Cilicia,
in the south on Pamphylia, in the west on Lycia, Caria, and Phrygia, and in the
north on Phrygia Parorios; but it is almost impossible to mark the exact boundary
lines, especially in the north and north-west, as the northern parts of Pisidia
are often treated as parts of Phrygia, to which they originally belonged, and
from which they are sometimes called Phrygia Pisidica, or Phrugia pros Pisidian;
but Amyntas separated them from Phrygia and united them with Pisidia. (Strab.
xii. p. 570, &c.; Ptol. v. 5. §§ 4, 8; Dionys. Per. 858, &c.; Plin. v. 24; Hierocl.
pp. 662, &c., 679, &c.) The country, which was rough and mountainous, though it
contained several fertile valleys and plains, which admitted of the cultivation
of olives (Strab. l. c.), was divided into several districts, with separate names.
The south-western district bordering on Lycia was called Milyas, and another adjoining
it bore the name of Cabalia. The mountains traversing Pisidia consist of ramifications
of Mount Taurus, proceeding from Mount Cadmus in Phrygia, in a south-eastern direction,
and assuming in the neighbourhood of Termissus the name of Sardemisus (Pomp. Mel.
i. 14; Plin. v. 26), and on the borders of Milyas that of Climax. (Polyb. v. 72;
Strab. xiv. p. 666.) These mountains contain the sources of the rivers Catarrhactes
and Cestrus, which flow through Pisidia and Pamphylia into the bay of Pamphylia.
The principal products of Pisidia were salt, the root iris, from which perfumes
were manufactured, and the wine of Amblada, which was much recommended by ancient
physicians. (Plin. xii. 55, xxi. 19, xxxi. 39; Strabo. xii. p. 570.) Pisidia also
contained several lakes, some of which are assigned to Phrygia or Lycaonia, e.
g. Coralis and Trogitis (Strab. xii. p. 568), the great salt lake Ascania, and
Pusgusa or Pungusa, which is mentioned only by Byzantine writers. (Nicet. Chron.
x. p. 50; Cinnam. Hist. ii. 8.)
The inhabitants of Pisidia must in a great measure have belonged to
the same stock as the Phrygians, but were greatly mixed with Cilicians and Isaurians.
They are said to have at first been called Solymi (Steph. B. s. v.); they were
warlike and free mountaineers who inhabited those parts from very remote times,
and were looked upon by the Greeks as barbarians. They were never subdued by neighbouring
nations, but frequently harassed the adjoining countries by predatory inroads.
(Xenoph. Anab. i. 1. § 11, ii. 1. § 4, &c.; Strab. ii. p. 130, xii. p. 569, xiv.
pp. 670, 678; Liv. xxxv. 13.) Even the Romans were scarcely able to subdue these
people, protected as they were by their mountains and ravines. After the defeat
of Antiochus, Pisidia was, with the rest of Asia, given to Eumenes, but had to
be conquered by the Romans themselves, and then formed the beginning of what subsequently
came to be the province of Cilicia, to which, about B.C. 88, the three Phrygian
districts of Laodiceia, Apameia, and Synnada, were added. (Liv. Epit. 77; Cic.
in Verr. i. 1. 7, 38.) Still, however, the Romans never established a garrison
or planted a colony in the interior; and even the submission of the towns seems
to have consisted mainly in their paying tribute to their rulers. The principal
towns of Pisidia were, Antiocheia, Sagalassus, Termisiis, Selge, Pednelissus,
Cibyra, Oenoanda, and Bubon. The mountainous parts of Pisidia are now inhabited
by the Karamanians, a wild and rapacious people, whence the country is little
visited by travellers, and consequently little known; but Pisidia in general corresponds
to that portion of Asia Minor comprised within the government of Isbarteh.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)