Information about the place MAKEDONIA EAST & THRACE (Region) GREECE - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

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Kavissos

KAVISSOS (Ancient city) ALEXANDROUPOLI
Since ancient times there has been disagreement on the location of this Homeric city.

Columbia Encyclopedia

Commercial WebPages

Old Town of Kavala

NEAPOLIS (Ancient city) KAVALA
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Paggaion

PANGEO (Municipality) KAVALA

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Educational institutions WebPages

DRAMA (Prefecture) GREECE

IMERA (Settlement) XANTHI
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Mesembria

MESSIMVRIA (Ancient city) ALEXANDROUPOLI
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PRASSINADA (Location) XANTHI
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SEMELI (Settlement) XANTHI
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TOPIRO (Municipality) XANTHI
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TOXOTES (Small town) XANTHI
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VANIANO (Village) XANTHI
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Elements from Princeton Encyclopedia

General

Aerodromio

AERODROMIO (Settlement) KAVALA
It was named Aerodromio (=Airport) because it is located at the region of the Kavala airport, which is at a distance of 9 km.

Aetokoryfi

AETOKORYFI (Village) RODOPI
It is located at the eastern side of the valley of Komotini.

Government WebPages

Verdant mystique

SAMOTHRAKI (Island) MAKEDONIA EAST & THRACE
Samothraki, the Greek island where you can bathe under the shade of the sycamore trees

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Angites

ANGITIS (Tributary) DRAMA
Angites (Angites: Anghista), a river of Macedonia, flowing into the lake Cercinitis, about 6 or 8 miles to the N of Amphipolis. (Herod. vii. 113; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 183.)

Abdera

AVDIRA (Ancient city) XANTHI
  Abdera (ta Abdera, also Abderon or -os; Abdera,-orum, Liv. xlv. 29; Abdera,-ae, Plin. xxv. 53: Eth. Abderites, Abderites or -ita: Adj. Abderitikos, Abderiticus, Abderitanus), a town upon the southern coast of Thrace, at some distance to the E. of the river Nestus. Herodotus, indeed, in one passage (vii. 126), speaks of the river as flowing through Abdera (6 ho di Habderon rheon Nestos, but cf. c. 109, kata Abdera). According to mythology, it was founded by Heracles in honour of his favourite Abderus. (Strab. p. 331.) History, however, mentions Timesius or Timesias of Clazomenae as its first founder. (Herod. i. 168.) His colony was unsuccessful, and he was driven out by the Thracians. Its date is fixed by Eusebius, B.C. 656. In B.C. 541, the inhabitants of Teos, unable to resist Harpagus, who had been left by Cyrus, after his capture of Sardis, to complete the subjugation of Ionia, and unwilling to submit to him, took ship and sailed to Thrace, and there recolonised Abdera. (Herod. l. c.; Scymnus Chius, 665; Strab. p. 644.) Fifty years afterwards, when Xerxes invaded Greece, Abdera seems to have become a place of considerable importance, and is mentioned as one of the cities which had the expensive honour of entertaining the great king on his .march into Greece. (Herod. vii. 120.) On his flight after the battle of Salamis, Xerxes stopped at Abdera, and acknowledged the hospitality of its inhabitants by presenting them with a tiara and scymitar of gold. Thucydides (ii. 97) mentions Abdera as the westernmost limit of the kingdom of the Odrysae when at its height at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war. In B.C. 408 Abdera was reduced under the power of Athens by Thrasybulus, then one of the Athenian generals in that quarter. (Diod. xiii. 72.) Diodorus speaks of it as being then in a very flourishing state. The first blow to its prosperity was given in a war in which it was engaged B.C. 376 with the Triballi, who had at this time become one of the most powerful tribes of Thrace. After a partial success, the Abderitae were nearly cut to pieces in a second engagement, but were rescued by Chabrias with an Athenian force. (Diod. xv. 36.) But little mention of Abdera occurs after this. Pliny speaks of it as being in his time a free city (iv. 18). In later times it seems to have sunk into a place of small repute. It is said in the middle ages to have had the name of Polystylus. Dr. Clarke (Travels, vol. iii. p. 422) mentions his having searched in vain on the east bank of the Nestus for any traces of Abdera, probably from imagining it to have stood close to the river. Abdera was the birthplace of several famous persons: among others, of the philosophers Protagoras, Democritus, and Anaxarchus. In spite of this, its inhabitants passed into a proverb for dullness and stupidity. (Juv. x. 50; Martial, x. 25. 4; Cic. ad Att. iv. 1. 6, vii. 7.) Mullets from Abdera were considered especial dainties (Athen. p. 118). It was also famous for producing the cuttle-fish (Id. p. 324).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Didymoteichos

