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Information about the place (12)
Non commercial Web-Sites
- Xenios Dias WebPages, University of Patras
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
An island situated between Andros and Mykonos, Tinos was famous in
antiquity for the abundance of its springs. Subjugated by the Persians, Tinos
passed to the Greeks before the battle of Salamina, for which reason its name
appears among the dedicators of the Delphic tripod or stool used by the oracle.
It therefore entered the Delian League and participated in the Athenian expedition
against Syracuse. In the 3d c. B.C. Tinos became one of the principal representatives
of the Nesiotic League and developed close ties with Rhodes. After vicissitudes
in the 1st c. B.C., Tinos again flourished in the Imperial age.
The ancient site, in the SW part of the island, corresponds to that
of modern Tinos, ca. 300 m from the coast. Around the modern sanctuary of the
Evangelistria there are visible remains of the ancient enclosing wall, equipped
with towers which may be dated to the 5th c. B.C. Numerous rebuildings, however,
are attributed to the 3d c. B.C., the period to which an inscription on the blocks
of a tower are dated.
Outside the modern center to the W, in a place called Kionia, are
the remains of a particularly well-attended Sanctuary of Poseidon, which was mentioned
by Strabo (10.5.11). The Phokian Confederation, in the mid 3d c. B.C., granted
this sanctuary the right of shelter and contributed to the expense of its erection.
These rights were later renewed by the emperor Tiberius. The sanctuary could also
be reached from the sea by a road 150 m long which connected it with a pier. The
approach to the cult room was through the propylaeum, behind which are visible
the remains of an altar (11 x 30 m) of the in antis type, with a frieze of garlands
and ox skulls. The work is of a modest artistic level, and the construction is
contemporary with the temple. The latter, which dominated the center, is oriented
E-W. It is a Doric peripteral temple, with 6 by 8 columns, and with a nearly square
internal cella. The base of the temple is 1.7 m high and is connected on the E
and S sides to the ground level by stairs. Several sculpted fragments of the pediment
have been found, depicting sea monsters. Numerous titles bear dedicatory inscriptions
Parallel to the temple, but farther to the N, is another construction
linked to a second building. Viewed from the front its architectural elements
include a central exedra with lateral porticos consisting of Doric columns surmounted
by architraves and friezes with metopes and triglyphs. The construction has been
identified as a refectory in which visitors to the temple assembled (one of the
estiatoria mentioned by Strabo). At the N limits of the sanctuary, another rectangular
building, whose construction dates from Roman times, was probably set apart for
the lodging of pilgrims. The monumental systematization of the sanctuary already
known is attributable to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, at which time the
cult of Poseidon was particularly strong, together with those professed on the
island of Delos. However, traces of older walls oriented in the same direction
and probably dating from the 5th c. B.C. have been found under the temple and
under the altar.
A second center has been discovered at the foot of Mt. Exoburgo, where
visible remains of an encircling wall constructed of unworked granite blocks form
an irregular screening wall on fill from the 8th c. B.C. The defensive system
has been dated to the 7th c., as has a building situated outside the walls, with
an irregular plan, in which a tesmophorion has been identified. At the E extremity
of this city excavations have been carried out in a necropolis which, however,
is no longer visible. It contained rectangular coffered tombs, most of which had
been plundered, datable to the 5th c. B.C. The tombs had been furnished with funerary
stelai, of which only the bases remain.
A third locality which has furnished archaeological material is modern
Kardiani, where a necropolis containing coffered tombs from the Geometric age
has been discovered on terraced ground above the sea. The tombs, which are no
longer visible, contained besides the skeleton only meager funerary material,
consisting mostly of rough local ceramics and painted ceramics of the Cycladean
type attributable to the Middle Geometric period. The site is the earliest habitation
on the island as indicated by Neolithic material from one of the inhabited grottos.
