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Listed 42 sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "GYTHIO Province LACONIA" .


Information about the place (42)

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KARVELAS (Village) GYTHIO

KRANAI (Island) GYTHIO

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Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

ASSINI (Ancient city) GYTHIO

Asine

  Eth. Asinaios, Asineus. An Asine in Laconia is mentioned by Strabo (viii. p. 363) as situated between Amathus (a false reading for Psamathus) and Gythium; and Stephanus B. (s. v.) speaks of a Laconian as well as of a Messenian Asine. Polybius (v. 19) likewise relates that Philip, in his invasion of Laconia, suffered a repulse before Asine, which appears from his narrative to have been near Gythium. But notwithstanding these authorities, it may be questioned whether there was a town of the name of Asine in Laconia. Pausanias, in describing the same event as Polybius, says that Philip was repulsed before Las, which originally stood on the summit of Mt. Asia. (Paus. iii. 24. § 6.) There can therefore be no doubt that the Las of Pausanias and the Asine of Polybius are the same place; and the resemblance between the names Asia and Asine probably led Polybius into the error of calling Las by the latter name; an error which was the more likely to arise, because Herodotus and Thucydides speak of the Messenian Asine as a town in Laconia, since Messenia formed a part of Laconia at the time when they wrote. The error of Polybius was perpetuated by Strabo and Stephanus, and has found its way into most modern works.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGIES (Ancient city) GYTHIO

Aegiae

  Aegaeae (Aighiai, Paus. iii. 21. § 5; Haigaial, Strab. p. 364: Limni). A town of Laconia, at the distance of 30 stadia from Gythium, supposed to be the same as the Homeric Augeiae. (Angelhai, Il. ii. 583; comp. Steph. B. s. v.) It possessed a temple and lake of Neptune. Its site is placed by the French Commission at Limni, so called from an extensive marsh in the valley of the eastern branch of the river of Passava.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGILA (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Aegila


