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Listed 56 sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "OLYMPIA Province ILIA" .


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Beazley Archive Dictionary

BASSAE (Ancient sanctuary) ILIA

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FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

Aliphera

Aliphera, Paus.; Aliphera, Liv.; Alipheipa, Polyb.: Eth. Alipheraios, on coins Adipheipeon, Aliphiraeus, (Plin. iv. 6. s. 10. § 22). A town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, said to have been built by Alipherus, a son of Lycaon, was situated upon a steep and lofty hill, 40 stadia S. of the Alpheius and near the frontiers of Elis. A large number of its inhabitants removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in B.C. 371; but it still continued to be a place of some importance. It was ceded to the Eleans by Lydiades, when tyrant of Megalopolis; but it was taken from them by Philip in the Social War, B.C. 219, and restored to Megalopolis. It contained temples of Asclepius and Athena, and a celebrated bronze statue by Hypatodorus of the latter goddess, who was said to have been born here. There are still considerable remains of this town on the hill of Nerovitza, which has a tabular summit about 300 yards long in the direction of E. and W., 100 yards broad, and surrounded by remains of Hellenic walls. At the south-eastern angle, a part rather higher than the rest formed an acropolis: it was about 70 yards long and half as much broad. The walls are built of polygonal and regular masonry intermixed.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ARINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Arene

  A town mentioned by Homer as belonging to the dominions of Nestor. and situated near the spot where the Minyeius flows into the sea. (Hom. Il. ii. 591, xi. 723.) It also occurs in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (423), in conjunction with other towns on the western coast of Peloponnesus. According to Pausanias (iv. 2. § 4, 3. § 7), it was built by Aphareus, who called it after Arene, both his wife and his sister by the same mother. It was commonly supposed in later times that Arene occupied the site of Samos or Samia in Triphylia, near the mouth of the Anigrus, which was believed to be the same as the Minyeius. (Strab. viii. p. 346; Paus. v. 6. § 2.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EPITALION (Ancient city) ILIA

Epitalium

  Epitalion: Eth. Epitalieus. A town of Triphylia in Elis, near the coast and a little south of the river Alpheius. It was identified with the Homeric Thryon (Thruon) or Thryoessa (Thruoessa), a town in the dominions of Nestor, which the poet describes as a place upon a lofty hill near the ford of the river Alpheius (Hom. Il. ii. 592, xi. 710, Hymn. in Apoll. 423; Strab. viii.). Epitalium was an important military post, because it commanded the ford of the Alpheius and the road leading along the coast. Like the other dependent townships of Triphylia, it revolted from Elis when Agis, the Spartan king, invaded the country in B.C. 401; and when Agis returned home, after ravaging Elis, he left a garrison in Epitalium. (Xen. Hell. iii. § § 25, 29.) The town was taken by Philip in the Social War, B.C. 218. (Polyb. iv. 80; Steph. B. s. v. Epitalion.) It appears to have occupied the height of Agulenitza.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EPY (Ancient city) ILIA

Aepy

(Aipn: Eth. Aiphutes). A town in Elis, so called from its lofty situation, is mentioned by Homer, and is probably the same as the Triphylian town Epeium (Epeion, Epion, Aiphion), which stood between Macistus and Heraea. Leake places it on the high peaked mountain which lies between the villages of Vrina and Smerna, about 6 miles in direct distance from Olympia. Boblaye supposes it to occupy the site of Hellenista, the name of some ruins on a hill between Platiana and Barakou.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Phigalia

