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Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Phlious

FLIOUS (Ancient city) NEMEA
  Eth. Phliasios, the territory Phliasia. An independent city in the north-eastern part of Peloponnesus, whose territory was bounded on the N. by Sicyonia, on the W. by Arcadia, on the E. by Cleonae, and on the S. by Argolis. This territory is a small valley about 900 feet above the level of the sea, surrounded by mountains, from which streams flow down on every side, joining the river Asopus in the middle of the plain. The mountain in the southern part of the plain, from which the principal source of the Asopus springs, was called Carneates (Karneates) in antiquity, now Polyfengo. (Strab. viii. p. 382.) The territory of Phlius was celebrated in antiquity for its wine. (Athen. i. p. 27, d.) According to Strabo (viii. p. 382), the ancient capital of the country was Araethyrea (Araithurea) on Mt. Celosse, which city is mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 571); but the inhabitants subsequently deserted it and built Phlius at the distance of 30 stadia. Pausanias (ii. 12. § § 4, 5), however, does not speak of any migration, but says that the ancient capital was named Arantia (Arantia), from its founder Aras, an autochthon, that it was afterwards called Araethyrea from a daughter of Aras, and that it finally received the name of Phlius, from Phlias, a son of Ceisus and grandson of Temenus. The name of Arantia was retained in the time of Pausanias in the hill Arantinus, on which the city stood. Hence the statement of grammarians that both Arantia and Araethyrea were ancient names of Phlius. (Steph. B. s. vv. Phlious, Arantia; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. i. 115.) According to Stephanus B. (s. v. Phlious) Phlius derived its name from Dionysus and Chthonophyle. Phlius was subsequently conquered by Dorians under Rhegnidas, who came from Sicyon. Some of the inhabitants migrated to Samos, others to Clazomenae; among the settlers at Samos was Hippasus, from whom Pythagoras derived his descent. (Paus. ii. 13. § 1, seq.) Like most of the other Doric states, Phlius was governed by an aristocracy, though it was for a time subject to a tyrant Leon, a contemporary of Pythagoras. (Diog. Laert. i. 12, viii. 8; Cic. Tusc. v. 3) Phlius sent 200 soldiers to Thermopylae (Herod. vii. 202), and 1000 to Plataea (ix. 28). Daring the whole of the Peloponnesian War it remained faithful to Sparta and hostile to Argos. (Thuc. v. 57, seq., vi. 105.) But before B.C. 393 a change seems to have taken place in the government, for in that year we find some of the citizens in exile who professed to be the friends of the Lacedaemonians. The Phliasians, however, still continued faithful to Sparta) and received a severe defeat from Iphicrates in the year already mentioned. So much were they weakened by this blow that they were obliged to admit a Lacedaemonian garrison within their walls, which they had been unwilling to do before, lest their allies should restore the exiles. But the Lacedaemonians did not betray the confidence placed in them, and quitted the city without making any change in the government. (Xen. Hell. iv. 4. 15, seq.) Ten years afterwards (B.C. 383) the exiles induced the Spartan government to espouse their cause; and with the fate of Mantineia before their eyes, the Phliasians thought it more prudent to comply with the request of the Spartans, and received the exiles. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 8, seq.) But disputes arising between returned exiles and those who were in possession of the government, the former again appealed to Sparta, and Agesilaus was sent with an army in B.C. 380 to reduce the city. At this period Phlius contained 5000 citizens. Agesilaus laid siege to the city, which held out for a year and eight months. It was at length obliged to surrender through failure of provisions in B.C. 379; and Agesilaus appointed a council of 100 members (half from the exiles and half from the besieged), with powers of life and death over the citizens, and authorised to frame a new constitution. (Xen. Hell. v. 3. 10, seq.; Plut. Ages. 24; Diod. xv. 20.) From this time the Phliasians remained faithful to Sparta throughout the whole of the Theban War, though they had to suffer much from the devastation of their territory by their hostile neighbours. The Argives occupied and fortified Tricaranum above Phlius, and the Sicyonians Thyamia on the Sicyonian frontier. (Xen. Hell. vii. 2. 