DIDYMOTICHO (Town) EVROS
  Didymoteichos (Didumoteichos), a Thracian town opposite to Plotinopolis, situated not far from the point where the Eurus empties itself into the Hebrus, on an island of the former. It is now called Demotica. (Nicet. Chr. p. 404.)

Dicaea

DIKEA (Ancient city) AVDIRA
Dikaia. a Greek port town on the coast of Thrace on lake Bistonis, in the country of the Bistones. The place appears to have decayed at an early period. Some identify it with the modern Curnu, and others with Bauron.

Doriscus

DORISKOS (Ancient city) ALEXANDROUPOLI
  Doriskos. a coast town of Thrace, in a plain west of the river Hebrus, which is hence called the plain of Doriscus (Dopiskos pedion). During the expedition of Darius the place was taken and fortified by the Persians; and in this plain Xerxes reviewed his forces before commencing his march against Greece. In the time of Livy it appears to have been only a fort - castellum. The neighbourhood of Doriscus is now called the plain of Romigik.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Drys

DRYS (Ancient city) SAMOTHRAKI PERAIA

Hebrus

EVROS (River) MAKEDONIA EAST & THRACE
  Hebrus (Hebros: Maritza), the principal river of Thrace, has its sources near the point where mount Scomius joins mount Rhodope, in the northwestern corner of Thrace. Its course at first has a south-eastern direction; but below Adrianopolis it takes a south-western turn, and continues to flow in that direction until it reaches the Aegaean near Aenos. (Thucyd. ii. 96; Plin. iv. 18; Aristot. Meteor. i. 13.) The tributaries of the Hebrus are so numerous and important, that it becomes navigable even at Philippolis, while near its mouth it becomes really a large river. (Herod. vii. 59.) Near its mouth it divides itself into two branches, the eastern one of which forms lake Stentoris. (Herod. vii. 58; Acropolita, p. 64.) The most important among its tributaries are the Suemus, Arda, Artiscus, Tonsus, and Agrianes. About Adrianople the basin of the Hebrus is very extensive; but south of that city it becomes narrower, the mountains on both sides approaching more closely to the river. During the winter the Hebrus is sometimes frozen over. (Comp. Herod. iv. 90; Polyb. xxxiv. 13; Eurip. Here. Fur. 386; Strab. vii. pp. 322, 329, xiii. p. 590; Ptol. iii. 11. § 2; Arrian, Anab. i. 11; Mela, ii. 2; Virg. Eel. x. 65, Georg. iv. 463, 524; Val. Flac. ii. 515, iv. 463, viii. 228.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Philippi