GYTHION (Ancient city) LACONIA

Gythium

  Guthion, Gythium, Gutheion, Gytheum, Eth. Gutheates. An ancient Achaean town in Laconia, situated near the head of the Laconian gulf, south-west of the mouth of the Eurotas, at the distance of 240 stadia from Sparta according to Strabo, and 30 Roman miles according to the Table. This distance agrees with the 43 kilometres which the French commission found to be the distance by the road from the ruins of Gythium to the theatre of Sparta. In Polybius Gythium is said to be 30 stadia from Sparta; but this number is evidently corrupt. and for peri triakonta we ought to read with Muller peri triakosia. (Polyb. v. 19.) Gythium stood upon the small stream Gythius (Mela, ii. 3), in a fertile and well-cultivated plain. (Polyb. v. 19.) Its cheeses are celebrated in one of Lucian's dialogues. (Dial. Meretsr. 14.) After the Dorian conquest it became the chief maritime town in Laconia, and was therefore regarded as the port of Sparta. It was also the ordinary station of their ships of war. Accordingly, when war broke out between Athens and Sparta, Gythium was one of the first places which the Athenians attacked with their superior fleet; and in B.C. 455 it was burnt by Tolmidas, the Athenian commander. (Thuc. i. 102; Diod. xi. 84.) On the invasion of Laconia by Epaminondas in B.C. 370, after the battle of Leuctra, he advanced as far south as Gythium, but was unable to take it, though he laid siege to it for three days. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 32) Even then it must have been well fortified, but its fortifications appear to have been still further increased by the tyrant Nabis; and when it was taken by the Romans in 195 it is described by Livy as valida urbs, et multitudine civium incolarumque et omni bellico apparatu instructa (xxxiv. 29). Augustus made it one of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns; and under the Roman empire it again became a place of importance, as is shown by its ruins, which belong almost exclusively to the Roman period. Its port, according to the information received by Strabo, was artificial (echei d, hos phasi, to naustathmon orukton, Strab. viii).
  Pausanias saw in the market-place of Gythium statues of Apollo and Hercules, who were reputed to be the founders of the city; near them a statue of Dionysus; and on the other side of the market-place a statue of Apollo Carneius, a temple of Ammon, a brazen statue of Asclepius, the temple of which had no roof, a fountain sacred to this god, a sanctuary of Demeter, and a statue of Poseidon Gaeaochus. A fountain still flowing between the shore and the Acropolis seems to have been the above-mentioned fountain of Asclepius, and thus indicates the site of the Agora. On the Acropolis was a temple of Athena; and the gates of Castor mentioned by Pausanias appear to have led from the lower city to the citadel. (Paus. iii. 21. § § 8, 9.) Opposite Gythium was the island Crania, whither Paris was said to have carried off Helen from Sparta.
  The coast on the mainland south of Gythium was said to have derived its name of Migonium (Milonion from the union of Paris and Helen on the opposite island. On this coast was a temple of Aphrodite Migonitis. and above it a mountain sacred to Dionysus called Larysium (Larusion), where a festival was celebrated to this god in the beginning of spring. (Paus. iii. 22. § 1.) Pausanias further describes, at the distance of three stadia from Gythium, a stone on which Orestes is said to have been relieved from his madness. This stone was called Zeus (according to Sylburg, leus) kappotas, i. e. katapautes, the Reliever. The town Marathonisi, which was built at the beginning of the present century, and is the chief port of the district Mani, occupies the site of Migonium; and the hill above it, called Kumaro, is the ancient Larysium. The remains of Gythium, called Paleopoli, are situated a little north of Marathonisi. They lie upon the slope of some small hills, and in the plain between them and the sea. These remains, which are considerable, belong chiefly to the Roman period, as has been already stated. Near the edge of the shore are the remains of two large buildings, probably Roman baths, consisting of several small rooms and divisions. The foundations of buildings may also be seen under water. Ninety yards inland from the shore, on the slope of the larger hill, are the remains of the theatre, built of white marble. Some of the marble seats still remain in their places, but most of them have disappeared, as the space enclosed by the theatre has been converted into a vineyard. The diameter appears to have been about 150 feet. From 50 to 100 feet from the theatre, in a slight hollow between the hills, are the ruins of a Roman building of considerable size. The Acropolis was on the top of the hill above the theatre, but of its walls there are only a few fragments. All round the town, and especially on the hills, are twenty or thirty ruins of small buildings of tiles and mortar, in the Roman style, containing niches in the walls. These were Roman sepulchres: one of them was excavated by Ross, who found there some sepulchral lamps.
  On the left of the road from Paleodpoli to Marathonisi is an inscription on the rock, which has not yet been deciphered; and close to it, hewn in the rock, is a chair with a foot-step, which appears to be the spot where Orestes was said to have been relieved from his madness. Most of the inscriptions found at Palepoli are of the Roman period.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KRANAI (Island) GYTHIO

Cranae

  Cranae (Kranae), an island in the Laconian gulf, opposite Gytheium, whither Paris carried off Helen from Sparta. This little island, now called Marathonisi, is described by a modern traveller as low and flat, and at the distance of only 100 yards from the shore. The ruined foundation of a temple supports at present a Greek chapel. (Hom. Il. iii. 442; Paus. iii. 22. § 1; Walpole's Memoirs, vol. i. p. 58.)


LAS (Ancient city) GYTHIO

Las

  La, Eth. Laos. One of the most ancient towns of Laconia, situated upon the western coast of the Laconian gulf. It is the only town on the coast mentioned by Scylax between Taenarus and Gythium. Scylax speaks of its port; but, according to Pausanias, the town itself was distant 10 stadia from the sea, and 40 stadia from Gythium. (Paus. iii. 24. § 6.) In the time of Pausanias the town lay in a hollow between the three mountains, Asia, Ilium, and Cnacadium; but the old town stood on the summit of Mt. Asia. The name of Las signified the rock on which it originally stood. It is mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 585), and is said to have been destroyed by the Dioscuri, who hence derived the surname of Lapersae. (Strab. viii.; Steph. B. s. v. La.) There was also a mountain in Laconia called Lapersa. (Steph. B. s. v. Lapersa.) In the later period it was a place of no importance. Livy speaks of it as vicus maritimus (xxxviii. 30), and Pausanias mentions the ruins of the city on Mt. Asia. Before the walls he saw a statue of Hercules, and a trophy erected over the Macedonians who were a part of Philip's army when he invaded Laconia; and among the ruins he noticed a statue of Athena Asia. The modern town was near a fountain called Galaco (Talako), from the milky colour of its water, and near it was a gymnasium, in which stood an ancient statue of Hermes. Besides the ruins of the old town on Mt. Asia, there were also buildings on the two other mountains mentioned above: on Mt. Ilium stood a temple of Dionysus, and on the summit a temple of Asclepius; and on Mt. Cnacadium a temple of Apollo Carneius.
  Las is spoken of by Polybius (v. 19) and Strabo under the name of Asine; and hence it has been supposed that some of the fugitives from Asine in Argolis may have settled at Las, and given their name to the town. But, notwithstanding the statement of Polybius, from whom Strabo probably copied, we have given reasons elsewhere for believing that there was no Laconian town called Asine; and that the mistake probably arose from confounding Asine with Asia, on which Las originally stood.
  Las stood upon the hill of Passava, which is now crowned by the ruins of a fortress of the middle ages, among which, however, Leake noticed, at the southern end of the eastern wall, a piece of Hellenic wall, about 50 paces in length, and two-thirds of the height of the modern wall. It is formed of polygonal blocks of stone, some four feet long and three broad. The fountain Galaco is the stream Turkovrysa, which rises between the hill of Passava and the village of Karvela, the latter being one mile and a half west of Passava.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PYRRICHOS (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Pyrrhichos

