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Listed 7 sub titles with search on: Information about the place for destination: "ISCHIA Island CAMPANIA".


Information about the place (7)

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Aenaria, Ischia

  An island off the W coast of Campania opposite Cumae, its central mountain, Epomaeus, actively volcanic in Classical times. Called Pithekoussai by the Greeks (the plural sometimes also implies nearby Prochyta/Procida), it is also referred to as Inarime (e.g., by Vergil and Martianus Capella), apparently on the basis of the mention (Il. 2.783) of Typhoeus being chained down "ein Arimois."
  Euboian Greeks from Eretria and Chalkis established here in the early 8th c. B.C. a commercial post to facilitate trade with mainland Etruscans. From here they set up at Cumae, around 750 B.C., the earliest Greek colony in Europe. Pliny rightly derives the Greek name from the local ceramic clay deposits, not from pithekos (ape); he explains the Latin name as connected with Aeneas' beach-head. The island was mostly under the political control of Naples, and was famous for its pottery, fruit, and rich wine.
  The Monte Vico area was inhabited from the Bronze Age. The acropolis settlement has been located and some Mycenean and Iron Age pottery as well as evidence of continuous occupation into the 1st c. B.C.
  The Greek necropolis nearby has been extensively explored, the 8th and 7th c. graves being especially instructive. Numerous bronze and silver fibulae, Egyptian scarabs, oriental seals, and imported Greek pottery show vigorous trade with Athens, Corinth, Ionia, Euboia, Syria, Phoenicia, and Egypt. Local ware is also well attested, including a Geometric krater with a vivid shipwreck scene and fish devouring sailors. A Rhodian skyphos of ca. 740 B.C. carries one of the earliest of all examples of the Greek alphabet, in Chalkidian script from right to left: a trochaic trimeter followed by two dactylic hexameters which include a reference to Nestor's cup--perhaps implying knowledge already of the Iliad.

R. V. Schoder, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Project index

The Catholic Encyclopedia

Ischia

Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Aenaria

(also called Pithecusa and Inarime). A volcanic island at the entrance to the Bay of Naples; under it the Roman poets represent Typhoeus as lying. It is the modern Ischia.