FILIPPI (Ancient city) KAVALA
  Philippoi: Eth. Phillippeus, Philippesios. A city of Macedonia, which took its name from its founder, Philip, the father of Alexander. Origin. ally, it had been called Crenides (Krenides, Strab. vii. p. 331; Appian, B.C. iv. 105, 107; Steph. B. s. v Philippoi), or the Place of Fountains, from the numerous streams in which the Angites takes its source. Near Crenides were the principal mines of gold in a hill called, according to Appian (l. c.) Dionysi Collis (lophos Dionusou), probably the same mountain as that where the Satrae possessed an oracle of Dionysus interpreted by the Bessi. (Herod. vii. 111.) Crenides does not appear to have belonged to the Thasians in early times although it was under their dominion in the 105th Olympiad (B.C. 360). When Philip of Macedon got possession of the mines, he worked them with so much success, that they yielded 1000 talents a year, although previously they had not been very productive. (Diodor. xvi. 4--8.) The old city was enlarged by Philip, after the capture of Amphipolis, Pydna, and Potidaea, and fortified to protect his frontier against the Thracian mountaineers. On the plain of Philippi, between Haemus and Pangaeus, the last battle was lost by the republicans of Rome. Appian has given a clear description of Philippi, and the position on which Cassius and Brutus encamped. The town was situated on a steep hill, bordered to the N. by the forests through which the Cassian army advanced,--to the S. by a marsh, beyond which was the sea, to the E. by the passes of the Sapaei and Corpili, and to the W. by the great plains of Myrcinus, Drabescus, and the Strymon, which were 350 stadia in length. Not far from Philippi, was the hill of Dionysus, containing the gold mines called Asyla; and 18 stadia from the town, were two other heights, 8 stadia asunder; on the one to the N. Brutus pitched his camp, and Cassius on that to the S. Brutus was protected on his right by rocky hills, and the left of Cassius by a marsh. The river Gangas or Gangites flowed along the front, and the sea was in the rear. The camps of the two leaders, although separate, were enclosed within a common entrenchment, and midway between them was the pass, which led like a gate from Europe to Asia. The galleys were at Neapolis, 70 stadia distant, and the commissariat in Thasos, distant 100 stadia. Dion Cassius (xlvii. 35) adds, that Philippi was near Pangaeus and Symbolum, and that Symbolum, which was between Philippi and Neapolis, was so called because it connected Pangaeus with another mountain stretching inland; which indentifies it with the ridge which stretches from Pravista to Kavala, separating the bay of Kavala from the plain of Philippi. The Pylae, therefore, could be no other than the pass over that mountain behind Kavala. M. Antonius took up his position on the right, opposite to that of Cassius, at a distance of 8 stadia from the enemy. Octavius Caesar was opposed to Brutus on the left hand of the even field. Here, in the autumn of B.C. 42, in the first engagement, Brutus was successful against Octavius, while Antonius had the advantage over Cassius. Brutus, incompetent to maintain the discipline of his troops, was forced to fight again; and in an engagement which took place on the same ground, twenty days afterwards, the Republic perished. Regarding the battle a curious mistake was repeated by the Roman writers (Manil. i. 908; Ovid, Met. xv. 824; Flor. iv. 42; Lucan, i. 680, vii. 854, ix. 271; Juv. viii. 242), who represented it as fought on the same ground as Pharsalia,--a mistake which may have arisen from the ambiguity in the lines of Virgil (Georg. i. 490), and favoured by the fact of the double engagement at Philippi. (Merivale, Hist. of Roman Empire, vol. iii. p. 214.) Augustus afterwards presented it with the privileges of a colonia, with the name Col. Jul. Aug. Philip. (Orelli, Inscr. 512, 3658, 3746, 4064; and on coins ; Rasche, vol. iii. pt. 2. p. 1120), and conferred upon it the Jus Italicum. (Dion Cass. li. 4.) It was here, in his second missionary journey, that St. Paul, accompanied by Silas, came into contact with the itinerant traders in popular superstitions (Acts, xvi. 12--40); and the city was again visited by the Apostle on his departure from Greece. (Acts, xx. 6.) The Gospel obtained a home in Europe here, for the first time; and in the autumn of A.D. 62, its great teacher, from his prison, under the walls of Nero's palace, sent a letter of grateful acknowledgment to his Macedonian converts. Philippi was [p. 600] on the Egnatian road, 33 M. P. from Amphipolis, and 21 M. P. from Acontisma. (Itin. Anton.; Itin. Hierosol.) The Theodosian Table presents two roads from Philippi to Heracleia Sintica. One of the roads passed round the N. side of the lake Cercinitis, measuring 55 M. P., the other took the S. side of the lake, and measured 52 M. P. When Macedonia was divided into two provinces by Theodosius the Younger, Philippi became the ecclesiastical head of Macedonia Prima, and is mentioned in the Handbook of Hierocles.
  The site, where there are considerable remains of antiquity, is still known to the Greeks by its ancient name; by the Turks the place is called Felibedjik.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Dampolis