  Purrhichos. A town of Laconia, situated about the centre of the promontory ending in Cape Taenarum, and distant 40 stadia from the river Scyras. According to some it derived its name from Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, according to others from Pyrrhicus, one of the Curetes. Silenus was also said to have been brought up here. It contained temples of Artemis Astrateia and of Apollo Amazonius,--the two surnames referring to the tradition that the Amazons did not proceed further than this place. There was also a well in the agora. The ruins of this town have been discovered by the French Commission near the village of Kavalo, where they found the well of which Pausanias speaks, the torso of a female statue, the remains of baths, and several Roman ruins. Leake observes that the distance of 40 stadia from the Scyras to Pyrrhichus must be measured, not from the mouth of that river, as Boblaye proposes, but from near its sources. Augustus made Pyrrhichus one of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Taenarum

  Taenarum (Tainaron, Herod. Strab. et alii; he Tainaria akra, Ptol. iii. 16. § 9), a promontory at the extremity of Laconia, and the most southerly point of Europe, now called C. Matapan. The name of Taenarum, however, was not confined to the extreme point bearing the name of Matapan. It has been shown by Leake that it was the name given to the peninsula of circular form about seven miles in circumference, which is connected with the end of the great Taygetic promontory by an isthmus about half a mile wide in a direct distance. Hence Taenarum is correctly described by Strabo as an akte ekkeimene (viii. p. 363). Leake conjectures with great probability that Matapan is merely another form of Metopon, which may bave been the name given by the ancients to the southern extremity of the peninsula. (Morea, vol. i. p. 301.) On either side of the isthmus, which connects the promontory of Taenarum with that of Taygetus, is a bay, of which the one on the east is called Porto Quaglio, corrupted into Kaio, and the one on the west Marinari or Marmari. The name of Quaglio was given to the eastern bay by the Venetians, because it was the last place in Europe at which the quails rested in the autumn before crossing over to Crete and Cyrene. Porto Quaglio is one of the best harbours in Laconia, being sheltered from the S. and SE.; it is nearly circular, with a narrow entrance, a fine sandy bottom, and depth of water for large ships. Porto Marmari is described as only a dangerous creek. In the Taenarian peninsula there are also two ports on its eastern side, of which the northern, called Vathy, is a long narrow inlet of the sea, while the southern, called Asomato or Kisternes, is very small and ill sheltered. A quarter of a mile southward of the inner extremity of the last-mentioned port, a low point of rock projects into the sea from the foot of the mountain, which, according to the inhabitants of the peninsula, is the real C. Matapan. The western side of the peninsula is rocky and harbourless.
  The whole of the Taenarian peninsula was sacred to Poseidon, who appears to have succeeded to the place of Helios, the more ancient god of the locality. (Hom Hymn. in Apoll. 411.) At the extremity of this peninsula was the temple of Poseidon, with an asylum, which enjoyed great celebrity down to a late period. It seems to have been an ancient Achaean sanctuary before the Dorian conquest, and to have continued to be the chief sacred place of the Perioeci and Helots. The great earthquake, which reduced Sparta to a heap of ruins in B.C. 464, was supposed to have been owing to the Lacedaemonians having torn away some suppliant Helots from this sanctuary. (Thuc. i. 128, 133; Paus. iii. 25. § 4; Strab. viii. p. 363; Eurip. Cycl. 292.) Near the sanctuary was a cavern, through which Hercules is said to have dragged Cerberus to the upper regions. (Paus. Strab. ll. cc.; Pind. Pyth. iv. 77; Taenariae fauces, Virg. Georg. iv. 467; Taenarus aperta umbris, Lucan ix.36.) There is a slight difference between Strabo and Pausanias in the position of the cave; the former placing it near the temple, which agrees with present appearances (see below); the latter describing the cave itself as the temple, before which stood a statue of Poseidon. Among the many dedicatory offerings to Poseidon the most celebrated was the brazen statue of Arion seated on a dolphin, which was still extant in the time of Pausanias. (Herod. i. 23, 24.) The temple was plundered for the first time by the Aetolians. (Polyb. ix. 34.)