  Phigalia (Pans.); Phigalea (Polyb. iv. 3); Phigaleia (Paus.; Rhianus, ap. Steph. B. s. v.;), Phialia (Paus.); Phialeia (Polyb.); Eth. Phigaleus, Phialeus, Phigaleites.
  An ancient is town of Arcadia, situated in the south-western corner of the country, close to the frontiers of Messenia, and upon the right bank of the Neda, about halfway between the sources and the mouth of this river. The name Phigalia was more ancient than that of Phialia, but the original name had again come into use in the time of Pausanias (viii. 39. § 2). The at city was said to have derived its more ancient name to from Phigalus, a son of Lycaon, its original founder, and its later name from Phialus, a son of Lycaon, its second founder. (Paus. l. c.; Steph. B.) In B.C. 659 the inhabitants of Phigalia were obliged to surrender their city to the Lacedaemonians, but they in recovered possession of it again by the help of a chosen body of Oresthasians, who, according to an oracle, perished fighting against the Lacedaemonians, (Paus. viii. 39. § § 4, 5.) In B.C. 375 Phigalia was rent asunder by hostile factions; and the supporters of the Lacedaemonian party, being expelled from the city, took possession of a fortress in the neighbourhood named Heraea, from which they made excursions against Phigalia. (Diod. xv. 40.) In the wars between the Aetolians and Achaeans, Phigalia became for some time the head-quarters of the Aetolian troops, who from thence plundered Messenia, till they were at length driven out by Philip of Macedon. (Polyb. iv. 3, seq., 79, seq.) The Phigaleans possessed several peculiar customs, respecting which Harmodius of Lepreum wrote a special work. This author relates that they were given to excess both in eating and drinking, to which their cold and ungenial climate may perhaps have contributed. (Athen. iv. p. 149, x. p. 442.)
  Phigalia was still a place of importance when visited by Pausanias. He describes it as situated upon a lofty and precipitous hill, the greater part of the walls being built upon the rocks. There are still considerable remains of the ancient walls above the modern village of Pavlitza. The city was upwards of two miles in circumference. The rock, upon which it stood, slopes down towards the Neda; on the western side it is bounded by a ravine and on the eastern by the torrent Lymax, which flows into the Neda. The walls are of the usual thickness, faced with masonry of the second order, and filled in the middle with rubble. On the summit of the acropolis within the walls are the remains of a detached citadel, 80 yards in length, containing a round tower at the extremity, measuring 18 feet in the interior diameter. In ancient times a temple of Artemis Soteira stood on the summit of the acropolis. On the slope of the mountain lay the gymnasium and the temple of Dionysus Acratophorus; and on the ground below, where the village of upper Pavlitza stands, was the agora, adorned with a statue of the pancratiast Arrachion, who lost his life in the Olympic games, and with the sepulchre of the Oresthasians, who perished to restore the Phigaleans to their native city. (Paus. viii. 39. § § 5, 6, 40. § 1.) Upon a rock, difficult of access, near the union of the Lymax and the Neda, was a temple of Eurynome, supposed to be a surname of Artemis, which was opened only once a year. In the same neighbourhood, and at the distance of 12 stadia from the city, were some warm baths, traces of which, according to the French Commission, are visible at the village of Tragoi, but the waters have long ceased to flow. (Paus. viii. 41. § 4, seq.)
  Phigalia was surrounded by mountains, of which Pausanias mentions two by name, Coilium (to Kotilion) and Elaeum (to Elaiom), the former to the left of the city, at the distance of 30 stadia, and the latter to the right at the distance of 30 stadia. As Cotilium lies to the NE. of Phigalia, and Pausanias in this description seems to have looked towards the east, Mt. Elaeum should probably be placed on the opposite side of Phigalia, and consequently to the south of the Neda, in which case it would correspond to the lofty mountain of Kuvela. Mt. Elaeum contained a cavern sacred to Demeter the Black, situated in a grove of oaks. Of the position of Mt. Cotilium there is no doubt. On it was situated the temple of Apollo Epicurius, which was built in the Peloponnesian War by Ictinus, the architect of the Parthenon at Athens. It was erected by the Phigaleans in consequence of the relief afforded by Apollo during the plague in the Peloponnesian War, whence he received the surname of Epicurius. The temple stood in a place called Bassae, and according to Pausanias excelled all the temples of Peloponnesus, except that of Athena Alea at Tegea, in the beauty of the stone and the accuracy of its masonry. He particularly mentions that the roof was of stone as well as the rest of the building. (Paus. viii. 41. § § 7, 8.) This temple still remains almost entire, and is next to the Theseium at Athens the best preserved of the temples of Greece. It stands in a glen (whence the name Bassai, Dor. for Besse, Bessai) near the summit of Mt. Cotilium, in the midst of a wilderness of rocks, studded with old knotty oaks. An eye-witness remarks that there is certainly no remnant of the architectural splendour of Greece more calculated to fascinate the imagination than this temple; whether by its own size and beauty, by the contrast it offers to the wild desolation of the surrounding scenery, or the extent and variety of the prospect from its site. (Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 270.) A spring rises about 10 minutes SW. of the temple, and soon afterwards loses itself in the ground, as Pausanias has described. North of the temple was the highest summit of the mountain, which one reaches in 10 minutes' time by a broad road constructed by the Greeks. This summit was called Cotilum Kotilon), whence the whole mountain derived the name of Cotilian; here was a sanctuary of Aphrodite, of which there are still some traces. The grandeur of the ruins of the temple have given to the whole of the surrounding district the name of the Columns (stous stulous or kolonnais). The temple is at least two hours and a half from the ruins of the city, and consequently more than the 40 stadia, which Pausanias mentions as the distance from Phigalia to Cotilium; but this distance perhaps applies to the nearest part of the mountain from the city.
  In modern times the temple remained long unknown, except to the shepherds of the country. Chandler, in 1765, was the first who gave any account of it; it was subsequently visited and described by Gell, Dodwell, and others; and in 1812 the whole temple was very carefully examined by a body of artists and scholars, who cleared away the ruins of the cella, and thus became acquainted with the exact form of the interior of the building. The results of these labours are given by Stackelberg, Der Apollotempel zu Bassa in Arkadien, Rom. 1826. The temple was a peripteral building of the Doric order. The stone of which it is built is a hard yellowish-brown limestone, susceptible of a high polish. It faces nearly north and south, was originally about 125 feet in length and 48 in breadth, and had 15 columns on either side, and 6 on either front. There were also 2 columns in the pronaos and 2 in the posticum; so that the total number in the peristyle was 42, of which 36 are standing. The cella was too narrow to allow of interior rows of columns as in the Parthenon; but on either side of the cella five fluted Ionic semi-columns projected from the walls, which supported the timbers of the hypaethron. The frieze of the cella, representing contests between the Centaurs and the Lapithae, and between Amazons and Greeks, is now in the British Museum.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FRIXA (Village) ILIA

Phrixa

  Phrixa (Phrixa, Paus. et alii; Phrixai, Herod. iv. 148: Eth. Phrixaios), a town of Triphylia in Elis, situated upon the left bank of the Alpheius, at the distance of 30 stadia from Olympia. (Strab. viii. p. 343; Steph. B. s. v.) It was founded by the Minyae (Herod. l. c.), and its name was derived from Phaestus. (Steph. B. s. v. Makistos.) Phrixa is rarely mentioned in history; but it shared the fate of the other Triphylian cities. (Comp. Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 30; Polyb. iv. 77, 80.) Its position is determined by Pausanias, who says that it was situated upon a pointed hill, opposite the Leucanias, a tributary of the Alpheius, and at a ford of the latter river. (Paus. vi. 21. § 6.) This pointed hill is now called Paleofanaro, and is a conspicuous object from both sides of the river, whence the city received the name of Phaestus in later times. (Steph. B. s. v Phaistos.) The city was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions there a temple of Athena Cydonia. Upon the summit of the hill there are still remains of Hellenic walls. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 210; Boblaye, Recherches &c. p. 136; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, p. 108; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 90.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FRIZA (Ancient city) SKILOUNTA

Phrixa

  Phrixa (Paus. et alii); Phrixai (Herod. iv. 148): Eth. Phrixaios. A town of Triphylia in Elis, situated upon the left bank of the Alpheius, at the distance of 30 stadia from Olympia. (Strab. viii. p. 343; Steph. B. s. v.) It was founded by the Minyae (Herod. l. c.), and its name was derived from Phaestus. (Steph. B. s. v. Makistos.) Phrixa is rarely mentioned in history; but it shared the fate of the other Triphylian cities. (Comp. Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 30; Polyb. iv. 77, 80.) Its position is determined by Pausanias, who says that it was situated upon a pointed hill, opposite the Leucanias, a tributary of the Alpheius, and at a ford of the latter river. (Paus. vi. 21. § 6.) This pointed hill is now called Paleofanaro, and is a conspicuous object from both sides of the river, whence the city received the name of Phaestus in later times. (Steph. B. s. v Phaistos.) The city was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions there a temple of Athena Cydonia. Upon the summit of the hill there are still remains of Hellenic walls.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

