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Listed 61 sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "LOKRIDA Province FTHIOTIDA" .


Information about the place (61)

Ancient cities non located

TARFI (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Pharygae

Ragavis suggests that Pharygae was probably the ancient city of Naryx. Tarphe was near the Mt. Cnede.


Boundaries

The Asopos river flows to the W of the Mt. Kallidromon.


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AMFIKLIA (Small town) LOKRIDA

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OPOUS (Municipality) FTHIOTIDA

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

ALES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Halae

A town situated upon the Opuntian gulf, but belonging to Boeotia in the time of Strabo and Pausanias. It is described by Pausanias as situated to the right of the river Platanius, and as the last town of Boeotia. It probably derived its name from some salt springs which are still found in its neighbourhood. Leake places it on the cape which projects to the northward beyond Malesina and Proskyna, where some ruins are said to exist at a church of St. John Theologus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ALOPI (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Alope

Eth. Alopites, Alopeus. A town of the Opuntian Locrians on the coast between Daphnus and Cynus. Its ruins have been discovered by Gell on an insulated hill near the shore.


AMFIKLIA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Amphicaea, Amphicleia

  Amphicaea or Amphicleia (Amphikaia, Herod., Steph. B.; Amphikleia, Paus.: Eth. Amphikaieus, Amphikleieus, a town in the N. of Phocis, distant 60 stadia from Lilaea, and 15 stadia from Tithronium. It was destroyed by the army of Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. Although Herodotus calls it Amphicaea, following the most ancient traditions, the Amphictyons gave it the name of Amphicleia in their decree respecting rebuilding the town. It also bore for some time the name of Ophiteia (Ophiteia), in consequence of a legend, which Pausanias relates. The place was celebrated in the time of Pausanias for the worship of Dionysus, to which an inscription refers, found at Dhadhi, the site of the ancient town. (Herod. viii. 33; Paus. x. 3. § 2, x. 33. § 9, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 75, 86.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Atalanta

  Atalanta (Atalante: Eth. Atalantaios.) (Talandonisi), a small island off Locris, in the Opuntian gulf, said to have been torn asunder from the mainland by an earthquake. In the first year of the Peloponnesian war it was fortified by the Athenians for the purpose of checking the Locrians in their attacks upon Euboea. In the sixth year of the war a part of the Athenian works was destroyed by a great inundation of the sea. (Strab. i. p. 61, ix. pp. 395, 425; Thuc. ii. 32, iii. 89; Diod. xii. 44, 59; Paus. x. 20. § 3; Liv. xxxv. 37; Plin. ii. 88, iv. 12; Sen. Q. N. vi. 24; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 172.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Abae

  Abae (Abai. Eth. Abaios: near Exarkho, Ru.), an ancient town of Phocis, near the frontiers of the Opuntian Locrians, said to have been built by the Argive Abas, son of Lynceus and. Hypermnestra, and grandson of Danaus. Near the town and on the road towards Hyampolis was an ancient temple and oracle of Apollo, who hence derived the surname of Abaeus. So celebrated was this oracle, that it was consulted both by Croesus and by Mardonius. Before the Persian invasion the temple was richly adorned with treasuries and votive offerings. It was twice destroyed by fire; the first time by the Persians in their march through Phocis (B.C. 480), and a second time by the Boeotians in the Sacred or Phocian war (B.C. 346). Hadrian caused a smaller temple to be built near the ruins of the former one. In the new temple there were three ancient statues in brass of Apollo, Leto, and Artemis, which had been dedicated by the Abaei, and had perhaps been saved from the former temple. The ancient agora and the ancient theatre still existed in the town in the time of Pausanias. According to the statement; of Aristotle, as preserved by Strabo, Thracians from the Phocian town of Abae emigrated to Euboea, and gave to the inhabitants the name of Abantes. The ruins of Abae are on a peaked hill to the W. of Exarkho. There are now no remains on the summit of the peak; but the walls and some of the gates may still be traced on the SW. side. There are also remains of the walls, which formed the inclosure of the temple. (Paus. x. 35; Herod. i. 46, viii. 134, 33; Diod. xvi. 530; Strab. pp. 423, 445; Steph. Byz. s. v.; Gell, Itinerary, p. 226; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 163, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DAFNOUS (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Daphnus

Daphnous: Eth. Daphnountios, Daphnousios. A city on the Euboean sea, originally belonging to Phocis, which thus extended from the Corinthian gulf to the Euboean sea. Its narrow territory separated the Locri Epicnemidii from the Locri Opuntii; but it was afterwards assigned to the Opuntii. The town was in ruins in the time of Strabo, who fixes its site by describing it as distant 20 stadia from Cynus and 120 from Elateia, and as having a harbour.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DRYMEA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Drymaea

  Drumaia, (Paus), Drumos (Herod.), Drumia (Steph. B. (Drymiae, Liv.). A frontier town of Phocis, on the side of Doris, whence it is included in the limits of Doris by Livy. It was one of the Phocian towns destroyed by the army of Xerxes. Pausanias describes it as 80 stadia from Amphicleia: but this number appears to be an error of the copyists, since in the same passage he says that Amphicleia was only 15 stadia from Tithronium, and Tithronium 15 stadia from Drymaea, which would make Drymaea only 35 stadia from Amphicleia. He also speaks of an ancient temple of Demeter at Drymaea, containing an upright statue of the goddess in stone, in whose honour the annual festival of the Thesmophoria was celebrated. Its more ancient name is said to have been Nauboleis, which was derived from Naubolus, an ancient Phocian hero, father of Iphitus. (Hom. Il. ii. 518.) According to Leake the site of Drymaea is indicated by some ruins, situated midway between Kamares and Glunista, and occupying a rocky point of the mountain on the edge of the plain. Some of the towers remain nearly entire. The masonry is generally of the third order, but contains some pieces of the polygonal kind; the space enclosed is a triangle, of which none of the sides is more than 250 yards. At the summit is a circular acropolis of about two acres, preserving the remains of an opening into the town.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ELATIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Elateia