  Taenarum is said to have taken its name from Taenarus, a son either of Zeus or Icarius or Elatus. (Paus. iii. 14. § 2; Steph. B. s. v.; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. i. 102.) Bochart derives the word from the Phoenician tinar rupes (Geograph. Sacra, p. 459); and it is not improbable that the Phoenicians may have had a settlement on the promontory at an early period.
  Pausanias (iii. 25. § 4) mentions two harbours in connection with the Taenarian promontory, called respectively Psamathus (Psamathous), and the Harbour of Achilles (ho limen Achilleios). Scylax also mentions these two harbours, and describes them as situated back to back (antipulos). Strabo (viii. p. 373) speaks of the former of these two harbours under the name of Amathus (Amathous), but omits to mention the Harbour of Achilles. It would appear that these two harbours are the Porto Quaglio and the port of Vathy mentioned above, as these are the two most important in the peninsula. Leake identifies Psamathus with Quaglio, and the Harbour of Achilles with Vathy, but the French Commission reverse these positions. We have, however, no doubt that Leake is correct; for the ancient remains above the Porto Quaglio, the monastery on the heights, and the cultivated slopes and levels, show that the Taenarian population has in all ages been chiefly collected here. Moreover, no ancient writers speak of a town in connection with the Harbour of Achilles, while Strabo and others describe Amathus or Psamathus as a polis. (Steph. B. s. v. Psamathous; cf. Aeschin. Ep. 1; Plin. iv. 5. s. 8.) If we were to take the description of Scylax literally, Psamathus would be Porto Quaglio, and the Harbour of Achilles Porto Marmari; and accordingly, they are so identified by Curtius; but it is impossible to believe that the dangerous creek of Marmari is one of the two harbours so specifically mentioned both by Scylax and Pausanias.
  The remains of the celebrated temple of Poseidon still exist at Asomato, or Kisternes, close to C. Matapan on the eastern side. They now form part of a ruined church; and the ancient Hellenic wall may be traced on one side of the church. Leake observes that the church, instead of facing to the east, as Greek churches usually do, faces southeastward, towards the head of the port, which is likely to have been the aspect of the temple. No remains of columns have been found. A few paces north-east of the church is a large grotto in the rock, which appears to be the cave through which Hercules was supposed to have dragged Cerberus; but there is no appearance of any subterranean descent, as had been already remarked by Pausanias. In the neighbourhood there are several ancient cisterns and other remains of antiquity.
  There were celebrated marble quarries in the Taenarian peninsula. (Strab. viii. p. 367.) Pliny describes the Taenarian marble as black (xxxvi. 18. s. 29, 22. s. 43); but Sextus Empiricus (Pyrrh. Hypot. i. 130) speaks of a species that was white when broken to pieces, though it appeared yellow in the mass. Leake inquired in vain for these quarries.
  At the distance of 40 stadia, or 5 English miles, north of the isthmus of the Taenarian peninsula, was the town Taenabum or Taenaus, subsequently called Caenepolis (Kainepolis, Paus. iii. 25. § 9; Kaine, Ptol. iii. 16. § 9; Plin. iv. 15. s. 16; Steph. B. s. v. Tainaros; the same town is probably mentioned by Strab. viii. p. 360, under the corrupt form Kinaidion.) It contained a temple of Demeter and another of Aphrodite, the latter near the sea. The modern village of Kyparisso stands on the site of this town. Some ancient remains and inscriptions of the time of the Antonines and their successors have been found here. On the door-posts of a small ruined church are two inscribed quadrangular stelai, decorated with mouldings above and below. One of the inscriptions is a decree of the Taenarii, and the other is by the community of the Eleuthero-Lacones (to koinon ton Eleutherolakonon). We have the testimony of Pausanias (iii. 21. § 7) that Caenepolis was one of the Eleuthero-Laconian cities; and it would appear from the above-mentioned inscription that the maritime Laconians, when they were delivered from the Spartan yoke, formed a confederation and founded as their capital a city in the neighbourhood of the revered sanctuary of Poseidon. The place was called the New Town (Caenepolis); but, as we learn from the inscriptions, it continued to be also called by its ancient name. For the inscriptions relating to Taenarum, see Bockh, Inscr. no. 1315-1317, 1321, 1322, 1389, 1393, 1483. (On the topography of the Taenarian peninsula, see Leake, Morea, vol. i. p 290, seq., Peloponnesiaca, p. 175, seq.; Boblaye, Recherches, &c., p. 89, seq.; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 277, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TEFTHRONI (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Teuthrone