IAMBOLI (Settlement) KOMOTINI
  Dampolis or Diampolis (Diampolis: Iamboli), a Greek town in the interior of Thrace, to the east of Irenopolis, on the river Tonsus. (Ann. Comn. x. p. 274.) It is probably the same place as the Diopolis of Hierocles, and the Diospolis of Malala (ii. p. 167).

Iamphorina

IAMFORINI (Ancient city) KAVALA
  Iamphorina, the capital of the Maedi, in Macedonia, which was taken B.C. 211 by Philip, son of Demetrius. (Liv. xxvi. 25.) It is probably represented by Vrania or Ivorina, in the tipper valley of the Morava. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 473.)

Eion

IION (Ancient city) KAVALA
  Eion: Eth. Eioneus. A town and fortress situated at the mouth of the Strymon, 25 stadia from Amphipolis, of which it was the harbour. (Thuc. iv. 102.) Xerxes, on his return after the defeat at Salamis, sailed from Eion to Asia. (Herod. viii. 118.) The Persian Boges was left in command of the town, which was captured, after a desperate resistance, by the Athenians and their confederates, under Cimon. (Herod. vii. 107; Thuc. i. 98; comp. Paus. viii. 8. § 2.) Brasidas attacked it by land and by boats on the river, but was repulsed by Thucydides, who had come from Thasos with his squadron in time to save it. (Thuc. iv. 107.) It was occupied by Cleon; and the remains of his army, after their defeat at Amphipolis, mustered again at Eion. (Thuc. v. 10.) Extensive ruins of thick walls, constructed of small stones and mortar, among which appear many squared blocks in the Hellenic style, have been found on the left bank of the Strymon beyond the ferry. These ruins belong to the Byzantine period, and have been attributed to a town of the Lower Empire, Komitisse, which the Italians have converted into Contessa. These remains at the ferry stand nearly, if not exactly, on the site of Eion on the Strymon. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 172.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Ismaris

ISMARIS (Lake) KOMOTINI
  Ismaris (Ismaris limne), a small lake on the south coast of Thrace, a little to the east of Maronea. (Herod. vii. 169; Steph. B. s. v. Ismaros.) On its eastern side rises Mt. Ismarus.

Ismarus

ISMAROS (Mountain) KOMOTINI
Ismarus (Ismaros), a mountain rising on the east of lake Ismaris, on the south coast of Thrace (Virg. El. vi. 30, Georg. ii. 37; Propert. ii. 13. 5. iii. 12. 25 ; Lucret. v. 31, where it is called Ismara, as in Virg. Aen. x. 351.) Homer (Od. ix. 40,198) speaks of Ismarus as a town of the Cicones, on or at the foot of the mountain. (Comp. Marc. Heracl. 28.) The name of the town also appears in the form Ismaron. (Plin. iv. 18.) The district about Ismarus produced wine which was highly esteemed. (Athen. i. p. 30; Ov. Met. ix. 641; Steph. B. s. v.)

Ismarus

ISMAROS (Ancient city) RODOPI
  A mountain rising on the east of lake Ismaris, on the south coast of Thrace (Virg. El. vi. 30, Georg. ii. 37; Propert. ii. 13. 5. iii. 12. 25 ; Lucret. v. 31, where it is called Ismara, as in Virg. Aen. x. 351.) Homer (Od. ix. 40,198) speaks of Ismarus as a town of the Cicones, on or at the foot of the mountain. (Comp. Marc. Heracl. 28.) The name of the town also appears in the form Ismaron. (Plin. iv. 18.) The district about Ismarus produced wine which was highly esteemed. (Athen. i. p. 30; Ov. Met. ix. 641; Steph. B. s. v.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Compsatus

KOMPSATOS (River) KOMOTINI
  Compsatus (Kompsatos), a river of Thrace, which flowing through Lake Bistonis emptied itself into the Aegean. (Herod. vii. 109.)