  Eth. Elateus. A city of Phocis, and the most important place in the country after Delphi, was situated about the middle of the great fertile basin which extends near 20 miles from the narrows of the Cephissus below Amphicleia to those which are at the entrance into Boeotia. (Leake). Hence it was admirably placed for commanding the passes into Southern Greece from Mt. Oeta, and became a post of great military importance. (Strab. ix. p. 424.) Pausanias describes it as situated over against Amphicleia, at the distance of 180 stadia from the latter town, on a gently rising slope in the plain of the Cephissus (x. 34. § 1.) Elateia is not mentioned by Homer. Its inhabitants claimed to be Arcadians, derivingu their name from Elatus, the son of Areas. (Paus. l. c.) It was burnt, along with the other Phocian towns, by the army of Xerxes. (Herod. viii. 33.) When Philip entered Phocis in B.C. 338, with the professed object of conducting the war against Amphissa, he seized Elateia and began to restore its fortifications. The alarm occasioned at Athens by the news of this event shows that this place was then regarded as the key of Southern Greece. (Dem. de Cor. p. 284: Aeschin. in Ctes. p. 73; Diod. xvi. 84.) The subsequent history of Elateia is given in some detail by Pausanias (l. c.). It successfully resisted Cassander, but it was taken by Philip, the son of Demetrius. It remained faithful to Philip when the Romans invaded Greece, and was taken by assault by the Romans in B.C. 198. (Liv. xxxii. 24.) At a later time the Romans declared the town to be free, because the inhabitants had repulsed an attack which Taxiles, the general of Mithridates, had made upon the place.
  Among the objects worthy of notice in Elateia, Pausanias mentions the agora, a temple of Asclepius containing a beardless statue of the god, a theatre, and an ancient brazen statue of Athena. He also mentions a temple of Athena Cranaea, situated at the distance of 20 stadia from Elateia: the road to it was a very gentle ascent, but the temple stood upon a steep hill of small size.
  Elateia is represented by the modern village of Lefta, where are some Hellenic remains, and where the ancient name was found in an inscription extant in the time of Meletius. Some remains of the temple of Athena Cranaea have also been discovered in the situation described by Pausanias.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KNIMIDA (Mountain) LOKRIDA

Cnemis

  Cnemis (Knemis), a range of mountains forming the boundary between Phocis and the Epicnemidii Locri, who received their distinguishing name from this mountain. Mount Cnemis was a continuation of Callidromus, with which it was connected by a ridge, at the foot of which is the modern town of Pundonitza. (Strab. ix. pp. 416, 425; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 66, 180.) A spur of this mountain, running out into the sea, formed the promontory Cnemides (Knemides), opposite the islands called Lichades and the Euboean promontory Cenaeum. Upon this promontory stood a fortress, also called Cnemides, distant 20 stadia from Thronium. It was near the modern Nikoraki. (Strab. ix. p. 426; Ptol. iii. 15. § 10; Mela, ii. 3. § 67 called Cnemis by Scylax, p. 23, and Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; comp. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 177.)


KORSIA (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Corseia

Corseia (Korseia), 1. A town of Boeotia, sometimes included in Opuntian Locris, was the first place which the traveller reached after crossing Mt. Khlomo from Cyrtones. In the Sacred War it was taken by the Phocians, along with Orchomenus and Coroneia. In the plain below, the river Platanius joined the sea. Its site is probably represented by the village Proskyna, on the heights above which are the remains of an ancient acropolis. (Paus. ix. 24. § 5; Diod. xvi. 58; Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 385; called Chorsia by Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 184; Forchhammer, Hellenika, p. 179.)
2. Scylax mentions Korsiai as aport of Boeotia on the Corinthian gulf. It appears from Pliny that there was a second town of this name in the western part of Boeotia, and that it was distinguished from the other by the name of Thebae Corsicae. ( Thebis quae Corsicae cognominatae sunt juxta Heliconem, Plin. iv. 3. s. 4.) It is probably represented by the modern Khosia. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. P. 521.)