Lepreum

  to Lepreon, Lepreos, Leprion, Eth. Lepreates. The chief town of Triphylia in Elis, was situated in the southern part of the district, at the distance of 100 stadia from Samicum, and 40 stadia from the sea. (Strab. viii.) Scylax and Ptolemy, less correctly, describe it as lying upon the coast. Triphylia is said to have been originally inhabited by the Cauconians, whence Lepreum is called by Callimachns (Hymn. in Jov. 39) Kaukonon ptoliethon. The Caucones were afterwards expelled by the Minyae, who took possession of Lepreum. (Herod. iv. 148.) Subsequently, and probably soon after the Messenian wars, Lepreum and the other cities of Triphylia were subdued by the Eleians, who governed them as subject places. The Triphylian cities, however, always bore this yoke with impatience; and Lepreum took the lead in their frequent attempts to shake off the Eleian supremacy. The greater importance of Lepreum is shown by the fact that it was the only one of the Triphylian towns which took part in the Persian wars. (Herod. ix. 28.) In B.C. 421 Lepreum, supported by Sparta, revolted from Elis (Thuc. v. 31); and at last, in 400, the Eleians, by their treaty with Sparta, were obliged to relinquish their authority over Lepreum and the other Triphylian towns. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 25) When the Spartan power had been broken by the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), the Spartans endeavoured to recover their supremacy over Lepreum and the other Triphylian towns; but the latter protected themselves by becoming members of the Arcadian confederacy, which had been recently founded by Epaminondas. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 2, seq.) Hence Lepreum is called an Arcadian town by Scylax and Pliny, the latter of whom erroneously speaks both of a Leprion in Elis (iv. 5. s. 6), and of a Lepreon in Arcadia (iv. 5. s. 10). Pausanias also states that the Lepreatae in his time claimed to be Arcadians; but he observes that they had been subjects of the Eleians from ancient times,--that as many of them as had been victors in the public games were proclaimed as Eleians from Lepreus,--and that Aristophanes describes Lepreus as a city of the Eleians. (Paus. v. 5. § 3.) After the time of Alexander the Eleians again reduced the Triphylian cities, which therefore were obliged to join the Aetolian league along with the Eleians. But when Philip, in his war with the Aetolians, marched into Triphylia, the inhabitants of Lepreum rose against the Eleian garrison in their town, and declared in favour of Philip, who thus obtained possession of the place. (Polyb. iv. 77, 79, 80.) In the time of Pausanias the only monument in Lepreum was a temple of Demeter, built of brick. In the vicinity of the town was a fountain named Arene. (Paus. v. 5. § 6.) The territory of Lepreum was rich and fertile. Chora eudaimon, (Strab. viii.)
  The ruins of Lepreum are situated upon a hill, near the modern village of Strovitzi. These ruins show that Lepreum was a town of some size. A plan of them is given by the French Commission, which is copied in the work of Curtius. They were first described by Dodwell. It takes half an hour to ascend from the first traces of the walls to the acropolis, which is entered by an ancient gateway. The towers are square; one of them is almost entire, and contains a small window or arrow hole. A transverse wall is carried completely across the acropolis, by which means it was anciently divided into two parts. The foundation of this wall, and part of the elevation, still remain. Three different periods of architecture are evident in this fortress. The walls are composed of polygons: some of the towers consist of irregular, and others of rectangular quadrilaterals. The ruins extend far below the acropolis, on the side of the hill, and are seen on a flat detached knoll.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MAKISTOS (Ancient city) ILIA

Macistus

Macistus. Macistum, Makistos, to Makiston: Eth. Makistios. A town of Triphylia, in Elis, said to have been also called Platanistus (Platanistous, Strab. viii. p. 345.) It was originally inhabited by the Paroreatae and Caucones, who were driven out by the Minyae. (Strab. l. c.; Herod. iv. 148.) It was afterwards subdued by the Eleians, and became one of their dependent townships. In the time of Strabo, it was no longer inhabited (viii. p. 349). Macistus was situated upon a lofty hill in the north of Triphylia, and appears to have been the chief town in the north of the district, as Lepreum was in the south. That Macistus was in the north of Triphylia appears from several circumstances. Strabo describes its territory, the Macistia, as bordering upon Pisatis. (Strab. viii. p. 343.) Agis, in his invasion of the territory of Elis, in B.C. 400, when he entered Triphylia through the Aulon of Messenia, was first joined by the Lepreatae, next by the Macistii, and then by the Epitalii on the Alpheius. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 25) Stephanus places Macistus to the westward of the Lepreatis (Steph. B. s. v.); but this is obviously an error, as Arcadia bordered upon the Lepreatis in that direction. Macistus would appear to have been in the neighbourhood of Samicum upon the coast, as it had the superintendence of the celebrated temple of the Samian Poseidon at this place. (Strab. viii. p. 343.) From these circumstances there can be little doubt that Macistus was situated upon the heights of Khaiaffa.
  It is worthy of notice that Pausanias and Polybius mention only Samicum, and Xenophon only Macistus. This fact, taken in connection with the Macistians having the superintendence of the temple of the Samian Poseidon, has led to the conjecture that upon the decay of Samos upon the coast, the Minyans built Macistus upon the heights above; but that the ancient name of the place was afterwards revived in the form of Samicum. The Macistians had a temple of Hercules situated upon the coast near the Acidon. (Strab. viii. p. 348.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PYLOS TRIFYLIAS (Ancient city) ILIA

Pylus

  Pulos: Eth. Pulios. A town in Triphylia, mentioned only by Strabo, and surnamed by him Triphuliakos, Arkadikos, and Lepreatikos. He describes it as situated 30 stadia from the sea, on the rivers Mamathus and Arcadicus, west of the mountain Minthe and north of Lepreum (viii. p. 344). Upon the conquest of the Triphylian towns by the Eleians, Pylus was annexed to Lepreum (viii. p. 355). Leake observes that the village Tjorbadji, on the western extremity of Mount Minthe, at the fork of two branches of the river of Ai Sidhero, seems to agree in every respect with Strabo's description of this town. (Peloponnesiaca, p. 109.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