Maroneia

MARONIA (Ancient city) RODOPI
Maroneia. Eth. Maroneites. A rich and powerful city of the Cicones, in Thrace, situated on the Aegean sea, not far from the lake Ismaris. (Herod. vii. 109.) It was said to have been founded by Maron, a son of Dionysus (Eurip. Cycle. v. 100, 141), or, according to some, a companion of Osiris (Diod. Sic. i. 20); but Scymnus (675) relates that it was built by a colony from Chios in the fourth year of the fifty-ninth Olympiad (B.C. 540). Pliny (iv. 11. s. 18) tells us that the ancient name was Ortagurea. The people of Maronea venerated Dionysus in an especial manner, as we learn from their coins, probably on account of the superior character of their wine, which was celebrated as early as the days of Homer (Od. ix. 196, seqq.). This wine was universally esteemed all over the. ancient world; it was said to possess the odour of Nectar (Nonnus, i. 12, xvii. 6, xix. 11), and to be capable of mixture with twenty times its quantity of water (Hom. Od. ix. 209); and, according to Pliny, on an experiment being made by Mucianus, who doubted the truth of Homer's statement, it was found to bear even a larger proportion of water. (Plin. xiv. 4. s. 6; comp. Victa Maroneo foedatus lumina Baccho, Tibull. iv. 1. 57).
  Maroneia was taken by Philip V. of Macedon in B.C. 200 ; and when he was ordered by the Romans to evacuate the towns of Thrace, he vented his rage by slaughtering a great number of the inhabitants of the city. (Liv. xxxi. 16, xxxix. 24; Polyb. xxii. 6, 13, xxiii. 11, 13.) The Romans subsequently granted Maroneia to Attalus; but they almost immediately afterwards revoked their gift, and declared it a free city. (Polyb. xxx. 3.) By Constantine Porphyrogenitus (Them. ii. 2), Maroneia is reckoned among the towns of Macedon. The modern name is Marogna, and it has been the seat of an archbishopric.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Maximianopolis

MAXIMIANOUPOLI (Ancient city) RODOPI
(Maximianoupolis), a town of Thrace, formerly called Impara or Pyrsoalis (It. Ant. p. 331), not far from Rhodope (Amm. Marc. xxvii. 4), and the lake Bistonis (Melet. p. 439, 2; It. Hieros. p. 603; Hierocl. p. 634; Const. Porph. de Them. ii. 1; Procop. de Aed. iv. 11; Conc. Chal. p. 96.)

Mesembria

MESSIMVRIA (Ancient city) ALEXANDROUPOLI
  Dor. Mesambria: Eth. Mesembrianos. An important Greek city in Thrace, situated on the coast of the Euxine and at the foot of Mt. Haemus (Scymn. Ch. 738); consequently upon the confines of Moesia, in which it is placed by Ptolemy (iii. 10. § 8). Strabo (vii. p. 319) relates that it was a colony of the Megarians, and that it was originally called Menebria (Menebria) after its founder Menas ; Stephanus B. (s. v.) says that its original name was Melsembria (Melsembria), from its founder Melsas; and both writers state that the termination -bria was the Thracian word for town. According to the Anonymous Periplus of the Euxine Mesembria was founded by Chalcedonians at the time of the expedition of Darius against Scythia; but according to Herodotus (vi. 33) it was founded a little later, after the suppression of the Ionic revolt, by Byzantine and Chalcedonian fugitives. These statements may, however, be reconciled by supposing that the Thracian. town was originally colonized by Megarians, and afterwards received additional colonists from Byzantiurn and Chalcedon. Mesembria was one of the cities, forming the Greek Pentapolis on the Euxine, the other four being Odessus, Tomi, Istriani and Apolloniatae. Mesembria is rarely mentioned in history, but it continued to exist till a late period. (Mela, ii. 2; Plin. iv. 11. s. 18 ; Ptol. I. c.; Tab. Peut.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Neapolis