  A town of Laconia, situated upon the western side of the Laconian gulf, 150 stadia from Cape Taenarum. It was said to have been founded by the Athenian Teuthras. The chief deity worshipped here was Artemis Issoria. It had a fountain called Naia. Its ruins exist at the village of Kotrones, and its citadel occupied a small peninsula, called Skopos, Skopia or Skopopolis. The distance assigned by Pausanias of 150 stadia from Teuthrone to Cape Taenarum is, according cording to the French Commission, only from 8 to 10 stadia ill excess. Augustus made Teuthrone one of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TRINASSOS (Ancient city) GYTHIO

Trinasus

  Trinasos, Trinassos. A town or rather fortress of Laconia, situated upon a promontory near the head of the Laconian gulf, and 30 stadia above Gythium. It is opposite to three small rocks, which gave their name to the place. The modern village is for the same reason still called Trinisa (Ta Trinesa). There are considerable remains of the ancient walls. The place was built in a semi-circular form, and was not more than 400 or 500 yards in circuit.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

EGILA (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Aegila

   A town in Laconia, where Demeter had a temple. Aristomenes, the Messenian leader, endeavoured on one occasion to seize a party of Laconian women who were celebrating here the rites of the goddess. The attempt failed, through the courageous resistance of the women, and Aristomenes himself was taken prisoner. He was released, however, the same night, by Archidamea, the priestess of Demeter, who had before this cherished an affection for him.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


GYTHION (Ancient city) LACONIA

Gythium

An ancient seaport town of Laconia, situated near the head of the Laconian Gulf, southwest of the mouth of the river Eurotas. In the Second Persian War, the Spartan fleet was stationed here, and here the Athenians under Tolmides burned the Spartan arsenal in B.C. 455.


KRANAI (Island) GYTHIO

Cranae

Kranae. The island to which Paris first carried Helen from Peloponnesus. Its locality is uncertain, but some identify it with Cythera.


LAS (Ancient city) GYTHIO

Las

An ancient town of Laconia, on the east side of the Laconian Gulf, ten stadia from the sea, and south of Gytheum ( Thuc.viii. 91).


Taenarum, Tainaron

   Now Cape Matapan; a promontory in Laconia, forming the southerly point of the Peloponnesus, on which stood a celebrated temple of Poseidon, possessing an inviolable asylum. A little to the north of the temple and the harbour of Achilleus was a town also called Taenarum or Taenarus, and at a later time Caenepolis. On the promontory was a cave, through which Heracles is said to have dragged Cerberus to the upper world. Here also was a statue of Arion seated on a dolphin, since he is said to have landed at this spot after his miraculous preservation by a dolphin. In the time of the Romans there were celebrated marble quarries on the promontory.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Oracle of the dead (Psychomanteio)

At oracles of the dead (psuchomanteia) the souls of deceased persons were evoked in order to give the information desired. Thus, in Homer ( Od.xi), Odysseus betakes himself to the entrance of the lower world to question the spirit of the seer Tiresias. Oracles of this kind were especially common in places where it was supposed there was an entrance to the lower world; as at the city of Cichyrus in Epirus (where there was an Acherusian lake as well as the rivers of Acheron and Cocytus, bearing the same names as those of the world below), at the promontory of Taenarum in Laconia, at Heraclea in Pontus, and at Lake Avernus, near Cumae, in Italy. At most of them oracles were also given in dreams; but there were some in which the inquirer was in a waking condition when he conjured up the spirits whom he wished to question.