This is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KYNOS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Cynus

  Kunos: Eth. Kunios, Kunaios. The principal sea-port of the Locri Opuntii, was situated on a cape at the northern extremity of the Opuntian gulf, opposite Aedepsus in Euboea, and at the distance of 60 stadia from Opus. (Strab. ix.; Paus. x. 1. § 2.) Livy gives an incorrect idea of the position of Cynus, when he describes it as situated on the coast, at the distance of a mile from Opus. (Liv. xxviii. 6.) Cynus was an ancient town, being mentioned in the Homeric catalogue (Il. ii. 531), and reported to have been the residence of Deucalion and Pyrrha; the tomb of the latter was shown there. (Strab. l.c) Its site is marked by a tower, called Paleopyrgo, and some Hellenic remains, about a mile to the south of the village of Livanates.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KYRTONES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Cyrtones

  Kurtones: Eth. Kurtonios. Anciently called Cyrtone (Kurtone), a city of Boeotia, east of the lake Copais, and 20 stadia from Hyettus, situated upon a lofty mountain, after crossing which the traveller arrived at Corsia. Cyrtones contained a grove and temple of Apollo, in which were statues of Apollo and Artemis, and a fountain of cold water, at the source of which was a chapel of the nymphs. Forchhammer places Cyrtones on the hill of the church of St. Athanasius between the villages of Paula and Luki, and the Metokhi of Dendra. Here is celebrated every spring a great festival, which Forchhammer regards as the remains of the ancient festival of Apollo and Artemis.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LARYMNA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Larymna

  Larumna. The name of two towns in Boeotia, on the river Cephissus, distinguished as Upper and Lower Larymna. (Strab. ix.) Strabo relates that the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel at the Upper Larymna, and joined the sea at the Lower Larymna; and that Upper Larymna had belonged to Phocis until it was annexed to the Lower or Boeotian Larymna by the Romans. Upper Larymna belonged originally to the Opuntian Locris, and Lycophron mentions it as one of the towns of Ajax Oileus. (Lycophr. 1146.) Pausanias also states, that it was originally Locrian; and he adds, that it voluntarily joined the Boeotians on the increase of the power of the Thebans. (Paus. ix. 23. § 7.) This, however, probably did not take place in the time of Epaminondas, as Scylax, who lived subsequently, still calls it a Locrian town. Ulrichs conjectures that it joined the Boeotian league after Thebes had been rebuilt by Cassander. In B.C. 230, Larymna is described as a Boeotian town (Polyb. xx. 5, where Larumnan should be read instead of Labrunan); and in the time of Sulla it is again spoken of as a Boeotian town.
  We may conclude from the preceding statements that the more ancient town was the Locrian Larymna, situated at a spot, called Anchoe by Strabo, where the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel. At the distance of a mile and a half Larymna had a port upon the coast, which gradually rose into importance, especially from the time when Larymna joined the Boeotian League, as its port then became the most convenient communication with the eastern sea for Lebadeia, Chaeroneia, Orchomenos, Copae, and other Boeotian towns. The port-town was called, from its position, Lower Larymna, to distinguish it from the Upper city. The former may also have been called more especially the Boeotian Larymna, as it became the seaport of so many Boeotian towns. Upper Larymna, though it had joined the Boeotian League, continued to be frequently called the Locrian, on account of its ancient connection with Locris. When the Romans united Upper Larymna to Lower Larymna, the inhabitants of the fomer place were probably transferred to the latter; and Upper Larymna was henceforth abandoned. This accounts for Pausanias mentioning only one Larymna, which must have been the Lower city; for if he had visited Upper Larymna, he could hardly have failed to mention the emissary of the Cephissus at this spot. Moreover, the ruins at Lower Larymna show that it became a place of much more importance than Upper Larymna. These ruins, which are called Kastri, like those of Delphi, are situated on the shore of the Bay of Larmes, on a level covered with bushes, ten minutes to the left of the mouth of the Cephissus. The circuit of the walls is less than a mile. The annexed plan of the remains is taken from Leake.
  Leake adds, that the walls, which in one place are extant to nearly half their height, are of a red soft stone, very much corroded by the sea air, and in some places are constructed of rough masses. The sorus is high, with comparison to its length and breadth, and stands in its original place upon the rocks: there was an inscription upon it, and some ornaments of sculpture, which are now quite defaced. The Glyfonero is a small deep pool of water, impregnated with salt, and is considered by the peasants as sacred water, because it is cathartic. The sea in the bay south of the ruins is very deep; and hence we ought probably to read in Pausanias (ix. 23. § 7), limen de sphisin estin athnchibathes, instead of limWe, since there is no land-lake at this place. The ruins of Upper Larymna lie at Bazaraki, on the right bank of the Cephissus, at the place where it issues from its subterranean channel.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


NARYX (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Narycus

  Narycium (Narukos, Naruch, Narycium, Eth. Narukios). A town of the Opuntian Locrians, the reputed birthplace of Ajax, son of Oileus (Strab. ix. p. 425, Steph. B. s.v.), who is hence called by Ovid (Met. xiv. 468) Narycius heros. In B.C. 395, Ismenias, a Boeotian commander, undertook an expedition against Phocis, and defeated the Phocians near Naryx of Locris, whence we may conclude with Leake that Naryx was near the frontier of Phocis. (Diod. xiv. 82.) In 352 Naryx was taken by Phayllus, the Phocian commander. (Diod. xvi. 38.) It is placed by some at Talanda, but by Leake at the small village of Kalapodhi, where there are a few ancient remains. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 187.) As Locri in Bruttium in Italy was, according to some of the ancients, a colony of Naryx (Virg. Aen. iii. 399), the epithet of Narycian is frequently given to the Bruttian pitch. (Virg. Georg. ii. 438; Colum. x. 386; Plin. xiv. 20. s. 25.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