NEAPOLIS (Ancient city) KAVALA
Neapolis. Eth. Neapolites. A town of Macedonia, and the haven of Philippi, from which it was distant 10 M. P. (Strab. vii. p. 330; Ptol. iii. 13. § 9; Scymn. 685; Plin. iv. 11; Hierocl.; Procop. Aed. iv. 4; Itin. Hierosol.) It probably was the same place as DATUM (Daton), famous for its gold-mines (Herod. ix. 75), and a seaport, as Strabo (vii. p. 331) intimates: whence the proverb which celebrates Datum for its good things. (Zenob. Prov. Graec. Cent. iii. 71; Harpocrat. s. v. Datos.) Scylax does, indeed, distinguish between Neapolis and Datum; but, as he adds that the latter was an Athenian colony, which could not have been true of his original Datum, his text is, perhaps, corrupt in this place, as in so many others, and his real meaning may have been that Neapolis was a colony which the Athenians had established at Datum. Zenobius (l. c.) and Eustathius (ad Dionys. Perieg. 517) both assert that Datum was a colony of Thasos; which is highly probable, as the Thasians had several colonies on this coast. If Neapolis was a settlement of Athens, its foundation was, it may be inferred, later than that of Amphipolis. At the great struggle at Philippi the galleys of Brutus and Cassius were moored off Neapolis. (Appian, B.C. iv. 106; Dion Cass. xlvii. 35.) It was at Neapolis, now the small Turkish village of Kavallo (Leake, North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 180, comp. pp. 217, 224), that Paul (Acts, xvi. 11) landed. The shore of the mainland in this part is low, but the mountains rise to a considerable height behind. To the W. of the channel which separates it from Thasos, the coast recedes and forms a bay, within which, on a promontory with a port on each side, the town was situated. (Conybeare and Howson, Life and Epist. of St. Paul, vol. i. p. 308.) Traces of paved military roads are still found, as well as remains of a great aqueduct on two tiers of Roman arches, and Latin inscriptions. (Clarke, Trav. vol. viii. p. 49.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Nestus

NESTOS (River) GREECE
  Nestus or Nessus (Nestos, Scyl. pp. 8, 29; Scymn. 672; Pomp. Mela, ii. 2. §§ 2, 9; Plin. iv. 11, viii. 16; Nessos, Hesiod. Theog. 341; Ptol. iii. 12. § 2, iii. 13. § 7; Mestos, Zonar. ix. 28: Nesto, Turkish Karasu), the river which constituted the boundary of Thrace and Macedonia in the time of Philip and Alexander, an arrangement which the Romans continued on their conquest of the latter country. (Strab. vii. p. 331; Liv. xlv. 29.) Thucydides (ii. 96) states that it took its rise in Mt. Scomius, whence the Hebrus descended; being, in fact, that cluster of great summits between Ghiustendil and Sofia, which sends tributaries to all the great rivers of the N. of European Turkey. It discharged itself into the sea near Abdera. (Herod. vii. 109; comp. Theophrast. H. P. iii. 2; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 215.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Orthagoria

ORTHAGORIA (Ancient city) RODOPI
A town of Macedonia, of which coins are extant. Pliny (iv. 11. s. 18) says that Ortagurea was the ancient name of Maroneia; but we learn from an ancient geographer (Hudson, Geogr. Min. vol. iv. p. 42) that Orthagoria was the ancient name of Stageira, to which accordingly the coins are assigned. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 73.)

