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Tinos


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The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Tinos

  An island situated between Andros and Mykonos, Tinos was famous in antiquity for the abundance of its springs. Subjugated by the Persians, Tinos passed to the Greeks before the battle of Salamina, for which reason its name appears among the dedicators of the Delphic tripod or stool used by the oracle. It therefore entered the Delian League and participated in the Athenian expedition against Syracuse. In the 3d c. B.C. Tinos became one of the principal representatives of the Nesiotic League and developed close ties with Rhodes. After vicissitudes in the 1st c. B.C., Tinos again flourished in the Imperial age.
  The ancient site, in the SW part of the island, corresponds to that of modern Tinos, ca. 300 m from the coast. Around the modern sanctuary of the Evangelistria there are visible remains of the ancient enclosing wall, equipped with towers which may be dated to the 5th c. B.C. Numerous rebuildings, however, are attributed to the 3d c. B.C., the period to which an inscription on the blocks of a tower are dated.
  Outside the modern center to the W, in a place called Kionia, are the remains of a particularly well-attended Sanctuary of Poseidon, which was mentioned by Strabo (10.5.11). The Phokian Confederation, in the mid 3d c. B.C., granted this sanctuary the right of shelter and contributed to the expense of its erection. These rights were later renewed by the emperor Tiberius. The sanctuary could also be reached from the sea by a road 150 m long which connected it with a pier. The approach to the cult room was through the propylaeum, behind which are visible the remains of an altar (11 x 30 m) of the in antis type, with a frieze of garlands and ox skulls. The work is of a modest artistic level, and the construction is contemporary with the temple. The latter, which dominated the center, is oriented E-W. It is a Doric peripteral temple, with 6 by 8 columns, and with a nearly square internal cella. The base of the temple is 1.7 m high and is connected on the E and S sides to the ground level by stairs. Several sculpted fragments of the pediment have been found, depicting sea monsters. Numerous titles bear dedicatory inscriptions to Poseidon.
  Parallel to the temple, but farther to the N, is another construction linked to a second building. Viewed from the front its architectural elements include a central exedra with lateral porticos consisting of Doric columns surmounted by architraves and friezes with metopes and triglyphs. The construction has been identified as a refectory in which visitors to the temple assembled (one of the estiatoria mentioned by Strabo). At the N limits of the sanctuary, another rectangular building, whose construction dates from Roman times, was probably set apart for the lodging of pilgrims. The monumental systematization of the sanctuary already known is attributable to the Hellenistic and Roman periods, at which time the cult of Poseidon was particularly strong, together with those professed on the island of Delos. However, traces of older walls oriented in the same direction and probably dating from the 5th c. B.C. have been found under the temple and under the altar.
  A second center has been discovered at the foot of Mt. Exoburgo, where visible remains of an encircling wall constructed of unworked granite blocks form an irregular screening wall on fill from the 8th c. B.C. The defensive system has been dated to the 7th c., as has a building situated outside the walls, with an irregular plan, in which a tesmophorion has been identified. At the E extremity of this city excavations have been carried out in a necropolis which, however, is no longer visible. It contained rectangular coffered tombs, most of which had been plundered, datable to the 5th c. B.C. The tombs had been furnished with funerary stelai, of which only the bases remain.
  A third locality which has furnished archaeological material is modern Kardiani, where a necropolis containing coffered tombs from the Geometric age has been discovered on terraced ground above the sea. The tombs, which are no longer visible, contained besides the skeleton only meager funerary material, consisting mostly of rough local ceramics and painted ceramics of the Cycladean type attributable to the Middle Geometric period. The site is the earliest habitation on the island as indicated by Neolithic material from one of the inhabited grottos.
  In the city of Tinos is a small collection of antiquities found on the island. The late pre-Geometric and Geometric pottery includes cups, amphorae, and kantharoi with panel decoration of pendulant semicircles in the earlier period and with meanders in the more recent, that is up until ca. mid 8th c. B.C. There are also numerous examples of orientalizing impasto pottery with decorations in relief, mostly made on the island between mid 8th and mid 7th c. B.C. The older examples bear geometric designs, while the more recent often are decorated with real and fantastic animals. A large amphora discovered on Mykonos, with a representation of the Trojan horse, has been attributed to Tinos. Also in the museum is the material from the Sanctuary of Poseidon, including several inscriptions and several statues of the Roman period.