SAMIKON (Ancient city) ILIA

Samicum

  Samikon: Eth. Samikeus. A town of Triphylia in Elis, situated near the coast about half-way between the mouths of the Alpheius and the Neda, and a little north of the Anigrus. It stood upon a projecting spur of a lofty mountain, which here approaches so near the coast as to leave only a narrow pass. From its situation commanding this pass, it is probable that a city existed here from the earliest times; and it was therefore identified with the Arene of Homer (Il. ii. 591, xi. 723), which the poet places near the mouth of the Minyeius, a river supposed to be the same as the Anigrus. According to Strabo the city was originally called Samos, from its being situated upon a hill, because this word formerly signified heights, Samicum was at first the name of the fortress, and the same name was also given to the surrounding plain. (Strab. viii. pp. 346, 347; Paus. v. 5. § 3.) Pausanias speaks (v. 6. § 1) of a city Samia, which he apparently distinguishes from Samicum; but Samicum is the only place mentioned in history. Samicum was occupied by the Aetolian Polysperchon against the Arcadians, and was taken by Philip, B.C. 219. (Paus. v. 6. § 1; Polyb. iv. 77, 80.) The ruins of Samicurn are found at Khaiaffa (written Chaiappa), which is only the name of the guarded pass. The ruined walls are 6 feet thick, and about 1 1/2 mile in circumference. They are of the second order of Hellenic masonry, and are evidently of great antiquity. The towers towards the sea belong to a later age.
  Near Samicumn upon the coast was a celebrated temple of the Samian Poseidon, surrounded by a grove of wild olives. It was the centre of the religious worship of the six Triphylian cities, all of whom contributed to its support. It was under the superintendence of Macistus, the most powerful of the Triphylian cities. (Strab. viii. pp. 344, 346, 347.) In a corrupt passage of Strabo this temple is said to be 100 stadia equidistant from Lepreum and the Annius (tou Anniou); for the latter name we ought to read Alpheius and not Anigrus, as some editors have done.
  In the neighbourhood of Samicum there were celebrated medicinal springs, which were said to cure cutaneous diseases. Of the two lagoons which now stretch along the coast, the larger, which extends as far as the mouth of the Alpheius, begins at the northern foot of the hill upon which Samicum stands; the southern extends along the precipitous sides of the hill, which were called in antiquity the Achaean rocks. (Strab viii. p. 347.) The river Anigrus flows into the latter of these lagoons, and from thence flows out into the sea. The lagoon is deep, being fed with subterraneous sources; in summer it is said to be very fetid, and the air extremely unwholesome. Strabo relates that the waters of the lake were fetid, and its fish not eatable, which he attributes to the Centaurs washing their wounds in the Anigrus. Pausanias mentions the same circumstances; and both writers describe the efficacy of the water in curing cutaneous diseases. There were two caves, one sacred to the Nymphs Anigrides (Anigrides, Paus.; Anigriades, Strab.), and the other to the Atlantides; the former was the more important, and is alone mentioned by Pausanias. It was in the cave of the Anigrides that the persons who were going to use the waters first offered up their prayers to the Nymphs. (Strab. viii. p. 346, seq.; Paus. v. 5. § § 7 - 11.) These two caves are still visible in the rocks; but they are now accessible only by a boat, as they are immediately above the surface of the lake. General Gordon, who visited these caverns in 1835, found in one of them water distilling from the rock, and bringing with it a pure yellow sulphur.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


SKILLOUS (Ancient city) ILIA

Scillous

  Skillous: Eth. Skillountios. A town of Triphylia, a district of Elis, situated 20 stadia south of Olympia. In B.C. 572 the Scilluntians assisted Pyrrhus, king of Pisa, in making war upon the Eleians; but they were completely conquered by the latter, and both Pisa and Scillus were razed to the ground. (Paus. v. 6. § 4, vi. 22. § 4.) Scillus remained desolate till about B.C. 392, when the Lacedaemonians, who had a few years previously compelled the Eleians to renounce their supremacy over their dependent cities, colonised Scillus and gave it to Xenophon, then an exile from Athens. Xenophon resided here more than twenty years, but was expelled from it by the Eleians soon after the battle of Leuctra, B.C. 371. He has left us a description of the place, which he says was situ-ated 20 stadia from the Sacred Grove of Zeus, on the road to Olympia from Sparta, It stood upon the river Selinus, which was also the name of the river flowing by the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and like the latter it abounded in fish and shell-fish. Here Xenophon, from a tenth of the spoils acquired in the Asiatic campaign, dedicated a temple to Artemis, in imitation of the celebrated temple at Ephesus, and instituted a festival to the goddess. Scillus stood amidst woods and meadows, and afforded abundant pasture for cattle; while the neighbouring mountains supplied wild hogs, roebucks, and stags. (Xen. Anab. v. 3. 7 - 13.) When Pausanias visited Scillus five centuries afterwards the temple of Artemis still remained, and a statue of Xenophon, made of Pentelic marble. (Paus. v. 6. § 5, seq.; comp. Strab. viii. pp. 344, 387; Plut. de >Exsil. p. 603.) There are no remains to identify Scillus, but there can be no doubt that it stood in the woody vale, in which is a small village called Rasa, and through which flows a river falling into the Alpheius nearly opposite the Cladeus. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 213, seq., Peloponnesiaca, p. 9; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 133; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 91.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


STYLANGION (Ancient city) ILIA

Styllangium

Stullangion, Stullagion, Eth. Stullagios, Stullagieus. A town of Triphylia in Elis of uncertain site, which surrendered to Philip in the Social War.


THISSOA (Ancient city) ANDRITSENA

Theisoa

  Eth. Theisoates. A town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria or Parrhasia, on the northern slope of Mt. Lycaeus, called after the nymph Theisoa, one of the nurses of Zeus. Its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city. Leake places it at the castle of St. Helen above Lavdha. Ross discovered some ancient remains N. of Andritzana, which he conjectures may be those of Theisoa.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TYPANEES (Ancient city) ILIA

Typaneae

  Typaneae (Tupaneai, Polyb. Steph. B.; Tumpaneai, Strab.; Tumpaneia, Ptol.: Eth. Tupaneates), a town of Triphylia in Elis, mentioned by Strabo along with Hypana. It was taken by Philip in the Social War. It was situated in the mountains in the interior of the country, but its exact site is uncertain. Leake supposes it to be represented by the ruins near Platiana; but Boblaye supposes these to be the remains of Aepy or Aepium, and that Typaneae stood on the hill of Makrysia. (Strab. viii. p. 343; Polyb. iv. 77-79; Steph. B. s. v. Ptol. iii. 16. § 18; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 82; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 133; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, p. 105; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 89.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


VOLAX (Ancient city) ILIA

Bolax

Bolach. A town of Triphylia in Elis, which surrendered to Philip in the Social War. Its site is uncertain; but Leake, judging from similarity of name, places it at Volantza, a village on the left bank of the Alpheius, about four miles above its mouth.


YPANA (Ancient small town) ILIA

Hypana

  Hypana (Hupana: Eth. Hupaneus), a town in the interior of Triphylia in Elis, which surrendered to Philip V. in the Social War. Its inhabitants had been transferred to Elis when Strabo wrote. Hypana is mentioned along with Typaneae. Both these towns must have been situated in the mountains of Triphylia, but their site is uncertain. Leake places Hypana at Alvena in the heights above the maritime plain of Lepreum; but Boblaye more to the north, at Mundritza, in the hills above Samicum. (Strab. viii. p. 343; Polyb. iv. 77, 79; Steph. B. s. v.; Ptol. iii. 16. § 18, who calls it Hupaneia; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 85; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 133; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 89.)