OPOUS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Opus

  Opous (contr. of Opoeis, Il. ii. 531), Eth. Opountios. The chief town of a tribe of the Locri, who were called from this place the Locri Opuntii. It stood at the head of the Opuntian gulf (ho Opountios kolpos, Strab. ix. p. 425; Opuntius Sinus, Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Mela, ii. 3. § 6), a little inland, being 15 stadia from the shore according to Strabo, or only a mile according to Livy (xxviii. 6). Opus was believed to be one of the most ancient towns in Greece. It was said to have been founded by Opus, a son of Locrus and Protogeneia; and in its neighbourhood Deucalion and Pyrrha were reported to have resided. (Pind. Ol. ix. 62, 87; Schol. ad loc.) It was the native city of Patroclus. (Hom. Il. xviii. 326), and it is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue as one of the Locrian towns subject to Ajax, son of Oileus (Il. ii. 531). During the flourishing period of Grecian history, it was regarded as the chief city of the eastern Locrians, for the distinction between the Opuntii and Epicnemidii is not made either by Herodotus, Thucydides, or Polybius. Even Strabo, from whom the distinction is chiefly derived, in one place describes Opus as the capital of the Epicnemidii (ix. p. 416); and the same is confirmed by Pliny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Stephanus (s. v. Opoeis; from Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 181.) The Opuntii joined Leonidas with all their forces at Thermopylae, and sent seven ships to the Grecian fleet at Artemisium. (Herod. vii. 203, viii 1.) Subsequently they belonged to the anti-Athenian party in Greece. Accordingly, after the conquest of Boeotia by the Athenians, which followed the battle of Oenophyta, B.C. 456, the Athenians carried off 100 of the richest Opuntians as hostages. (Thuc. i. 108.) In the Peloponnesian War the Opuntian privateers annoyed the Athenian trade, and it was in order to check them that the Athenians fortified the small island of Atalanta off the Opuntian coast. (Thuc. ii. 32.) In the war between Antigonus and Cassander, Opus espoused the cause of the latter, and was therefore besieged by Ptolemy, the general of Antigonus. (Diod. xix. 78.) The position of Opus is a disputed point. Meletius has fallen into the error of identifying it with Pundonitza, which is in the territory of the Epicnemidii. Many modern writers place Opus at Talanda, where are several Hellenic remains; but Leake observes that the distance of Talanda from the sea is much too great to correspond with the testimony of Strabo and Livy. Accordingly Leake places Opus at Kardhenitza, a village situated an hour to the south-eastward of Talanda, at a distance from the sea corresponding to the 15 stadia of Strabo, and where exist the remains of an ancient city. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 173, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


SKARFIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Scarphe

  Scarphe or Scarpheia (Skarphe, Horn.; Skarpheia, Strab., Paus., Steph. B.: Eth. Skarpheus, Skarphaieus), a town of the Locri Epicnemidii, mentioned by Homer. (Il. ii. 532.) According to Strabo it was 10 stadia from the sea, 30 stadia from Thronium, and a little less from some other place of which the name is lost, probably Nicaea. (Strab. ix. p. 426.) It appears from Pausanias that it lay on the direct road from Elateia to Thermopylae by Thronium (viii. 15. § 3), and likewise from Livy, who states that Quintius Flamininus marched from Elateia by Thronium and Scarpheia to Heracleia (xxxiii. 3). Hence the town may be placed between the modern villages of ‘Andera and Molo. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 178.) Scarpheia is said by Strabo to have been destroyed by an inundation of the sea caused by an earthquake (i. p. 60), but it must have been afterwards rebuilt, as it is mentioned by subsequent writers down to a late period. (Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Ptol. iii. 15. § 11; Hierocl. p. 643; Geog. Rav. iv. 10; Const. Porphyr. de Them. ii. 5. p. 51, Bonn.) Scarpheia is also mentioned by Lycophr. 1147; Appian, Syr. 19; Paus. ii. 29. § 3, x. 1. § 2.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TARFI (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Tarphe

  Eth. Tarphaios. A town of the Locri Epicnemidii, mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 533). It was situated upon a height in a fertile and woody country, and was said to have derived its name from the thickets in which it stood. In the time of Strabo it had changed its name into that of Pharygae (Pharugai), and was said to have received a colony from Argos. It contained a temple of Hera Pharygaea. It is probably the modern Pundonitza.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


THRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Thronium

  Thronion: Eth. Thronios, Thronites, Thronieus. The chief town of the Locri Epicnemidii, situated 20 stadia from the coast and 30 stadia from Scarpheia, upon the river Boagrius, which is described by Strabo as sometimes dry, and sometimes flowing with a stream two plethra in breadth. (Strab. ix. p. 436.) It is mentioned by Homer, who speaks of it as near the river Boagrius. (Il. ii. 533.) It was at one time partly destroyed by an earthquake. (Strab. i. p. 60.) At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 431) Thronium was taken by the Athenians. (Thuc. ii. 26; Diod. xii. 44.) In the Sacred War it was taken by Onomarchus, the Phocian general, who sold its inhabitants into slavery, and hence it is called by Scylax a Phocian city. The site of Thronium was ascertained by Meletius who found above the village Romani, at a place named Paleokastro, where some remains of the city still exist, a dedicatory inscription of the council and demus of the Thronienses.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TITHOREA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Neon