This extract is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Apr 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Local government Web-Sites

GYTHIO (Municipality) LACONIA

Municipality of Gythio


Non-profit organizations WebPages

AGERANOS (Settlement) GYTHIO

One of the most beautifull beaches of Laconia , Located only 15 miles South of Gyhtio.



Kokala with its beautiful bays. Is is build ampitheatrically round a small bay , the anchorage of fishing-boats. To its south side there is a lovely bay of blue-green waters.


KRANAI (Island) GYTHIO

Paris stayed here with the Beautiful Helen. The Phonenicians set up a work shop for the elaboration of porphyra. Janetakis Tower, the tower of the famous family of the Gregorakedes, is in the middle of the islet ( It houses the Historical and Ethnological museum of Mani). The islet in 1898 was linked with the mainland by a platform.

This text is cited Apr 2003 from the Laconian Professionals URL below, which contains image.


One of the most traditional villages in Mani.



Perseus Project

EGIES (Ancient city) GYTHIO

PYRRICHOS (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Tainaron, Taenarum


A promontory and town in Laconia; on the promontory (now Cape Matapan) was a temple of Neptune, and near it a cavern, the fabled entrance to the infernal regions; it was also famous for its black marble


TEFTHRONI (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Perseus Project index

GYTHION (Ancient city) LACONIA

Present location

ACHILLION (Ancient port) ANATOLIKI MANI

Porto Marinari


EGIES (Ancient city) GYTHIO

Paleochora tis Limnis

There are ruins of the ancient Aegiae at the place Paleochora tis Limnis.


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

GYTHION (Ancient city) LACONIA

Gythion

  Town and port at the back of the Gulf of Lakonia. It is to the W of the mouth of the Eurotas and some 45 km from Sparta (Strab. 8.5.2; Paus. 3.21.6). Legend says it was founded jointly by Herakles and Apollo, reconciled after their quarrel over the Delphic tripod. It is on the small island of Kranai, ca. 100 m from the shore and to the S of the ancient city, that Paris is supposed to have first united with Helen (Il. 3.445). And in fact, it is there that the most ancient archaeological remains have been found (Mycenaean sherds, obsidian laminae). Nothing is known of the town in the archaic period. Protogeometric vases, doubtless from a necropolis, have been found on the Mavrovouni mound 3 km to the SW. A text of a religious prohibition was cut into the rock in the 6th c. (IG v.1, 1155). Gythion must have been used by Sparta from a rather early time as both a port and arsenal. It is mentioned as such in all the conflicts in which Sparta was involved. It was ravaged in 456-455 by the Athenian admiral Tolmides (Thuc. 1108.5; Diod. 11.84; Paus. 1.27.5), closely watched by Alkibiades in 408 (Xen. Hell. 1.4.11), and having been taken in 369 by the Thebans of Epaminondas (ibid. 6.5.32) after a three day siege, it was recaptured by the Spartans shortly before 362 (Polyaen. 2.9). In 218, Philip V of Macedon devastated the surrounding countryside but did not attack the city itself (Polyb. 5.19.6). In 195, Nabis concentrated his fleet there and made the town a point of strategic support. But attacked by Flamininus, the garrison surrendered in exchange for permission to withdraw to Sparta (Livy 34.29). In the treaty concluded shortly afterwards the city was given autonomy, and the title of savior was consequently conferred on Flamininus (IG v.1, 1165), Nabis attacked the city again in 193, and took it in 192. After his death it appears to have been under Achaian control until 146 B.C. Then it was a member of the Eleutheriolakonian League. In 72-71 M. Antonius Creticus taxed it heavily for his campaign against the pirates (IG v.1, 1146). Under the Empire it instituted a festival in which divine honors were rendered to Augustus, Livia, Flamininus, and Tiberius, despite the fact that the latter at first refused them. Gytheion struck bronze coinage under Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and Geta, and appears to have been prosperous up to the 4th c. A.D.
  The only excavations--and these have been only very summarily published--have been of the theater and its surroundings, where a Kaisareion must have been located. The tiers of the theater are well preserved. The modern town has covered the ancient one, and certain monuments visible in the 19th c. are no longer so today, as, for example, the great niche cut into the rock and bearing an inscription mentioning Zeus Terastios (IG v.1, 1154). A few remains of Roman buildings are to be seen on the hill to the N of the theater. Walls can be made out under the sea at the point where the shore turns to the NE. A small museum has been installed in the local college, but several important pieces disappeared shortly before 1939, and others have been taken to the museum at Sparta.