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

Aliphera

A town in Arcadia, on the borders of Elis, south of the river Alpheus.


FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Phigalia

   A town in the southwest corner of Arcadia, on the frontiers of Messenia and Elis, which owes its celebrity in modern times to the remains of a splendid temple in its territory (i. e. at Bassae, some four miles distant), built in the time of Pericles. The sculptures, in alto-relievo, which ornamented the frieze in the interior, are now preserved in the British Museum. They represent the combat of the Centaurs and the Lapithae, and of the Greeks and the Amazons. The temple is, next to the Theseum at Athens, the most completely preserved architectural specimen of classic Greek art. It was built by Ictinus, one of the architects of the Parthenon, of gray stone and white marble. It was originally 125 1/2 feet long and 48 feet wide.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FRIXA (Village) ILIA

Phrixa

A town of Elis, on the borders of Pisatis, founded by the Minyae, and traditionally deriving its name from Phrixus.


FRIZA (Ancient city) SKILOUNTA

Phrixa

A town of Elis, on the borders of Pisatis, founded by the Minyae, and traditionally deriving its name from Phrixus.


LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

Lepreum

A town of Elis in Triphylia, situated forty stadia from the sea. Its name was derived from Leprea, daughter of Pyrgeus, or from Lepreus, son of Poseidon, and rival of Heracles, by whom he was slain.


MAKISTOS (Ancient city) ILIA

Macistus

A town of Elis, originally called Platanistus.


PYLOS TRIFYLIAS (Ancient city) ILIA

Pylos

   The name of three towns on the western coast of the Peloponnesus.
(2) In Triphylia, about thirty stadia from the coast, on the river Mamaus, west of the mountain Minthe, and north of Lepreum.


SKILLOUS (Ancient city) ILIA

Scillus

A town of Elis in the district Triphylia, on the river Selinus, twenty stadia south of Olympia. Here Xenophon, when banished from Athens, lived for more than twenty years, and built a sanctuary to Artemis.


YPANA (Ancient small town) ILIA

Hypana

(ta Hupana) and Hypane (Hupane). A town in Elis belonging to the so-called Pentapolis.


Non-profit organizations WebPages

ZACHARO (Small town) ILIA

Zacharo

Pages of Athens & Piraeus Zacharians Association


Official Web-Sites

ANDRITSENA (Small town) ILIA

Andritsena

  A mountainous village on a green mountainside, 65 km to the southeast of Pyrgos, which has got 663 inhabitants. The old stone houses have got tiled roofs. The big central square is covered by huge plane-trees. It is the place where Panagiotis Anagnostopoulos - a member of the Society of Friends was born.
The sights are:
  A precious library, donation of K. Nikolopoulos. It includes rare editions of the 16th century from Venice and the Vatican, archetypes, papyruses and documents of historic importance. The records of the War of Independence of 1821 are impressive. There are also archaeological findings (coins, pots etc), plaster-casts of Apollo's temple.
  The churches of St Theraponta, St Nicholas, St Athanasius and Santa Barbara as well as the little church of the Archangels date back to the 18th and 19th century.
  The ancient Vasses, 15 km to the south of Andritsaina, where the temple of Apollo looms up in a wild atmosphere, an elevation of 1,130 m. It was constructed by Iktinos, the architect of Parthenon, and dates back to 420-400 BC. It was built on the site of another temple by the inhabitants of Figalia.
  The ancient mountain of Kotylio, where traces of ancient temples have been found. They are believed to have been dedicated to Aphrodite and Artemis (Diana). The view you get from up there is enchanting.
  Near Platiana village, in the northwest of Andritsaina, there are remnants of ancient Aepius. The imposing remnants of the Isova monastery, built in the 13th century, was dedicated to the Holy Mother. The monastery was destroyed in 1263 by the Byzantine soldiers. The main church and the church of St Nicholas are also devastated. These remnants are the most important of the Franc occupation.
  Some remnants of the fortification of ancient Alifira on a hill. The town of Alifira was one of the most important political centre of ancient Arcadia. The excavations in the citadel of ancient Alifira revealed tomb monuments, remnants of some residences and the Dorian temple of Athina (5th century BC), where the brass statue of the goddess was put.
  The foundations of Aesculapiu's temple were also revealed. The pedestal of the god's statue was found. It is made of wood and ivory.

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below, which contains image.


Kaiafas spa resort

  Kaiafas lake is situated on the way from Pyrgos to Kalamata, approximately 20 minutes drive from Pyrgos just before you reach Zaharo. Kaiafas is a well known spa, its famous mineral waters gush from two caves formed by crevices in the rocks.
  The larger one is called the cave of the Anigrides, the smaller the Geranion grotto, dwelling places of nymphs since antiquity.
  The place is strangely beautiful, delightful, though the odor of the springs does detract somewhat. Legend maintains that the centaur Nessus washed his wound here after being struck by Heracles' poison arrow, and that is why the water smells.
  However, Kaiafas is not only sulphurous springs. It is also pine trees, sand, sea and a long, long shore. It's hard indeed to draw yourself away from such a sea.

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below, which contains image.


ZACHARO (Small town) ILIA

Zacharo

  Zacharo is a market town enveloped in pines and olive, trees bordered by an enormous stretch of beach with white sand and sparkling water.
  The soil is fertile here, the land blessed, the fields endless.
  Every corner is cultivated with vines, olive groves, corn, wheat, vegetables.
  Every place iswell tended, nothing is wild.
  It's nice to fall asleep next to a threshing floor or on a sandy beach.
  Heading north you come to Kaiafas, a well known spa, and the islet of Agia Ekaterini, in the middle of a small harbour.
  On the eastern shore, the famous mineral waters gush from two caves formed by crevices in the rocks.
  The place is strangely beautiful, delightful, though the odor of the springs does detract somewhat.
  Legend maintains that the centaur Nessus washed his wound here after being struck by Herakles' poisonous arrow, and that is why the water smells. Kaiafas is not only sulphurous springs, however; it is also pine trees, sand and sea and a long, long shore.

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below, which contains image.