  Eth. Neonios. An ancient town of Phocis, said to have been built after the Trojan war (Strab. ix. p. 439), was situated at the foot of Mt. Tithorea, one of the peaks of Mt. Parnassus. Herodotus relates that, when the Persian army invaded Phocis, many of the Phocians took refuge in Tithorea near Neon (viii. 32), and that the latter city was destroyed by the Persians (viii. 33). It was, however, afterwards rebuilt; but was again destroyed, with the other Phocian towns, at the end of the Sacred War. (Paus. x. 3. § 2.) In its neighbourhood, Philomelus, the Phocian general, was defeated, and perished in the flight by throwing himself down from a lofty rock. (Paus. x. 2. § 4.) Neon now disappears from history, and in its place we read of a town TITHOREA, which is described by Pausanias (x. 32. § 8, seq.). This writer regards Tithorea as situated on the same site as Neon ; and relates that Tithorea was the name anciently applied to the whole district, and that when the inhabitants of the neighbouring villages were collected in the city, the name of Tithorea was substituted for that of Neon. This, however, is not in accordance with the statement of Plutarch, according to whom Tithorea, in the time of the Mithridatic war, was a fortress surrounded by precipitous rocks, where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes. He further states that it was not such a city as the one existing in his day. (Plat. Sull. 15.) If the view of Plutarch is correct, that the fortress, the site of which was afterwards occupied by the city Tithorea, was the place where the Phocians took refuge from Xerxes, we may conclude that Tithorea and Neon were two different places.
  The city, which existed in the time of Plutarch and Pausanias, was a place of some importance, though it had begun to decline for a generation before the time of Pausanias. The latter writer mentions, however, a theatre, the enclosure of an ancient agora, a temple of Athena, and the tomb of Antiope and Phocus. A river flowed by Tithorea, called Cachales (Kachales), to which the inhabitants had to descend in order to obtain water. In the territory of Tithorea, but at the distance of 70 stadia from the city, was a temple of Asclepius, and also, at the distance of 40 stadia, a shrine of Isis. (Paus. x. 32. §§ 8 - 13.) The name is written Tithorea in Herodotus and Pausanias, Tithoraia in Stephanus B., Tithora in Plutarch, but Tithorra in inscriptions. The Ethnic name in Pausanias is Tithoreeus, in Stephanus Tithoraieus, but in inscriptions Tithoreus.
  The ruins of Tithorea are situated at Velitza, a village at the NE. foot of Mt. Parnassus. The site is fixed by an inscription found at Velitza, in which the name of Tithorea occurs. Two-thirds of the modern village stand within the ruined walls of the ancient city. A considerable portion of the walls, and many of the towers, still remain. The town was carefully fortified towards the W. and NW., and was sufficiently protected towards the NE. and E. by the precipitous banks of the Cachales, and towards the S. by the steep sides of Mt. Parnassus. The walls are almost 9 feet broad. The Cachales, which now bears the name of Kakoreuma, or the evil torrent, flows in a ravine below the village, and thus illustrates the statement of Pausanias, that the inhabitants descended to it in order to obtain water. Behind Velitza, ascending the Cachales, there is a cavern on the steep side of the rock, which, during the last war of independence, received a great number of fugitives. It is very spacious, is supplied with excellent water, and is quite impregnable. This is probably the place where the inhabitants of Neon and the surrounding places took refuge in the Persian invasion, as the Delphians did in the Corycian cave, more especially as the height immediately above Velitza is not adapted for such a purpose. A difficult mule path leads at present through the ravine of the Cachales across the heights of Parnassus to Delphi. In the time of Pausanias there were two roads from Tithorea across the mountain to Delphi, one direct, the other longer, but practicable for carriages. Pausanias assigns 80 stadia as the length of the shorter road; but this number cannot be correct, as Leake observes, since the direct distance is hardly less than 12 geographical miles.
  Most modern writers have followed Pausanias in identifying Tithorea and Neon; but Ulrichs, for the reasons which have been already stated, supposes them to have been different cities, and places Neon at the Hellenic ruins on the Cephissus, called Palea Fiva, distant 1 1/2 hour, or 3 1/2 English miles, from Velitza. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 77, seq.; Ulrichs, in Rheinisches Museum, 1843, p. 544, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TITHRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Tithronium

  Tithronion: Eth. Tithronieus. A frontier town of Phocis, on the side of Doris. Livy, who calls it Tritonon, describes it as a town of Doris (xxviii. 7), but all other writers place it in Phocis. It was destroyed by the army of Xerxes together with the other Phocian towns. It is placed. by Pausanias in the plain at the distance of 15 stadia from Amphicleia. The site of Tithronium is probably indicated by some ruins at Mulki below Verzana, where a torrent unites with the Cephissus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