M. Cristofani, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Tenos

A small island in the Aegaean Sea, southeast of Andros and north of Delos. Here was a celebrated temple of Poseidon


Perseus Project index

The Catholic Encyclopedia

Tinos and Mykonos

  A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, containing over 126 square miles. In ancient times it was called Hydrussa, i.e. abounding in water, and Ophiussa because of the number of serpents which inhabited it. Near the river there was a celebrated temple of Poseidon, discovered in 1902.
  The island subjected itself to Xerxes at the time of his expedition against the Greeks, but afterwards defected to Salamis and Plataea; it became finally subject to Athens, afterwards to the Rhodians, to whom it was given by Marcus Antonius, later to the Romans.
  It is not known when Christianity was established there. The bishopric was a suffragan of Rhodes in the seventh and tenth centuries; suppressed after the conquest of the island by the Venetians in 1207, it was re-established but as a metropolitan when Tinos passed into the power of the Turks in 1714. The metropolitan see was in its turn suppressed in 1833. Under the Venetian domination, which lasted from 1207 to 1714, Tinos had some Latin bishops. Little by little the island became almost completely Catholic. In 1781 it had 7000 Catholics dispersed throughout 32 villages; some were of the Latin, others of the Greek Rite. Under the Venetian domination the schismatics were dependent on a protopapas who in turn depended on the Patriachate of Constantinople.
  The Latin bishopric, at first a suffragan of the Archbishopric of Rhodes, afterwards of Arcadi in Crete, is now a suffragan of Naxos. Since at least the year 1400, the title of Mykonos has been joined to its own; furthermore, the bishop administers the Diocese of Andros.
  Tinos possesses an image of the Evanghelistria or of the Annunciation discovered in 1823 which attracts each year on 25 March and 15 August from 3000 to 4000 schismatic pilgrims.

S. Vailhe, ed.
Transcribed by: Thomas M. Barrett
This extract is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Tenus

  Eth. Tenios: Tino. An island in the Aegaean sea, and one of the Cyclades, lying between Andros and Delos, distant from tile former 1 mile and from the latter 15 miles. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 22.) It stretches from NW. to SE., and is 15 miles long according to Pliny (l. c.), or 150 stadia according to Scylax. It was also called Hydrussa (Hudroussa, Hudroessa) from the number of its springs, and Ophiussa because it abounded in snakes. (Plin. l. c.; Mela, ii. 7. § 11; Steph. B. s. v.) The sons of Boreas are said to have been slain in this island by Hercules. (Apoll. Rhod. i. 1304, with Schol.) In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, the Tenians were compelled to serve in the Persian fleet; but a Tenian trireme deserted to the Greeks immediately before the battle of Salamis (B.C. 480), and accordingly the name of the Tenians was inscribed upon the tripod at Delphi in the list of Grecian states which had overthrown the Persians. (Herod. viii. 82.) Pausanias relates that the name of the Tenians was also inscribed on the statue of Zeus at Olympia among the Greeks who had fought at the battle of Plataea (v. 23. § 2). The Tenians afterwards formed part of the Athenian maritime empire, and are mentioned among the subject allies of Athens at the time of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. vii. 57). They paid a yearly tribute of 3600 drachmae, from which it may be inferred that they enjoyed a considerable share of prosperity. (Franz, Elem. Epigr. Gr. No. 49.) Alexander of Pherae took possession of Tenos for a time (Dem. c. Polycl. p. 1207); and the island was afterwards granted by M. Antonius to the Rhodians (Appian, B.C. v. 7.) After the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins, Tenos fell to the share of the Venetians, and remained in their hands long after their other possessions in the Aegaean had been taken by the Turks. It was ceded by Venice to the Sultan by the peace of Passarovitz, 1718. It is still one of the most prosperous islands in the Aegaean, and the inhabitants are remarkable for their industry and good conduct. The present population is about 15,000 souls, of whom more than half are Catholics,-a circumstance which, by bringing them into closer connection with western Europe, has contributed to their prosperity.
  The ancient city of Tenos, of the same name as the island, stood at the south-western end upon the same site as St. Nieolaos, the present capital. Scylax says that it possessed a harbour, and Strabo describes it as a small town. (Scyl. p. 22; Strab. x. p. 487; Ptol. iii. 14. § 30.) In the neighbourhood of the city there was a celebrated temple of Poseidon situated in a grove, where festivals were celebrated, which were much frequented by all the neighbouring people. (Strab l. c.; Tac. Ann. iii. 63; Clem. Protr. p. 18; Bockh, Inscr. No. 2329, 2331.) The attributes of Poseidon appear on the coins of Tenos. There was another town in the island named Eriston (Eriston; Bockh, Inscr. 2336, 2337), which was situated in the interior at the village of Komi. Among the curiosities of Tenos was mentioned a fountain, the water of which would not mix with wine. (Athen. ii. p. 43, c.). The island was celebrated in antiquity for its fine garlic. (Aristoph. Plut. 18.) The chief modern production of the island is wine, of which the best kind is the celebrated Malvasia, which now grows only at Tenos and no longer at Monembasia in Peloponnesus, from which place it derived its name.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Geography