Perseus Project

ARINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Arene


BASSAE (Ancient sanctuary) ILIA

EPY (Ancient city) ILIA

Aepy


Perseus Project index

ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

EPITALION (Ancient city) ILIA

FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

FRIZA (Ancient city) SKILOUNTA

LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

MAKISTOS (Ancient city) ILIA

SAMIKON (Ancient city) ILIA

SKILLOUS (Ancient city) ILIA

Present location

ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

Castle of Nerossitsa

It is a hill over the modern village of Aliphira.


EPITALION (Ancient city) ILIA

Agiorgitika hills


SKILLOUS (Ancient city) ILIA

Prophitis Elias hill


YPANA (Ancient small town) ILIA

Gryllos castle


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

Alipheira

  The city farthest W in the district of Kynouraioi at the border between Arkadia and Triphylia, lying on a hill (683 m) about two hours NW of Andritsaina, near the village of Rongkozio. It was named for Aliphon or Alipheiron, one of the sons of Lykaon, the son of Pelasgos, the mythical king of Arkadia. The first evidence of it relates to the worship of Athena in the middle of the 6th c. Later, in the 4th and 3d c., the city appears to have been joined to the Arkadian League with the other Arkadian cities, and was brought into the Megalopolitan Synoecism under whose jurisdiction it remained until 244 B.C. when Lydiadas ceded it to the Eleians. After that the city began to decline from the height of prosperity it had reached ca. the beginning of the 3d c. B.C. Alipheira briefly resisted the advance of Philip V (219 B.C.). After the Macedonian king had conquered it he installed a garrison: an inscription referring to it has been found. During the 2d c. it was one of the cities of the Achaian League, but it continued to dwindle, and by Pausanias time had become a city of no size. Remains of the Christian period show the area was inhabited even later.
  Excavations in 1932-35 uncovered the whole acropolis. The impressive fortification wall, well constructed of polygonal or rectangular blocks with towers at intervals, surrounds the steep slope of the hillside except for a part of the precipitous region which remained unwalled. Besides the circuit wall, the highest point of the hill (the heights) is also fortified by a wall in the shape of an irregular quadrangle. One tower is on the S side, where the entrance is; others on the W face provide greater strength and fortify the terrace where the Precinct of Athena is located. Here, on a lower level, a terrace wall which is terminated by towers supports the platform where the temple was built. The temple, which is preserved to the stylobate, probably replaced an earlier one. It was Doric, peripteral (6 x 15 columns), without pronaos or opisthodomos (dimensions at the euthynteria are 10.65 x 29.60 m). It has the characteristics of an Arkadian temple, such as N-S orientation, similar plan and height of columns, and similar tiles. Its date--ca. the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th c--is indicated by its definitely archaic features. Among these are the single step krepidoma with the second step serving as the stylobate, the columns with 16 flutes and with drums of irregular heights, the annulets below the neck, the elliptical guttai on the mutules of the geison, the alternating wide and narrow mutules (0.432, 0.335 m), the difference in intercolumniation between the long and short sides, the existence of angle contraction in the temple, the number of the columns, and the gorgon antefixes on the lowest cover tiles. The shape of the capitals and the triglyphs are especially indicative of a date of ca. 500-490 B.C.
  Along the front of the temple were uncovered rectangular and triagonal bases belonging to dedicatory statues as well as a long altar and the end of a large inscribed statue base, apparently belonging to a colossal bronze statue of Athena, the work of the Theban sculptor Hypatodoros.
  According to Pausanias, the Sanctuary of Asklepios was located on the low area to the W of the acropolis. The temple, which is a simple rectangular structure (5.75 x 9.30 m) with a pronaos in antis, has preserved on the axis of the sanctuary the cubical base of an akrelephantine statue. Directly in front of the base. two lion-footed slabs were used to support an offering table. The altar of the temple was rectangular (2.18 x 5.36 m), parallel to the front of the temple and to the E of it. The orthostates on the euthynteria are preserved, as are one of the supporting blocks on each end, which bear a painted rosette on one side and take the shape of a pediment. The altar is dated to the end of the 4th c. B.C., while the Temple of Asklepios dates ca. 300 B.C. A rectangular building to the SE of the altar with a peristyle of unfluted columns was perhaps the healing area of the Asklepieion. The trapezoidal peribolos of the sanctuary was used in places as a part of the fortification wall of Alipheira.
  Remains of the city have been noted inside the fortification wall at a place forming the suburb outside the heights, although it has been suggested that this was a fortified strip extending to the SE of the acropolis. Building foundations have also been found on the NE side of the hill, where were the lower city and the Fountain of Tritonis (Nerositsa). Finally, the necropolis extends around the E and W skirts of the hill. Among the funerary monuments one is outstanding for its size and interest. This is a heroon with a chamber dug in the earth and rock of the hillside, intended for Sentheas (or Santheas) according to the inscription on its front. Four other heroa were found, all of them, like the first, from the Hellenistic period. Tomb 5 differs from the rest in architectural form.