YAMPOLIS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Hyampolis

  Huampolis: Eth. Huampolites. An ancient town of Phocis, mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 521), and said to have been founded by the Hyantes after they had been expelled from Boeotia by the Cadmeians. (Paus. ix. 35. § 5; Strab. ix. p. 424.) It was situated on the road leading from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. l c.), and, as it stood at the entrance of a valley which formed a convenient passage from Locris into Phocis and Boeotia, its name frequently occurs in history. It was at the entrance of this pass that the Phocians gained a victory over the Thessalians. (Herod. viii. 28.) Hyampolis was afterwards destroyed, along with the other Phocian towns, by the army of Xerxes. (Herod. viii. 33.) In B.C. 371 Jason, in his march through Phocis, when he was returning from Boeotia after the battle of Leuctra, is said to have taken Huampoliton to proasteion (Xen Hell. vi. 4. § 27), which is supposed by some to be the same place as Cleonae, a village belonging to Hyampolis. (Pint. de Virt. Mul. p. 244; Valcken. ad Herod. viii. 28.) In B.C. 347 a battle was fought near Hyampolis between the Boeotians and Phocians. (Diod. xvi. 56.) The city is said to have been destroyed by Philip; but, as Pausanias states that the ancient agora, senate-house, and theatre were still remaining in his time, it must have been chiefly the fortifications which were destroyed by Philip. At all events it continued to be an inhabited city, and is mentioned in the Roman wars in Greece. (Liv. xxxii. 18.) It was embellished by Hadrian with a Stoa. Pausanias mentions also a temple of Artemis, who was the deity chiefly worshipped in the city. (Paus. x. 35. § § 6, 7.) Pliny (iv. 7. s. 12) and Ptolemy (iii. 15. § 20) erroneously describe Hyampolis as a city of Boeotia.
  The ruins of Hyampolis may be seen upon a height about five minutes northward of the village of Vogdhani. The entire circuit of the fortifications is traceable, but they are most complete on the western side. The masonry is of the third order, nearly approaching to the most regular kind. The circumference is about three-quarters of a mile. The direct distance to this ruin from the summit of Abae is not more than a mile and a half in a north-west direction. Below Vogdhani, on the side of a steep bank which falls to the valley of Khubavo, a fountain issuing from the rock is discharged through two spouts into a stone reservoir of ancient construction, which stands probably in its original place. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 167, seq.)
  Strabo relates that there was another town, named Hyampolis, in Phocis, situated on Parnassus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

ALES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Halae, Halai

A town on the Opuntian Gulf.


AMFIKLIA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Amphiclea

A town of northern Phocis, with a shrine of Dionysus.


AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Abae

   A city of Phocis, near and to the right of Elatea, towards Opus. The inhabitants had a tradition that their city was founded by Abas, son of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, grandson of Danaus. It was most probably of Pelasgic origin. Abae was early celebrated for its oracle of Apollo, of greater antiquity than that at Delphi, and hence Apollo is called Abaeus. During the Persian invasion, the army of Xerxes set fire to the temple, and nearly destroyed it; soon after it again gave oracles, though in this dilapidated state, and was consulted for that purpose by an agent of Mardonius.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DAFNOUS (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Daphnous

A town of the Locri Opuntii, situated on the seacoast, at the mouth of a river of the same name, near the frontiers of the Epicnemidian Locri. Into the river Daphnus the body of Hesiod was thrown after his murder.


DRYMEA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Drymaea

A town in Phocis, a little south of the Cephissus.


Callidromus

   According to Livy, the highest summit of Mount Oeta. It was occupied by Cato with a body of troops in the battle fought at the pass of Thermopylae between the Romans, under Acilius Glabrio, and the army of Antiochus; and, owing to this manouevre, the latter was entirely routed.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KYNOS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Cynus

The chief seaport in the territory of the Locri Opuntii. According to some ancient traditions, it had long been the residence of Deucalion and Pyrrha; the latter was even said to have been interred here.


NARYX (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Naryx

   (Narux), Narycus (Narukos), or Narycium (Narukion). A town of the Locri Opuntii, on the Euboean Sea, described as the birthplace of Aias, son of Oileus, who is hence called Narycius heros. Since Locri Epizephyrii, in the south of Italy, claimed to be a colony from Naryx, in Greece, we find the town of Locri called Narycia by the poets, and the pitch of Bruttium was also named Narycia.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


OPOUS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Opus

A town of Locris, from which the Opuntian Locrians derived their name. It was the birthplace of Patroclus. The bay of the Euboean Sea, near Opus, was called Opuntius Sinus.


SKARFIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Scarphe

Scarphea (Skarpheia) or Scarphia (Skarphia). A town of the Epicnemidii Locri, at which the roads leading through Thermopylae united.


THRONION (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Thronium

Now Pikraki; the chief town of the Locri Epicnemidii, on the river Boagrius, at a short distance from the sea, with a harbour upon the coast.


TITHOREA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Neon

An ancient town in Phocis, at the eastern side of Mount Tithorea, a branch of Mount Parnassus, destroyed by the Persians under Xerxes, but rebuilt and named Tithorea (Tithorea), after the mountain on which it was situated.


YAMPOLIS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Hyampolis

A town in Phocis, east of the Cephissus, near Cleonae, founded by the Hyantes. It was first destroyed by Xerxes, and afterwards rebuilt to be destroyed again in part by Philip and the Amphictyons.


Individuals' pages

MALESSINA (Small town) FTHIOTIDA

Local government Web-Sites

MOLOS (Municipality) FTHIOTIDA

Municipality of Molos


TITHOREA (Municipality) FTHIOTIDA

Municipality of Tithorea


Local government WebPages

Delimitation - General data of the region

  The Municipality of Tithorea comes under the county of Fthiotida and is situated at the 15th klm of the Old National Road Athens - Lamia.
  The Municipality of Tithorea includes the following built-up areas: Kato Tithorea, which is the county town, Tithorea, Modi, Agia Marina, Agia Paraskevi. The total area of the municipality is 149.593 sq. meters and the total population, according to the census of 1991, is 4.902 inhabitants.
  Kato Tithorea lies from both sides of the Old National Road. Tithorea is situated at the same exact position of ancient Tithorea. Tithorea combines flat and highland regions. In total the highland areas take up the 79% of the municipality's edaphic territory and the flat ones the rest 21%.
  The 47,3% of the total area is used for rangeland and the 31% for farming. Forests take up the 13,1% regarding the areas of Kallidromo (Modi) and Parnassos (Tithorea, Agia Marina). Finally the residential area is the 5,8%.