Orbelus

ORVILOS (Mountain) DRAMA
  Orbelus (Orbelos, Herod, v. 16; Strab. vii. p. 329; Diodor. xx. 19 ; Arrian, Anab. i. 1. § 5; Ptol. iii. 9. § 1,iii 11. § 1; Pomp. Mela, ii 2. § 2; Plin iv. 17), the great mountain on the frontiers of Thrace and Macedonia, which, beginning at the Strymonic plain and lake, extends towards the sources of the Strymon, where it unites with the summit called Scomius, in which the river had its origin. The amphibious inhabitants of lake Prasias procured their planks and piles, on which they constructed their dwellings, from this mountain. (Herod. l. c.) Cassander, after having assisted Audoleon, king of Paeonia, against the Illyrian Autariatae, and having conquered them, transported 20,000 men, women, and children to Mt. Orbelus. (Diodor. l. c.) The epitomiser of Strabo (l. c.), who lived not long before the commencement of the 11th century, applies this name to the ridge of Haemus and Rhodope; Gatterer (Comment. Soc. Got. vol. iv. p. 99, vol. vi. p. 33; comp. Poppo, Prolegom. in Thuc. pars i. vol. ii. p. 321), in consequence, was inclined to believe that there were two mountains of this name. Kiepert (Karte der Europ. Turkei) identifies Orbelus with Perin Dagh. The district called Orbelia (Orbelia, Ptol. iii. 13. § 25), with the town Garescus derived its name from the mountain. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 211, 463.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PAGGAIO (Mountain) KAVALA
  Pangaeum, Pangaeus (to Pangaion or Pangaion oros, ho Pangaios, Herod. v. 16, vii. 112, 113; Thuc. ii. 99; Aesch. Pers. 494; Pind. Pyth. iv. 320; Eurip. Rhes. 922, 972; Dion Cass. xlvii. 35; Appian, B.C. iv. 87, 106; Plin. iv. 18; Virg. Georg. iv. 462; Lucan i.679), the great mountain of Macedonia, which, under the modern name of Pirndri, stretching to the E. from the left bank of the Strymon at the pass of Amphipolis, bounds all the eastern portion of the great Strymonic basin on the S., and near Pravista meets the ridges which enclose the same basin on the E. Pangaeume produced gold as well as silver (Herod. vii. 112; Appian, B.C. iv. 106); and its slopes were covered in summer with the Rosa centifolia. (Plin. xxi. 10; Theoph. H. P. vi. 6; Athen. xv. p. 682.) The mines were chiefly in the hands of the Thasians; the other peoples who, according to Herodotus (l. c.), worked Pangaeum, were the Pieres and Odomanti, but particularly the Satrae, who bordered on the mountain. None of their money has reached us; but to the Pangaean silver mines may be traced a large coin of Geta, king of the Edones. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 176, 190, 212.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Pergamus

PERGAMOS (Ancient city) KAVALA
A fortress in the Pieric hollow, by which Xerxes passed in his march, leaving Mt. Pangaeum on his right. It is identified with Pravista, where the lower maritime ridge forms a junction with Pangaeum, and separates the Pieric valley from the plain of Philippi.

Plotinopolis

PLOTINOUPOLIS (Ancient city) DIDYMOTICHO
  Plotinopolis (Ptol. iii. 11. § 13). A town of Thrace, on the road from Trajanopolis to Hadrianopolis, and connected with Heraclea by a by-road. (Itin. Ant. pp. 175, 322.) According to the Itinerary, it was 21 miles distant from Hadrianopolis. It was probably founded by Trajan at the same time with Trajanopolis, and named after his consort Plotina. It was restored by Justinian. (Procop, Aed. iv. 11.) Variously identified with Dsjisr-Erkene, Bludin, and Demotica; but Pococke (iii. c. 4) thinks that the ruins near Uzun Kiupri belong to it.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Rhodope