M. Gavrili, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


BASSAE (Ancient sanctuary) ILIA

Bassai

  A precinct sacred to Apollo Bassitas and site of the famous Doric Temple of Apollo built in the late 5th c. B.C. it is located 7 km NE of the ancient city of Phigalia and is contiguous to a second precinct, that of Kotilon, sacred to Artemis Orthia and Aphrodite. The composite sanctuary (750 m x 350 m) spreads over the S face of Mt. Kotilios: the precinct of Kotilon (elev. 1226 m) reaches the peak, Bassai lies below (elev. 1129 m). The god Pan is also attested at the site and an ancient spring in the SW area may have been sacred to him.
  In 1812 an expedition led by Cockerell cleared the Temple of Apollo. Excavations at Kotilon and Bassai and restorations of the Apollo temple have been conducted intermittently since 1903. Finds show that dedications started ca. 675 B.C. and that the cults then flourished through the 5th c. B.C. By ca. 350 B.C. activity rapidly declined but persisted into Roman times.
  Ca. 625 B.C. temples were constructed for Apollo, Artemis, and Aphrodite. Evidently, the temples dedicated to Apollo and Artemis were identical in design and decoration (15 x 7 m, pronaos, cella, akroterion disks, antefixes with heraldic sphinxes). The pair of Temples to Artemis and Aphrodite (ca. 9 x 6 m) in Kotilon survived throughout the history of the site; whereas the original structure in Bassai was the first of four Temples to Apollo. Ca. 575 B.C. Apollo I was rebuilt and slightly enlarged (cella 12 m x 7 m, adyton 7 m, opisthodomos 3 m) and redecorated with a new set of architectural terracottas similar in design to those on the first temple. in 1970 foundations of Apollo II were discovered 10 m S of the present temple, Apollo IV; the center lines of the earlier and later temples are on approximately the same N-S axis.
  Ca. 500 B.C. a third and large-scale Temple to Apollo was constructed of local limestone. it was subsequently disassembled and its blocks were reused in the substructure for Apollo IV of the late 5th c. B.C. Apparently, many essentials in plan and outward appearance of Apollo IV were in fact derived from Apollo III of the late archaic period (proportions width to length of 1:2.6, disposition of 6 x 12 columns and thickened diameters of frontal columns).
  Subtle refinements of design and construction in Apollo IV include a plan which forms an isosceles trapezoid (width of euthynteria is ca. 16 m but S is slightly wider than N, with both lateral sides exactly equal in length, ca. 40 m); in addition there are outward curvature in the stylobate, precise jointing, and decoration of all risers of the krepidoma with molded rebates at the lower edges and raised, stippled panels above. Subtle adjustments were made in column spacings and column proportions and the Doric shafts are without entasis. Metopes of the exterior Doric frieze and the two pediments were undecorated by sculpture; by contrast, a marble roof was trimmed by antefixes and a richly carved and painted raking sima; and the gables were surmounted by floral akroteria. Within the peristyle a set of reliefs filled the metopes of the Doric friezes across the pronaos and opisthodomos (preserved fragments BM 510-19 are all from the S side) and a system of elaborately carved limestone coffers adorned the ceilings of the pteromata.
  The most splendid decoration of the temple was a sculptured frieze which encircled the interior of the cella, an arrangement which appears in Greek architecture for the first time at Bassai. The slabs contain scenes of a Centauromachy (BM 520-30) and an Amazonomachy (BM 531-42). The design of the interior peristyle is unique: in plan five columns of the ionic order are engaged to each lateral wall by short spur walls, with the rearmost pair being joined by spurs which run at 45° to the lateral walls. Between this pair and on the center-line axis of the cella there was a freestanding column which bore the earliest known capital of the Corinthian order. Limestone and marble were employed alternately throughout the interior: bases and shafts in limestone, capitals in marble except for the ionic capitals in limestone above the diagonal spurs, frieze in marble, geison in limestone, and coffered ceiling in marble. The adyton and the cella are divided only by the ionic entablature which is carried across the cella on the Corinthian column. Within this area a doorway opens to the E. Originally, it was closed to pedestrian traffic by a permanently fixed grill.
  The adyton was also coffered, but the lozenges here differed slightly in shape from the patterns used for ceilings of the cella and lateral niches.
  The cult image stood before the Corinthian column; no indication of the base remains on the pavement, but in 1812 fragments of an akrolithic statue (BM 543-44) were found in this part of the cella. The adyton may have served to house a xoanon from the earlier temples.
  No altar has been discovered at Bassai. However, other outlying structures have been partially uncovered and include a base at the SW coiner of Apollo iV (perhaps for the 4 m bronze statue of Apollo Epikourios), a stairway in this vicinity, a rectangular foundation for a building 25 m NW of Apollo IV (perhaps to be identified as a workshop) and miscellaneous other stretches of walls in lower terraces to the SW of the temple.

F. A. Cooper, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


EPY (Ancient city) ILIA

Aipion

  One of the six Minyan foundations (Hdt. 4.148), between Heraia and Makistos (Xen. Hell. 3.2.30), was a natural stronghold in Makistia (Strab. 8.3.24), continually threatened with Elean domination (Xen. 3.2.30, Polyb. 4.77, 80). There is considerable uncertainty about the name, Herodotos giving Epion, Xenophon Epeion, Polybios Aipion, whereas Strabo identifies it with Homeric Aipu (Il. 2.592), thus including it in Nestor's realm. This identification is unlikely to be correct and it is perhaps best to follow Xenophon, a near neighbor, and adopt Epeionas the correct spelling. The location is also uncertain. The usual assumption has been that Epeion is to be identified with the remains in a place called Eliniko (now Epio) above Platiana just off the modern road from Andritsena to Pyrgos. However, good reasons have been advanced for identifying this site with Trypaneae, and also for placing Epeionat modern Mazi, which is usually identified with ancient Skillous. Though the former is likely to be correct, it has seemed best here to retain the traditional identification, and to describe the remains at Eliniko.
   The town lies on an exposed hill in a position commanding the entire area at an altitude of ca. 600 m above sea level, and is unusually long and narrow (680 x 60-80 m). It is divided into three parts: an upper acropolis area separated by terrace walls from a lower area still included within the fortification walls, and a NW extension of the walls which guards a relatively easy approach to the walls. The acropolis is itself divided into a number of terraces, of which the highest (to the W) has its own wall, and must have served as the citadel. The terrace next to the one farthest E contains a theater, while the next seems to have served as an agora. The main entrance to the town was a gate in the imposing E wall at its SE corner. The walls all seem of Hellenistic, possibly 3d c., date, and are very well preserved in parts, particularly in the area of the citadel.

W. F. Wyatt, Jr., ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Phigalia

  A polis within the district of Parrhasia. Geographically isolated, Phigalia was linked historically with S Triphylia (viz., Lepreon) and the upper Messenian plain. The city (1500 x 2500 m) spreads over an uneven plateau 300 m above the deep gorge of the Neda river which permitted access to the coast of Triphylia 15 km to the W. Citizens frequently aided Messenians in their wars and revolts against Sparta; in reprisal, the Spartans beseiged and occupied Phigalia several times in the 7th and 6th c. B.C. and between 421 to ca. 414 B.C. and again ca. 401-395. In Hellenistic times Phigalia was a member of the Aitolian and Achean Leagues; in the Roman period it went into decline, but has remained continuously occupied.
  The site is unexcavated, but chance finds indicate that the site was occupied by the Late Bronze Age; considerable remains of the archaic, Classical, and Roman periods lie exposed. Fortification walls are preserved for a length of ca. one km along the E and N sides of the acropolis and stand to heights of 10 m in some parts. Stretches of the circuit may date as early as the 5th c. B.C. but in the mid 4th c. B.C. portions were rebuilt for the addition of square and circular towers. An outer, but uncharted, circuit of walls exists to the far W of the city.
  In the SE a Hellenistic fountain-house continues to function; nearby, a Byzantine Chapel of the Panagia is built into the superstructure of an Ionic building. In the W section a long stoa with shafts of several columns still in situ delineates one side of an open, level area which appears to be the agora. Adjacent, a destroyed chapel contains architectural members from a building of the Classical period. An archaic kouros, found here in 1890, is now at Olympia and perhaps is to be identified as the victor Arrachion (564 B.C.), described by Pausanias. A Sanctuary to Athena is on a low hill to the W, overlooking the agora.
  The acropolis of the city (elev. 720 m) lies in the N sector. A Sanctuary to Artemis Soteirias is on the crown, now occupied by a Church to Haghios Elias. Chamber tombs line the scarps of surrounding hills. Numerous but unidentified monuments are scattered throughout the confines of the city. Ancient sources attest to the existence of a Polemarchion, a theater, a gymnasium, a Temple of Dionysos Akratophoros, Sanctuaries of Hygeia and Asklepios, and Heroons of the Oresthasions and Lepreos.