This text is cited June 2005 from the Municipality of Tithorea URL below


Perseus Encyclopedia Site Text

LARYMNA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Larymna

In the fourth century B.C. a port was built at Larymna making it the easternmost harbor of Locris...Larymna is a village of Opuntian Locris which sits on the north coast of the Euboean Gulf. In the fourth century B.C. a port was built at Larymna making it the easternmost harbor of Locris.


Perseus Project

AMFIKLIA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

  Pausanias states that the correct form of the name was Amphikleia, and appeared in the Dogma of the Amphiktyons on the destruction of the Phokian cities; but Herodotos men Amphikaian ekalesen hepomenos toi archaiotatoi ton logon. Amphikaia was certainly the epichorian form, as is proved by the local legend narrated by Pausanias. This form was associated with a cult of Dionysos, and cures were effected di oneirhaton. The site is identified, apparently, on the hills to the south of Kephisos, below and east of Lilaia, just above the modern Dadi (Frazer v. 420): Pausanias' measurements here appear untrustworthy: Bursian i. 162


AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Abae, Abai


ELATIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Elateia


KYNOS (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA


YAMPOLIS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

  On the main road from Boiotia and Phokis to Opus, and so to Thermopylai; Pausanias 10. 35. 5 records that the city was a settlement of Huantes from Thebes, and that the full name of the city was Huanton polis. Kleonai, the actual scene of the Thessalian defeat (Plutarch, l.c. c. 28) a little higher up the pass, was presumably a dependency of Hyampolis; remains of Hyampolis are identifiable (Leake ii. 167, Bursian i. 165, Frazer v. 442). The city would be the first exposed to the attack of a force coming from Thermopylai, and probably in 480 B.C. (with Abai) was destroyed, not by the Persian column which had crossed from Malis into Doris, and then worked down the Kephisos valley, spreading ruin and death wherever it came, but by the main column, which must have advanced from Thermopylai along the coast, and through the pass of Hyampolis.


Perseus Project index

ALES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

DAFNOUS (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

DRYMEA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

OPOUS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

SKARFIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Present location

OPOUS (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Paleokastro


VOUMELITIA (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Perhaps, it is situated near the modern village Proskynas.


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

ALES (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Halai

  Located near Haghios Theologos, on a deep sheltered bay on the E side of the gulf below Atalandi (Opus). Like many other coastal sites, Halai was evidently heavily damaged by the great earthquakes of 426-425 (Thuc. 3.89; Diod. Sic. 12.59). In Late Classical or Early Hellenistic times it passed into the Boiotian orbit, and was sacked by Sulla in 85 but immediately resettled (Plut. Sulla 26.3ff). The city area beside the sea, and the cemeteries to the N and E, were excavated between 1911 and 1935. The lower levels of the site yielded Bronze Age and Neolithic material. Iron Age Halni may have been one of the strongholds of the notorious Lokrian pirates. The sheltered deepwater harbor would have been an excellent pirate's nest, the existence of which would account both for the modest size of the settlement and for its having been heavily fortified at quite an early period.
   The fortified area is not an acropolis in the normal sense, for it lies on virtually level ground right on the seashore, with the highest point only a few meters above the ancient sea level. As a result of the rise in sea level since antiquity, the preserved lower courses of some of the walls are now under water. Clearly the natural strength of the site was less important than ready access to the sea. The wall circuit in its final form was approximately a rectangle, measuring about 325 m E-W and 160 m N-S.
   The main entrance was always at the NE corner; there was also a secondary gate towards the W end of the N wall. Two distinct styles of construction are represented. The first circuit seems to have been built in the early 6th c. and remodeled towards the end of the century. The second wall, of massive ashlar with internal cross walls, is probably early Hellenistic work; it had additional towers, of square plan except for the S tower of the NE gate, and enclosed additional territory at the SE corner. The NE gate was rebuilt on a much larger scale.
   From this gate a street always led W towards the Temenos of Athena Poliouchos, located just inside the W wall of the citadel (identified by votive inscriptions). The first temple and altar were built soon after the first wall circuit. The temple was quite small, with very flat archaic Doric capitals. Abundant deposits of pottery, terracottas, sculpture, and other objects came to light, including an inscribed base in the form of an archaic Doric shaft and capital.
   The second temple, built ca. 510, was apparently destroyed in the earthquakes of 426-425. The surviving elements were broken up and spread over the temenos as part of a new pavement, and a third temple then constructed. Unlike its predecessors, which were rather rough provincial work, Temple III was built in good late 5th c. style and technique.
   Also excavated were the E and W buildings, on either side of the street leading in from the N gate. The latter building was built in the late 4th c., and remodeled in the early 2d. In late Roman times a small bath was built over the ruins of the NE corner defenses.
   The N and E cemeteries probably flanked roads leading out from the N and NE gates. The graves yielded a long series of terracottas ranging in date from the late 6th c. to ca. 200 B.C.