In the city of Tinos is a small collection of antiquities found on
the island. The late pre-Geometric and Geometric pottery includes cups, amphorae,
and kantharoi with panel decoration of pendulant semicircles in the earlier period
and with meanders in the more recent, that is up until ca. mid 8th c. B.C. There
are also numerous examples of orientalizing impasto pottery with decorations in
relief, mostly made on the island between mid 8th and mid 7th c. B.C. The older
examples bear geometric designs, while the more recent often are decorated with
real and fantastic animals. A large amphora discovered on Mykonos, with a representation
of the Trojan horse, has been attributed to Tinos. Also in the museum is the material
from the Sanctuary of Poseidon, including several inscriptions and several statues
of the Roman period.
M. Cristofani, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites,
Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from
Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
A small island in the Aegaean Sea, southeast of Andros and north of Delos. Here was a celebrated temple of Poseidon
- Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
Perseus Project index
The Catholic Encyclopedia
Tinos and Mykonos
A Latin diocese of the Cyclades,
containing over 126 square miles. In ancient times it was called Hydrussa, i.e.
abounding in water, and Ophiussa because of the number of serpents which inhabited
it. Near the river there was a celebrated temple of Poseidon, discovered in 1902.
The island subjected itself to Xerxes at the time of his expedition
against the Greeks, but afterwards defected to Salamis
and Plataea; it became finally
subject to Athens, afterwards
to the Rhodians, to whom it was given by Marcus Antonius, later to the Romans.
It is not known when Christianity was established there. The bishopric
was a suffragan of Rhodes
in the seventh and tenth centuries; suppressed after the conquest of the island
by the Venetians in 1207, it was re-established but as a metropolitan when Tinos
passed into the power of the Turks in 1714. The metropolitan see was in its turn
suppressed in 1833. Under the Venetian domination, which lasted from 1207 to 1714,
Tinos had some Latin bishops.
Little by little the island became almost completely Catholic. In 1781 it had
7000 Catholics dispersed throughout 32 villages; some were of the Latin, others
of the Greek Rite. Under the Venetian domination the schismatics were dependent
on a protopapas who in turn depended on the Patriachate of Constantinople.
The Latin bishopric, at first a suffragan of the Archbishopric of
Rhodes, afterwards of Arcadi
in Crete, is now a suffragan
of Naxos. Since at least
the year 1400, the title of Mykonos has been joined to its own; furthermore, the
bishop administers the Diocese of Andros.
an image of the Evanghelistria or of the Annunciation discovered in 1823 which
attracts each year on 25 March and 15 August from 3000 to 4000 schismatic pilgrims.
S. Vailhe, ed.
Transcribed by: Thomas M. Barrett
This extract is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.
Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)
Eth. Tenios: Tino. An island in the Aegaean sea, and one of the Cyclades,
lying between Andros and Delos, distant from tile former 1 mile and from the latter
15 miles. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 22.) It stretches from NW. to SE., and is 15 miles
long according to Pliny (l. c.), or 150 stadia according to Scylax. It was also
called Hydrussa (Hudroussa, Hudroessa) from the number of its springs, and Ophiussa
because it abounded in snakes. (Plin. l. c.; Mela, ii. 7. § 11; Steph. B. s. v.)
The sons of Boreas are said to have been slain in this island by Hercules. (Apoll.
Rhod. i. 1304, with Schol.) In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, the Tenians were
compelled to serve in the Persian fleet; but a Tenian trireme deserted to the
Greeks immediately before the battle of Salamis (B.C. 480), and accordingly the
name of the Tenians was inscribed upon the tripod at Delphi in the list of Grecian
states which had overthrown the Persians. (Herod. viii. 82.) Pausanias relates
that the name of the Tenians was also inscribed on the statue of Zeus at Olympia
among the Greeks who had fought at the battle of Plataea (v. 23. § 2). The Tenians
afterwards formed part of the Athenian maritime empire, and are mentioned among
the subject allies of Athens at the time of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. vii.
57). They paid a yearly tribute of 3600 drachmae, from which it may be inferred
that they enjoyed a considerable share of prosperity. (Franz, Elem. Epigr. Gr.