1) In B.C. 368 the city was nearly taken by the exiles, who no doubt belonged to the democratical party, and had been driven into exile after the capture of the city by Agesilaus. In this year a body of Arcadians and Eleians, who were marching through Nemea to join Epaminondas at the Isthmus, were persuaded by the Phliasian exiles to assist them in capturing the city. During the night the exiles stole to the foot of the Acropolis; and in the morning when the scouts stationed by the citizens on the hill Tricaranum announced that the enemy were in sight, the exiles seized the opportunity to scale the Acropolis, of which they obtained possession. They were, however, repulsed in their attempt to force their way into the town, and were eventually obliged to abandon the citadel also. The Arcadians and Argives were at the same time repulsed from the walls. (Xen. Hell. vii. 2. 5--9) In the following year Phlius was exposed to a still more formidable attack from the Theban commander at Sicyon, assisted by Euphron, tyrant of that city. The main body of the army descended from Tricaranum to the Heraeum which stood at the foot of the mountain, in order to ravage the Phliasian plain. At the same time a detachment of Sicyonians and Pellenians were posted NE. of the Acropolis before the Corinthian gate. to hinder the Phliasians from attacking them in their rear. But the main body of the troops was repulsed; and being unable to join the detachment of Sicyonians and Pallenians in consequence of a ravine (Pharanx), the Phliasians attacked and defeated them with loss. (Xen. Hell. vii. 2. 11, seq.)
  After the death of Alexander, Phlius, like many of the other Peloponnesian cities, became subject to tyrants; but upon the organisation of the Achaean League by Aratus, Cleonymus, who was then tyrant of Phlius, voluntarily resigned his power, and the city joined the league. (Polyb. ii. 44.)
  Phlius is celebrated in the history of literature as the birthplace of Pratinas, the inventor of the Satyric drama, and who contended with Aeschylus for the prize at Athens. In the agora of Phlius was the tomb of Aristias, the son of Pratinas. (Paus. ii. 13. § 6.)
  Pausanias says that on the Acropolis of Phlius was a temple of Hebe or Ganymeda, in a cypress grove, which enjoyed the right of asylum. (Comp. Strab. viii. p. 382.) There was also a temple of Demeter on the Acropolis. On descending from the citadel there stood on the right a temple of Asclepius, and below it the theatre and another temple of Demeter. In the agora there were also other public buildings. (Paus. ii. 13. § 3, seq.) The principal place at present in the Phliasia is the village of St. George, situated at the southern foot of Tricaranum, a mountain with three summits, which bounds the plain to the NE. The ruins of Phlius are situated three quarters of an hour further west, on one of the spurs of Tricaranum, above the right bank of the Asopus. They are of considerable extent, but present little more than foundations. On the south-western slope of the height stands the church of our Lady of the Hill (Eanagia Hpachiotissa), from which the whole spot is now called s ten Hpachiotissan. It probably occupies the site of the temple of Asclepius. Ross found here the remains of several Doric pillars. Five stadia from the town on the Asopus are some ruins, which Ross considers to be those of Celeae (Keleai), where Demeter was worshipped. (Paus. ii. 14. § 1.) Leake supposed Phlius to be represented by some ruins on the western side of the mountain, now called Polyfengo; but these are more correctly assigned by Ross to the ancient city of Araethyrea; and their distance from those already described corresponds to the 30 stadia which, according to Strabo, was the distance from Araethyrea to Phlius.
  On Mt. Tricaranum are the remains of a small Hellenic fortress called Paleokastron, which is probably the fortress erected by the Argives on this mountain. (Xen. Hell. vii. 2. 1, 5, 11, 13; Dem. Megal. p. 206; Harpocrat. s. v. Trikaranon; Steph. B. s. v. Trikarana.) Thyamia, which the Sicyonians fortified, as already narrated (Xen. Hell. vii. 2. 1), is placed by Ross on the lofty hill of Spiria, the northern prolongation of Tricaranum, between the villages Stimanga and Skrapani; on the summit are the remains of a large round tower, probably built by the Franks or Byzantines. In the southern part of the Phliasia is the Dioscurion (Dioskourion), which is mentioned only by Polybius (iv. 67, 68, 73), and which lay on the road from Corinth over the mountain Apelauron into the Stymphalia.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Araethyrea