RODOPI (Mountain chain) MAKEDONIA EAST & THRACE
  Rhodope (Rhodope, Herod. vi. 49; Thuc. ii. 96; Polyb. xxxiv. 19; Strab. iv. p. 208, vii. pp. 313, 329, 331; Mela, ii. 2. § 2; Plin. iii. 29, iv. 5. s. 17; Amm. Marc. xxi. 10. § 3; Malchus, ap. Exc. de Leg. Rom. p. 90), a mountain chain forming the W. continuation of Haemus, and the frontier between Thrace and Macedonia, of which little more is known than the name. On its desolate heights, the lurking places of the fierce Satrae, was the great sanctuary and oracle of the Thracian Dionysus. As the Strymon took its sources in Rhodope (Strab. viii. p. 331) the high ridges round Dupnitza and Ghiustendil must be assigned to Rhodope, which may roughly be said to belong to the central of the three continuous chains, which under the name of the Despoto Dagh branches out to the S. of the Balkan (Haemus) at about 23° E. long.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Sale

SALI (Ancient city) EVROS
Sale a town on the S. coast of Thrace, near the W. mouth of the Hebrus, and nearly equidistant from Zone and Doriscus. It is mentioned by Herodotus (vii. 59) as a Samothracian colony.

Scapte Hyle

SKAPTI YLI (Ancient city) KAVALA
Scapte Hyle (Skapte hule, Plut. Cim. 4, de Exilio, p. 605; Marcellin. Vit. Thucyd. § 19), or the foss wood, situated on the confines of Macedonia and Thrace, in the auriferous district of Mt. Pangaeum, to which Thucydides was exiled, and where he composed his great legacy for all ages - the history of the war in which he had served as general.

Stryme

STRYMI (Ancient city) MOLYVOTI
Strume. A town on the S. coast of Thrace, a little to the W. of Mesembria, between which and Stryme flowed the small river Lissus, which the army of Xerxes is said to have drunk dry. (Herod. vii. 108.) Stryme was a colony of Thasos; but disputes seem to have arisen respecting it between the Thasii and the people of the neighbouring city of Maroneia. (Philip. ap. Demos. p. 163, R.)

Tempyra

TEMPYRA (Ancient city) SAMOTHRAKI PERAIA
Tempyra. Tympira, Timpirum (Ad Unimpaira). A town in the S. of Thrace, on the Egnatian Way, between Trajanopolis and Maxiniamopolis. It was situated in a defile, which rendered it a convenient spot for the operations of the predatory tribes in its neighbourhood. Here the Thrausi attacked the Roman army under Cn. Manlius, on its return, loaded with booty, through Thrace from Asia Minor (B.C. 188); but the want of shelter exposed their movements to the Romans, who were thus enabled to defeat them. (Liv, xxxviii. 41.) The defile in question is probably the same as the Korpilon stena mentioned by Appian (B.C. iv. 102), and through which, he states, Brutus and Cassius marched on their way to Philippi (Tafel, de Viae Egnatiae Parte orient. p. 34). Paul Lucas (Trois Vog. pp. 25, 27) regards it as corresponding to the modern Gurschine.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Thasos

THASSOS (Island) MAKEDONIA EAST & THRACE

Topiris

TOPIROS (Ancient city) XANTHI
  Toperis, (or Topirus Topeiros). A town in the SW. of Thrace, a little NE. from the mouth of the Nestus, and a short distance W. of Abdera. In the time of Procopius (B. G. iii. 38) it was the first of the maritime cities of Thrace, and is described as distant 12 days' journey from Byzantium. Very little is known about this place. In later times it was called Rhusion (Rhousion, Hierocl. l. c.; cf. Aposposm. Geo. in Hudson. iv. p. 42; and Anna Comn. p. 212), and was the seat of a bishopric. (Cone. Chalced.) Justinian rebuilt its walls, which had been demolished, and made them stronger than before. (Procop. de Aed. iv. 11.) According to Paul Lucas and Boudoue, the modern Tosbur occupies its site; but Lapie identifies it with Kara-Giuenzi.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


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