F. A. Cooper, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

Lepreon

  About 7 km from the coast, on a steep hill N of Strovitsi village. The hill falls sharply to the N. It is said to have been founded by Minyans, who drove out the original Kaukonians (Hdt. 4.148). Although the Triphylians claimed to be part of Arkadia, Lepreon was dependent upon Elis through much of its history (Paus. 5.5.3). From the early 4th to the mid 2d c. it was drawn at various times into the orbits of Sparta, the Arkadian League, Philip V, and, finally, the Achaian League. In 146 it was permanently assigned to Elis, and was of little importance in Pausanias' day. Men of Lepreon fought at Plataia (Hdt. 9.28,31; Paus. 5.23.2).
  There are considerable remains of the fortified citadel, with several towers, and an enclosed keep at the NE corner. On the W, traces of a wall descend towards the valley. The walls include several styles of masonry, but probably only two periods are represented; the earlier of these may be 4th c. work, but the remains are mostly Hellenistic.
  Rectangular foundations, probably of two temples, have been observed on the citadel hill. Numerous tombs have been found by peasants in the valley to the S around Strovitsi; and there is an ancient well below the keep to the N.

F. E. Winter, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


SAMIKON (Ancient city) ILIA

Samikon

  A few km from Olympia. The ruins of the city have been identified on a broad upland to the S of Mt. Makistos (or Lapithos). Inhabited by the Epeans who named it Samos, and then by the Pylians, from whom it took the name Arene, the city later passed to the Minii who called it Makistos; only under the Eleans did it retake the original name of Samia or Samikon (cf. Paus. 5.6.1; Ptol. 4.80.12; Strab. 8.148; Herod. 4.148). It was the seat of the religious confederation of the six cities of Triphylia, and there was erected a Temple to Poseidon, whose cult was greatly renowned. A vast wall enclosed the S, where two types of masonry are found: polygonal blocks already in the 5th c. B.C., which were also used in several towers; and a trapezoidal technique with squared face, perhaps dating prior to the 3d c. B.C. In 1825, Fort Klidi (The Key), taking advantage of the ancient foundations, was erected on the site. A tumulus with pottery from the Middle Helladic period to Mycenaean II has been found at the NE base of the rocky hill on which stands Klidi.

N. Bonacasa, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


SKILLOUS (Ancient city) ILIA

Skillous

  City in Triphylia, 20 stades (3.5 km) S of Olympia, on the Selinus River (Xen. Anab. 5.3.11; Strab. 8.343; Paus. 5.6.4). The land of Skillous was fertile, as it is today, and also abounded with game (Xen. Anab. 5.3.7; Paus. 5.6.5). In the 7th and early 6th c. B.C., Skillous, a close friend and ally of Pisa, which at that time assumed control of the Olympic sanctuary, built the heraion at Olympia (Paus. 5.16.1). In 570 B.C. the people of Skillous were evicted from the city after the total defeat of their allies the Pisaians in battle with the Eleians (Paus. 5.6.4, 6.22.4). In 400 B.C. Skillous was resettled by Sparta. After the peace of Antalkidas (King's Peace) the city was proclaimed free (Xen. Hell. 6.5.2) but shortly afterwards it came under the control of Sparta. The farm assigned by Sparta to the Athenian exile, Xenophon, was in the territory of Skillous. Xenophon erected a shrine there which was a copy of the Temple of Ephesian Artemis (Xen. Anab. 5.3.7f; Paus. 5.6.4). A short distance from the shrine, Pausanias (5.6.6) saw the tomb of Xenophon with his statue. In the area of Skillous was also a remarkable Temple of Skillountian Athena (Strab. 8.343). After the battle of Leuktra (371 B.C.) Skillous again came under Eleian control. Skillous was probably deserted in the Hellenistic period and for this reason is not mentioned at all by Polybios. Pausanias, on the road to Olympia after Samikon, mentions the uninhabited remains of Skillous in the distance to the left; that is, in the area between the present communities of Krestaina, Makrysia, and Ladikou, where the city must have been.

N. Yalouris, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Babes (Ossa) Babes (Ossa)

  The boundaries of the territory of Skillous are not known. To the N, however, they extended to the mountainous area S of Olympia, today known by the name Babes. Apparently the Temple of Skillountian Athena was located there (Strab. 8.343). On the heights of Babes, which even today are fertile, are located 17 settlements: in the areas of Mazi and Phanari, Arnokatarrhako, Gemkovouni, Rhasa, Haghios Elms, Haghios Triphonas, Vageni, Louzi, and Rhethi, notable finds dating from the prehistoric to the Roman period have been made. On the hill of Ainokatarrhako a Doric shrine of Zeus has been uncovered dating to the beginning of the 5th c. B.C. Around the hill a settlement extends for some distance. A section of this, where there are clusters of large houses with roads between, has been excavated. Another Doric temple has been found NE of Arnokatarrhako on the peak of the hill Haghios Elias, just opposite Olympia. In the same area, architectural fragments of other Doric temples (?) have been collected. The remains preserved at the village of Haghios Triphonas at the highest point of Babes belong to monumental building. The remains of the settlement in the area near the town of Mazi are extensive and also monumental. On the hill, Kastro, which dominates this ancient settlement, is preserved a temple of the 4th c. B.C. with pedimental sculptures (on display in the Patras museum). Finally, the remains of a settlement and acropolis near the town of Phanari probably belong to ancient Phrixa. These settlements in Babes perhaps belong to the territory of Skillous at the period of its greatest extent. Ancient sources mention the cities of Phrixa, Aipion, Pyrgos, and Bolax in this area. Three of these may be identified with some probability: Phrixa with the settlement at Phanari, Aipion with the settlement at Mazi, and Pyrgos with the settlement at Arnokatarrhako.

N. Yalouris, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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