F. E. Winter, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


AVES (Ancient city) ATALANTI

Abai

Important city near Exarcho village in the upper reaches of a tributary of the Kephisos. Abai and nearby Hyampolis were on the main Orchomenos-Opous road, and astride the main route from E Lokris into NE Phokis. The valley was the scene of two famous Phokian victories over the Thessalians, shortly before 480. Half of the spoils and several colossal figures were dedicated to Apollo at Abai; this oracular shrine was famous enough to be consulted by Croesus.
The hill of Abai is encircled by two well-preserved lines of wall; a considerable portion of these has been regarded as archaic. Some parts, and probably also the walls descending the E and NE slopes to the plain, can hardly be earlier than the mid 4th c. There are scattered remains inside these latter walls, and Pausanias saw an ancient theater and agora.
Some 600 m NW of the city a temenos was explored, probably that of Apollo. In addition to a classical stoa, it contained two buildings, identified as the old temple, burned by Xerxes and again in the Third Social War, and a small Hadrianic replacement. IG IX 1.78 is a letter from Philip V reconfirming the ancient tax-exemption of the sanctuary.
Cemeteries have been found W of the sanctuary, and also near Exarcho.

F. E. Winter, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


DRYMEA (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Drymaia

  Probably on the frontier with Doris; located on S foothills of Mt. Kallidromos, on the side road to Glounista village. Several inscriptions are built into a church in the village (IG IX 1.226-23 refers to the name). Drymaia was burned by the Persians in 480 B.C.
   The citadel was on a projecting spur, the lower town in the plain to the S, where the walls can be traced around an area of ca. 0.20 sq. km. Among the foundations in the plain are some that Frazer conjectured may have belonged to a temple; Pausanias (10.33.12) mentions a temple and festival of Demeter Thesmophoros, with an archaic cult-statue. Sherds run into Roman Imperial times. The walls are well preserved on the summit and S slopes of the hill. The masonry is massive trapezoidal; some towers still stand 7-8 m high. Loopholes preserved in the middle of the field face may have been designed for bolt-throwing artillery (oxybeleis); for the existing circuit, like many others in Phokis, seems to date from the last third of the 4th c. There is a gate (partly ancient) in the cross wall separating the acropolis from the city, and traces of another gate seem to be preserved in the E wall, at the foot of the acropolis. .

F.E. Winter, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ELATIA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Elateia

  The first city of the ancient region, not counting the Delphic sanctuary. Controlling the natural route from the N into the Kephisos valley, Elateia was repeatedly attacked, sacked, burned, occupied; earthquakes destroyed what enemies had spared. The one attempt at excavation of the Classical town revealed few remains; only the Temple of Athena Kranaia, located some 3 km SE of the city, yielded important remains. Numerous inscriptions, including grave stelai from plundered cemeteries, complement the textual evidence concerning Classical Elateia. However, the wellwatered valley attracted primitive men and many mounds attest their early settlements. Those near modern Drachmani, below ancient Elateia, were explored early in this century and one of these mounds was again excavated in 1959. Occupation here began about 6000 B.C. and lasted the three millennia of the Neolithic Period, establishing stratigraphically its three main phases.

S.S. Weinberg, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


NARYX (Ancient city) LOKRIDA

Naryx

  A city in the E part of the region known chiefly as the site of the cult of Ajax Stammheros. It was destroyed by the Phokians in 352 B.C. during their war against Boiotia, but was rebuilt perhaps as early as 335 B.C. and survived at least until the time of Hadrian. An inscription found in excavating a late temple at Haghios Joannis, below the mediaeval castle of Rengini, has fixed the location, thought by Bursian to be the predecessor of Pharygai at modern Mendenitsa. The Classical city, which had an outlet to the sea at Thronion, would have commanded the route from N to central Greece. There are a few visible remains of the Roman and Christian periods, with traces of Hellenic walls on the E slope of the acropolis.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


TITHOREA (Ancient city) FTHIOTIDA

Tithorea

  A city on the S side of the Kephissos Plain, where the ground rises to Mt. Parnassos; the local olive oil was noted for color and sweetness. It has been identified with Velitsa by 3d and 2d c. B.C. inscriptions, dated by the archon of Tithorea. Several refer to Isis, Serapis, and Anubis, recalling the sanctuary that Pausanias (10.32) said was the holiest of those built to Isis in Greece. Varying opinions have arisen from Herodotos' statement (8.32) that a number of Phokians fleeing Xerxes took refuge on the isolated peak of Tithorea, near Neon. It is probable that Velitsa was then called Neon, Tithorea referring to the heights above the great cliff rising S of the village, later applied by extension to the whole district. Others, however, have supposed Velitsa was the refuge site, and that Neon is to be identified with the remains of a walled site of considerable size at Palnia Pheva on the right bank of the Kephissos about 5 km to the N. Plutarch (Sull. 15) described Tithorea as merely a fortress in the early 1st c. B.C. but of much greater importance a century later. It had declined again by the time of Pausanias, who saw a theater, an ancient market, a Temple and Grove of Athena, and the tomb of Antiope and Phokos. In the vicinity, there was also a Temple of Asklepios Archagetos (Founder). Scattered theater seats have been noted outside the walls as well as other foundations for large buildings. The most important remains are those of the fortifications, classed with Messene and Eleutherai as the finest examples of 4th c. work. The walls, supplementing the natural defenses of cliff to the S and gorge to the E, are of trapezoidal ashlar masonry, as much as 14 courses high. On the steep W slope, the top is both inclined and stepped, and crowned with coping blocks. The towers are square with windows and loopholes. Neon is listed by Pausanias as one of the Phokian towns razed in 346 B.C.; the walls were probably rebuilt soon after the battle of Chaironeia eight years later.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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