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Aenaria

  Aenaria (Ainarhia, App.), called by the Greeks Pithecusa (pithekoussa), or Pithecusae (pithekoussai), and by the Latin poets Inarime, now Ischia, is an island of considerable size, which lies off the coast of Campania, nearly opposite to Cape Misenum, and forms, in conjunction with that headland, the northern boundary of the Bay of Naples. It is about 15 miles in circumference, and is distant between five and six miles from the nearest point of the mainland, and 16 from Capri, which forms the southern boundary of the bay. The small island of Prochyta (Procida) lies between it and Cape Misernum. The whole island is of volcanic origin, and though it contains no regular crater, or other vent of igneous action, was subject in ancient, as it has continued in later, times, to violent earthquakes and paroxysmal outbursts of volcanic agency. It was first colonized by Greek settlers from Chalcis and Eretria, either simultaneously with, or even previous to, the foundation of Cumae on the neighbouring mainland; and the colony attained to great prosperity, but afterwards suffered severely from internal dissensions, and was ultimately compelled to abandon the island in consequence of violent earthquakes and volcanic outbreaks. (Liv. viii. 22; Strab. v. p. 248.) These are evidently the same described by Timaeus, who related that Mt. Epomeus, a hill in the centre of the island, vomited forth flames and a vast mass of ashes, and that a part of the island, between this mountain and the coast, was driven forcibly into the sea. (Timaeus ap. Strab. v. p. 248.) The same phenomena are related with some variation by Pliny (ii. 88). At a later period, a fresh colony was established there by Hieron, the tyrant of Syracuse (probably after his great naval victory over the Tyrrhenians in B.C. 474), but these were also compelled to quit the island for similar reasons. (Strab. l. c.; Mommsen, Unter-Italischen Dialekte, p. 198.) After their departure it was occupied by the Neapolitans, and Scylax ( § 10. p. 3) speaks of it as containing, in his time, a Greek city. It probably continued from henceforth a dependency of Neapolis, and the period at which it fell into the hands of the Romans is unknown; but we find it in later times forming a part of the public property of the Roman state, until Augustus ceded it once more to the Neapolitans, in exchange for the island of Capreae. (Suet. Aug. 92.) We have scarcely any further information concerning its condition; but it seems to have effectually recovered from its previous disasters, though still subject to earthquakes and occasional phenomena of a volcanic character. It was indebted to the same causes for its warm springs, which were frequented for their medical properties. (Strab. v. pp. 248. 258; Plin. xxxi. 5; Stat. Silv. iii. 5. 104; Lucil. Aetna, 430; Jul. Obseq. 114.) Strabo notices the fertility of the soil, and speaks of gold mines having been worked by the first settlers; but it would seem never to have enjoyed any considerable degree of prosperity or importance under the Romans, as its name is rarely mentioned. At the present day it is a fertile and flourishing island, with a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and contains two considerable towns, Ischia and Foria. The position of the ancient town is uncertain, no antiquities having been discovered, except a few inscriptions. The Monte di San Nicola, which rises in the centre of the island to an elevation of 2500 feet, and bears unquestionable traces of volcanic action, is clearly the same with the Epomeus of Timaeus (l. c.) which is called by Pliny Mons Epopus. (Concerning the present state of the island, and its volcanic phenomena, see Description Topogr. et Histor. des Iles d'Ischia, de Ponza, &c., Naples, 1822; Scrope, On the Volcanic District of Naples, in the Trans. of the Geol. Soc. 2nd series, vol. ii.; Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. 240, 2nd edit.) The name of Pithycusae appears to have been sometimes applied by the Greeks to the two islands of Aenaria and Prochyta collectively, but the plural form as well as the singular is often used to designate the larger island alone. Strabo, indeed, uses both indifferently. (See also Appian, B.C. v. 69.) Livy, in one passage (viii. 22), speaks of Aenaria et Pithecusas, and Mela (ii. 7) also enumerates separately Pithecusa, Aenaria, and Prochyta. But this is clearly a mere confusion arising from the double appellation. Pliny tells us (iii. 6. 12) that the Greek name was derived from the pottery (phithoi) manufactured there, not as commonly supposed from its abounding in apes (phithekoi). But the latter derivation was the popular one, and was connected, by some writers, with the mythological tale of the Cercopes. (Xenagoras ap. Harpocr. s. v. Kherkops; Ovid. Met. xiv. 90.)
  The name of Inarime is peculiar to the Latin poets, and seems to have arisen from a confusion with the Arimoi of Homer and Hesiod, after the fable of Typhoeus had been transferred from Asia to the volcanic regions of Italy and Sicily. (Strab. v. p. 248, xiii. p. 626; Pherecyd. ap. School. ad Apoll. Rhod. ii. 1210.) The earthquakes and volcanic outbursts of this island were already ascribed by Pindar (Pyth. i. 18) to the struggles of the imprisoned giant, but the name of Inarime is first found in Virgil, from whom it is repeated by many later poets. Ovid erroneously distinguishes Inarime from Pithecusae. (Virg. Aen. ix. 716; Ovid. Met. xiv. 90; Sil. Ital. viii. 542, xii. 147; Lucan v.100; Stat. Silv. ii. 2. 76; and see Heyne, Exc. ii. ad Virg. Aen. ix.; Wernsdorf, Exc. iii. ad Lucil. Aetnam.) The idea, that both this and the neighbouring island of Prochyta had been at one time united to the mainland, and broken off from it by the violence of the same volcanic causes which were still in operation, is found both in Strabo and Pliny, and was a natural inference from the phenomena actually observed, but cannot be regarded as resting upon any historical tradition. (Strab. ii. p. 60, v. p. 258; Plin. ii. 88.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


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