  Araethyrea (Araithurea), the ancient capital of Phliasia, is said by Pausanias to have been originally named Arantia (Arantia), after Aras, its founder, and to have been called Araethyrea after a daughter of Aras of this name. The name of its founder was retained in the time of Pausanias in the hill Arantinus, on which it stood. Homer mentions Araethyrea. (Horn. Il. ii. 571; Strab. viii. p. 382; Paus. ii. 12. § § 4, 5.) We learn from Strabo that its inhabitants quitted Araethyrea, and founded Phlius, at the distance of 30 stadia from the former town. Hence the statement of the grammarians, that Araethyrea and Arantia were both ancient names of Phlius. (Steph. B. s. vv. Phlious, Arantia; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. i. 115.) Ross supposes the ruins on Mt. Polyfengo to be those of Araethyrea. Leake had erroneously supposed them to be the ruins of Phlius. (Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 27, seq.; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 339, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Cleonae

KLEONES (Ancient city) NEMEA
  Kleonai: Eth. Kleonaios. A city in Peloponnesus, described by writers of the Roman period as a city of Argolis, but never included in the Argeia or territory of Argos, in the flourishing period of Greek history. Cleonae was situated on the road from Argos to Corinth, at the distance of 120 stadia from the former city, and 80 stadia from the latter. (Strab.viii. p.377.) The narrow pass through the mountains, called Tretus, leading from Argos to Cleonae, is described elsewhere. Cleonae stood in a small plain upon a river flowing into the Corinthian gulf a little westward of Lechaeum. This river is now called Longo: its ancient name appears to have been Langeia. In its territory was Mt. Apesas, now called Fuka, connected with the Acro-Corinthus by a rugged range of hills. Both Strabo and Pausanias describe Cleonae as a small place; and the former writer, who saw it from the Acrocorinthus, says that it is situated upon a hill surrounded on all sides by buildings, and well walled, so as to deserve the epithet given to it by Homer (II. ii. 570):--euktimenas Kleonas. Statius also speaks of ingenti turritae mole Cleonae. (Theb. iv. 47.) The existing ruins, though scanty, justify these descriptions. They are found at a hamlet still called Klenes, not far from the village Kurtesi. According to Dodwell, they occupy a circular and insulated hill, which seems to have been completely covered with buildings. On the side of the hill are six ancient terrace walls rising one above another, on which the houses and streets are situated.
  Cleonae possessed only a small territory. It derived its chief importance from the Nemean games being celebrated in its territory, in the grove of Nemea, between Cleonae and Phlius. Hence the festival is called by Pindar agon Kleonaios (Nem. iv. 27). Hercules is said to have slain Eurytus and Cteatus, the sons of Actor, near Cleonae; and Diodorus mentions a temple of Hercules erected in the neighbourhood of the city in memory of that event. (Paus. v. 2. § 1, seq.; Pind. Ol. x. 36; Diod. iv. 33.)
  Cleonae is said to have derived its name either from Cleones, the son of Pelops, or from Cleone, the daughter of the river-god Asopus. (Paus. ii. 15. § 1.) It was conquered by the Dorians, whereupon some of its inhabitants, together with those of the neighbouring town of Phlius, are said to have founded Clazomenae in Asia Minor. (Paus. vii. 3. § 9.) In the Dorian conquest, Cleonae formed part of the lot of Temenus, and in early times was one of the confederated allies or subordinates of Argos. Indeed in the historical period, Cleonae was for the most part closely connected with Argos. After the Persian wars, the Cleonaeans assisted the Argives in subduing Mycenae (Strab. viii.); and they fought as. the allies of Argos at the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 418. (Thuc. v. 67.) Of their subsequent history nothing is known, though their city is occasionally mentioned down to the time of Ptolemy.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Orneae