No. 49.) Alexander of Pherae took possession of Tenos for a time (Dem. c. Polycl.
p. 1207); and the island was afterwards granted by M. Antonius to the Rhodians
(Appian, B.C. v. 7.) After the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins, Tenos
fell to the share of the Venetians, and remained in their hands long after their
other possessions in the Aegaean had been taken by the Turks. It was ceded by
Venice to the Sultan by the peace of Passarovitz, 1718. It is still one of the
most prosperous islands in the Aegaean, and the inhabitants are remarkable for
their industry and good conduct. The present population is about 15,000 souls,
of whom more than half are Catholics,-a circumstance which, by bringing them into
closer connection with western Europe, has contributed to their prosperity.
The ancient city of Tenos, of the same name as the island, stood at
the south-western end upon the same site as St. Nieolaos, the present capital.
Scylax says that it possessed a harbour, and Strabo describes it as a small town.
(Scyl. p. 22; Strab. x. p. 487; Ptol. iii. 14. § 30.) In the neighbourhood of
the city there was a celebrated temple of Poseidon situated in a grove, where
festivals were celebrated, which were much frequented by all the neighbouring
people. (Strab l. c.; Tac. Ann. iii. 63; Clem. Protr. p. 18; Bockh, Inscr. No.
2329, 2331.) The attributes of Poseidon appear on the coins of Tenos. There was
another town in the island named Eriston (Eriston; Bockh, Inscr. 2336, 2337),
which was situated in the interior at the village of Komi. Among the curiosities
of Tenos was mentioned a fountain, the water of which would not mix with wine.
(Athen. ii. p. 43, c.). The island was celebrated in antiquity for its fine garlic.
(Aristoph. Plut. 18.) The chief modern production of the island is wine, of which
the best kind is the celebrated Malvasia, which now grows only at Tenos and no
longer at Monembasia in Peloponnesus, from which place it derived its name.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)
Tinos belongs to the Cycladic group of islands and is the 3rd largest
island after Andros and Naxos,
with a surface of 197 sq km and a population of about 8.000.
It is situated to the southeast of Andros and to the northwest of
Mykonos, separated from the
first one by the 1,5 km wide Andros-Tinos channel and from the latter by the 8
km wide channel of Tsakinia between the Port of Agios Ioannis and Akras Armenisti
Tinos is situated at 8,5 sea miles from the nearest coast of Syros.
The total length of its coast is approximately 114 km. Sailing around the island,
at a short distance from its coasts, would amount to a voyage of 38 sea miles.
Traditionally, the island is divided into three parts by its inhabitants:
The"Apano meri" : location of the villages of the southern and eastern
parts (from Hatsirado to
Dio Choria and Mirsini)
The "Kato meri": includes villages of the northern and central parts
( from Tarampado to Kalloni
The "Exo meri (or Oxo meria)" : the western part of Kardiani.
This text is cited Apr 2003 from the University of Patras' XENIOS DIAS website URL below.
Compared to other islands of the Cyclades, Tinos has plentiful water.
Unfortunately, strong winds, blowing almost all year round, stunt vegetation,
except in some sheltered areas. This makes farming difficult. The island has some
fertile valleys (Livada,
etc.) and a small plane called Komi.
- Xenios Dias WebPage, University of Patras
The climate of Tinos is mild and healthy. V. Coronelli wrote, in the
17th century, that: "Few diseases may be found on the island as it is open to
all winds ,and especially to the northern one, which is the doctor of Tinos''.
The same geographer also mentioned that: "...the northern wind is
healthy also for foreigners who visit the island and if they are ill, recover
immediately, without the aid of medecines.
Snow is unknown to the island and the temperature seldom drops below
zero. Fog often descends on the plateau of Phalatadou
- Stenis - Mesis,
in the region of Ksompourgou and of Isternia
Summer is damp, especially during the period of northern breezes.
These are seasonal winds that blow usually from the middle of July till August.
They bring freshness to hot summer days and keep temperatures from rising too
high. In summer, temperatures inside the old stone houses (as opposed to new buildings)
seldom exceed 26 degrees Celsius. From March to October, in periods of windless
days and fierce sunlight, the temperature outdoors and in areas protected from
the wind, may rise above 40 degrees Celsius. But usually (and fortunately), it
is much lower. Even up till mid-November, the temperature of the sea in Kolimpitra
and Livada is mostly above
18 degrees Celsius.
This text is cited Apr 2003 from the University of Patras' XENIOS DIAS website URL below.