  Tinos belongs to the Cycladic group of islands and is the 3rd largest island after Andros and Naxos, with a surface of 197 sq km and a population of about 8.000.
  It is situated to the southeast of Andros and to the northwest of Mykonos, separated from the first one by the 1,5 km wide Andros-Tinos channel and from the latter by the 8 km wide channel of Tsakinia between the Port of Agios Ioannis and Akras Armenisti on Mykonos.
  Tinos is situated at 8,5 sea miles from the nearest coast of Syros. The total length of its coast is approximately 114 km. Sailing around the island, at a short distance from its coasts, would amount to a voyage of 38 sea miles.
  Traditionally, the island is divided into three parts by its inhabitants:
•The"Apano meri" : location of the villages of the southern and eastern parts (from Hatsirado to Dio Choria and Mirsini)
•The "Kato meri": includes villages of the northern and central parts ( from Tarampado to Kalloni and Volax)
• The "Exo meri (or Oxo meria)" : the western part of Kardiani.

This text is cited Apr 2003 from the University of Patras' XENIOS DIAS website URL below.


  Compared to other islands of the Cyclades, Tinos has plentiful water. Unfortunately, strong winds, blowing almost all year round, stunt vegetation, except in some sheltered areas. This makes farming difficult. The island has some fertile valleys (Livada, Potamia, Agapi etc.) and a small plane called Komi.


  The climate of Tinos is mild and healthy. V. Coronelli wrote, in the 17th century, that: "Few diseases may be found on the island as it is open to all winds ,and especially to the northern one, which is the doctor of Tinos''.
  The same geographer also mentioned that: "...the northern wind is healthy also for foreigners who visit the island and if they are ill, recover immediately, without the aid of medecines.
  Snow is unknown to the island and the temperature seldom drops below zero. Fog often descends on the plateau of Phalatadou - Stenis - Mesis, in the region of Ksompourgou and of Isternia - Panorma.
  Summer is damp, especially during the period of northern breezes. These are seasonal winds that blow usually from the middle of July till August. They bring freshness to hot summer days and keep temperatures from rising too high. In summer, temperatures inside the old stone houses (as opposed to new buildings) seldom exceed 26 degrees Celsius. From March to October, in periods of windless days and fierce sunlight, the temperature outdoors and in areas protected from the wind, may rise above 40 degrees Celsius. But usually (and fortunately), it is much lower. Even up till mid-November, the temperature of the sea in Kolimpitra and Livada is mostly above 18 degrees Celsius.

This text is cited Apr 2003 from the University of Patras' XENIOS DIAS website URL below.


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