ORNIES (Ancient city) NEMEA
  Orneai: Eth. Orneates. A town in the Argeia, mentioned in the Iliad (ii 571), which is said to have derived its name from Orneus, the son of Erechtheus. Orneae retained its ancient Cynurian inhabitants, when Argos was conquered by the Dorians. It continued independent of Argos for a long time; but it was finally conquered by the Argives, who removed the Orneatae to their own city. (Paus. ii. 25. § 6, viii. 27. § 1.) Thucydides mentions (v. 67) the Orneatae and Cleonaei as allies (summachoi) of the Argives in B.C. 418; and the same historian relates (vi. 7) that Orneae was destroyed by the Argives in B.C. 416. (Comp. Diod. xii. 81.) It might therefore be inferred that the destruction of Orneae by the Argives in B.C. 416 is the event referred to by Pausanias. But Muller concludes from a well-known passage of Herodotus (viii. 73) that Orneae had been conquered by Argos long before; that its inhabitants were reduced to the condition of Perioeci; and that all the Perioeci in the Argeia were called Orneatae from this place. But the Orneatae mentioned by Thucydides could not have been Perioeci, since they are called allies; and the passage of Herodotus does not require, and in fact hardly admits of, Muller's interpretation. The Cynurians, says Herodotus, have become Doricized by the Argives and by time, being Orneatae and Perioeci. These words would seem clearly to mean that, while the other Cynurians became Perioeci, the Orneatae continued independent,--an interpretation which is in accordance with the account of Thucydides. (Muller, Aeginetica, p. 48, seq., Dorians, iii. 4. § 2; Arnold, ad Thuc. v. 67.)
  With respect to the site of Orneae we learn from Pausariias (v. 25. § 5) that it was situated on the confines of Phliasia and Sicyonia, at the distance of 120 stadia from Argos, being 60 stadia from Lyrceia, which was also 60 stadia from Argos. Strabo (viii. p. 382) says that Orneae was situated on a river of the same name above the plain of the Sicyonians; for the other passage of Strabo (viii. p. 578), which states that Orneae lay between Corinth and Sicyon, and that it was not mentioned by Homer, is probably an interpolation. Orneae stood on the northern of the two roads, which led from Argos to Mantineia. This northern road was called Climax, and followed the course of the Inachus. Ross supposes Orneae to have been situated on the river, which flows from the south by the village of Lionti and which helps to form the western arm of the Asopus. Leake places it too far to the east on the direct road from Argos to Phlius.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Phlious

FLIOUS (Ancient city) NEMEA
The chief town of a small province in the northeast of Peloponnesus, whose territory, Phliasia, was bounded by Sicyonia, Arcadia, and Argos. It was usually allied with Sparta, and under Cleonymus joined the Achaete.

Orneae, Orneiai

ORNIES (Ancient city) NEMEA
An ancient town of Argolis, near the frontier of the territory of Phlius, subdued by the Argives in the Peloponnesian War, B.C. 418.

Perseus Project index

Phlius

FLIOUS (Ancient city) NEMEA
Total results on 4/7/2001: 95

Orneae, Orneai, Orneatae

ORNIES (Ancient city) NEMEA

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Phlious

FLIOUS (Ancient city) NEMEA
  Located in the NE part of the region in a broad plain W of the Nemean valley.
  Excavations in 1924 indicated occupation from the Early Neolithic period to Byzantine times. Mycenaean finds were scanty, confirming the statement of the ancient authors (Strab. 8.382; Paus. 2.12.4-6) that the city of Homer (Araithyrea) was not located at the site of the later city. Phlious participated in the Persian Wars, contributing 200 men to Thermopylai and 1,000 to Plataia (Hdt. 7.202; 9.28.4). She was constantly an ally of Sparta and no doubt valuable to that state in providing a route to the Corinthian Gulf which did not pass under the walls of Argos. Her 4th c. history is one of internal strife and defense against various enemies (Xen. Hell.). Little is known of her political organizations, but a Hellenistic proxeny decree found on Delos may preserve the name of one of the tribes, Aoris. A Pythagorean school apparently flourished at Phlious at the end of the 5th c. (Diog. Laert. 8.46) and the city provides the setting for Plato's Phaedo. Pratinas, the composer of satyr plays, was a native (Suid. s.v. Pratinas). The Roman city as described by Pausanias (2.13.3-8) was extensive, and he states that Hebe was the principal deity. Numerous buildings are mentioned, among them a Temple of Asklepios located above a theater.
  Traces of antiquity are abundant at Phlious, both on the acropolis and in the plain to the S, where the city proper was located. Portions of wall are visible along the N, E, and W sides of the acropolis and the E city wall can be traced for some distance in the plain. On one of the terraces at the W end of the hill stands a modern chapel, almost entirely constructed of ancient blocks, possibly the site of the Temple of Asklepios. Farther down the hill to the W lie a fountain-house and a large, partially excavated building with a hypocaust.
  Most of the buildings discovered in the early excavations lie at the SW foot of the hill. An apparent hypostyle hall, explored by only a few test trenches, yielded pottery and architectural fragments of the late archaic period. East of this lies a rectangular structure with an interior colonnade (known locally as the Palati), and to the N a scene building and a theater cavea. Supplementary excavations reinvestigated the Palati, which appears to date to the 5th c. B.C., and the theater, the lower portion of which was excavated. This consists of the E retaining wall of the cavea, a line of poros benches, and a partially cleared exedra on the W.
  The theater in its present form is Roman and no doubt it is the one seen by Pausanias below the Temple of Asklepios, which must be located either immediately above the cavea or farther to the E under the chapel, where most modern writers have placed it.

W. R. Biers, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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