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for destination: "MOLYKRIA
Information about the place (4)
Perseus Project index
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
An ancient acropolis NW of Naupaktos at the summit of a hill (510
m) between the towns of Haghios Georgios and Velvina.
The long, narrow acropolis, oriented N-S, was uncovered in 1924. It
is surrounded by a continuous wall without corners or towers, built of massive
blocks, roughly fitted into an irregular isodomic masonry, and preserved from
the foundations to a height of 1.50 m. The area inside the wall, approached along
the even N and S slopes of the hill, forms two levels. On the lower one to the
N have been uncovered the more siguificant remains of the acropolis: a temple,
with a stoa to the N of it. The temple, oriented NW-SE, was erected on a three-stepped
krepidoma resting on the euthynteria (0.295 m high) which is for the most part
visible. The krepidoma (31.45 x 14.37 m) was found virtually intact. It was carefully
worked and shows drafting on the vertical joints of the blocks, and also a double
block system in the stylobate arranged so that each column rests on every second
block, and on the middle of the block rather than on the joint. Owing to these
two features and the number of the columns in the peristyle (6 x 13), the temple
is dated to the 4th c. B.C. or a little later. From the superstructure were found
only a half column drum and a corner triglyph. A careful examination of the foundations
revealed the plan of the temple, which was peristyle and distyle in antis with
a pronaos and opisthodomos (3.25 m deep) and with an inner colonnade along the
walls of the cella. It was noted that in the foundations poros architectural fragments
from an earlier building were used, perhaps from a preexistent temple. Poorly
built foundations of unknown purpose were found along the front of the temple.
The foundations (38.80 x 11.40 m) of a double stoa were found parallel to the
axis of the temple and to the N of it. Here were found bases supporting square
pillars. The thinness of the walls and their poor construction are, according
to the excavator, evidence of the temporary character of the building, which may
have been a workshop.
On the upper level of the hill were found the irregularly constructed
foundations (11 x 16 m) of a rectangular building, surrounding another rectangle.
Here was also found a cubical stone foundation (altar?) to the N of which was
uncovered a third building. All of these are of unknown purpose.
Outside the walls there are remains of buildings and tombs visible
on the N side of the acropolis as well as a large circular cistern built of large
blocks to the S, which possibly belonged to a habitation situated near there.
The acropolis is actually identified by the most reliable scholars
with ancient Molykreion (or Molykreia), a city of Lokris mentioned by numerous
ancient writers (Thuc. 2.84.4; Strab. 9.4.8, 10.2.4; Paus. 9.31.6; Polyb. 5.94.7-8;
Ptol. 3.15.3; Skylax 38.35; Plut., Mor. Conv. Sept. Sap. 162f) in the area of
modern Antirrhion. This city, which goes back to the 8th c. B.C., was under Corinthian
control until the 5th c., but was taken by the Spartans and Aitolians at the beginning
of the Peloponnesian War, and was thereafter under Aitolian government. Three
mutilated inscriptions were found, of which one, restored, refers to Athena, but
this fact does not prove that she was worshiped in the temple, since there is
mention of a Temple of Poseidon to which Hesiod's murderer fled. Absence of inscriptional
evidence for the name of the city has led investigators to a number of different
theories. Some would place the city Molykreia on the promontory of Antirrhion,
and others on the hill where are the remains described above. According to the
second hypothesis, the city that is visible above the springs at the shore by
Antirrhion would be a harbor of the same name for the inland city, or finally,
the name Molykreia (or Molykreion) would refer not only to the city but to the
whole area, as would appear in the occasional epithet of Molykreian (sometimes
Aitolian) applied to Rhion, in contrast to the Achaian Rhion across the way, as
epithets characteristically desiguate the area rather than a particular city (cf.
also Rhion of Messenia).
M. Gavrili, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites,
Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from
Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
(Molukreion). A town in the south of Aetolia, at the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf.
- Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)
Molycreium, Molycreia, or Molycria (Molukreion, Thuc. ii. 84; Molukreia,
Strab. x. p. 451, et alii; Molukria, Polyb. v. 94; Paus. ix. 31. § 6: Eth. Molukrios,
more rarely Molukrieus, Molukraios, fem. Molukrissa, Molukrias), a town of Aetolia,
situated near the sea-coast, and at a short distance from the promontory Antirrhium,
which was hence called Rhion to Molukrikon (Thuc. ii. 86), or Molukrion Hpion.
(Strab. viii. p. 336.) Some writers call it a Locrian town. It is said by Strabo
to have been built after the return of the Heracleidae into Peloponnesus. It was
colonised by the Corinthians, but was subject to the Athenians in the early part
of the Peloponnesian War. It was taken by the Spartan commander Eurylochus, with
the assistance of the Aetolians, B.C. 426. It was considered sacred to Poseidon.
(Strab. x. pp. 451, 460; Scyl. p. 14; Thuc. ii. 84, iii. 102 ; Diod. xii. 60;
Polyb., Pans., ll. cc.; Plin. iv. 2. s. 3; Ptol. iii. 15. § 3; Steph. Byz. s.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)