C. Le Roy, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


LAS (Ancient city) GYTHIO

Las

  Town mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships (Il. 2.585). Legend gives it an eponymous founder (Paus. 3.24.10) and adds that it was captured by the Dioskouroi (Strab. 8.5.4) and that the Heraklidai used its port after their victory. The importance of this port in historic times is illustrated by the fact that the Spartan fleet called there in 411 (Thuc. 8.91-92) and that the Lakedaimonians attacked it in 189 (Livy 3 8.30-31) in order to obtain access to the sea. Under the Empire, it was sufficiently prosperous to coin money under Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and Geta.
  The site of the Homeric city was supposed to be Mount Asia, which is identified with the hill of Passava, on which is built a Frankish castle with large blocks of ancient masonry visible in its walls. But one cannot be sure, given the absence of any Mycenaean sherds. On the other hand, numerous chance finds from the Hellenistic and Roman periods have been made on the plain. The port may have been situated either at Vathi, on the coast, or a little to the S at Ayeranos, which can be identified as the site of the Arainos mentioned by Pausanias together with Las.

C. Leroy, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


PYRRICHOS (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Pyrrhichos

  Town situated in the center of the Mama on the only road crossing the peninsula to the S of Gytheion. The city was a member of the Eleutherolakonian League (Paus. 3.21.7 and 25.1). The site has been identified with the modern village of Kavalos (now renamed Pyrrhichos), in the environs of which is a place called Pourko whose name could be seen as derived from the ancient name. The area has not been excavated, and except for a few lintels and reused architectural fragments, nothing is today visible. Some chance finds (inscriptions, coins, etc.) have vanished or have been taken to the museum at Gytheion.

C. Le Roy, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Tainaron

  A promontory at the S tip of the center peninsula. The isthmus connecting with the mainland is flanked by two harbors, Psamathos (Amathous) on the E and Achilleus on the W. Pausanias saw there a temple resembling a cave with an image of Poseidon, and Plutarch mentions an oracle of the dead. The remains of the sanctuary, which served as a refuge for criminals, are near the Church of the Asomaton, which employed some of the blocks. The temple was partly cut from the rock and partly built with rough stones. A door on the N side opened into a passage that bisected the building, leaving large rooms on the E and W. Herakles was supposed to have dragged Kerberos from Hades through a cave nearby. On the W side of the peninsula at Kyparissos there was a settlement in the Roman Imperial period, nicknamed Caenopolis (New Town) but in official inscriptions called “the town of the Tainarians.” There are ancient remains in the vicinity which may indicate the sites of the Temple of Aphrodite and Megaron of Demeter mentioned by Pausanias.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


TEFTHRONI (Ancient city) ANATOLIKI MANI

Teuthrone

  Town and port at the back of the Bay of Kolokythia in the Gulf of Lakonia, close to the modern village of Kotronas. The oldest settlement is on Cape Skopa, a former islet now attached to the coast. The site was occupied from the end of the Neolithic to the Middle Helladic period. No Mycenaean or Geometric remains have been found, but given the lack of any systematic excavation, no conclusions can be drawn from this. The agglomeration then spread onto the mainland. There is an archaic remnant, a baetyl decorated with a ram's head and dating probably from the end of the 7th c., but the majority of the chance finds or visible remains date from the Hellenistic-Roman period. Under the Empire, Teuthrone was one of the cities of the Eleutherolakonian League (Paus. 3.21.7 and 25.4). An inscription testifies to the presence of a gymnasium. A paved room near Cape Skopa suggests a bathing establishment. Inscriptions, reliefs, architectural fragments, and remains of mosaics have also been found. The houses of Kotronas and of the neighboring village of Phlomochori contain much reused marble from the site.

C. Le Roy, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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