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The city of Astakos

ASTAKOS (Small town) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Modern Astakos is hidden in the cove of a picturesque bay on the coast of Western Greece, surrounded by the shores and small islands of Ehinades, where the famous naval battle took place known as the battle of Lapante(1571A.D.) The city has a unique neo-classical grandeur and a very particular liveliness. During all historical periods Classical, Hellenistic-Byzantine Astakos is present. Especially during the classical and Hellenistic period it presents its greatest peak and the fact that it had its own currency is characteristic of its prosperity. The ruins of the ancient city, with the temple of Karaou Zeus as its most characteristic monument, as well as the elements of later historical periods are situated at the place of Kastra Gravas, north-west of the modern city of Astakos, near the historical monastery of Ai-Lia. This is also the place where Georgios Karaiskakis encamped.
  Its economic prosperity since the middle of the last century - during which the foundation of modern Astakos took place by city plan of Bavarian architects in 1862 - was due to the sea and the commerce of acorn. In fact, in the inner part of the city there is one of the greatest Oak-tree forests in the Balkans. Remains of this economic prosperity are the old mansions which characterise the appearance of the city and along with the port were the reason to declare the city of Astakos a HISTORICAL SITE and these buildings along with others to be Landmarks. The residents' activities in agriculture, stock-raising and fishery, the presence of commerce and social services that serve the area as well as the activity at the port give the whole city a special kind of vivacity. Astakos promises its visitors a pleasant stay.

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Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Achelous

ACHELOOS (River) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Achelous (Acheloos, Epic Acheloios). (Aspropotamo), the largest and most celebrated river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus, and after flowing through the mountainous country of the Dolopians and Agraeans, entered the plain of Acarnania and Aetolia near Stratus, and discharged itself into the Ionian sea, near the Acarnanian town of Oeniadae. It subsequently formed the boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia, but in the time of Thucydides the territory of Oeniadae extended east of the river. It is usually called a river of Acarnania, but it is sometimes assigned to Aetolia. Its general direction is from north to south. Its waters are of a whitish yellow or cream colour, whence it derives its modern name of Aspropotamo or the White river, and to which Dionysius (432) probably alludes in the epithet argurodines. It is said to have been called more anciently Thoas, Axenus and Thestius (Thuc. ii. 102; Strab. pp. 449, 450, 458; Plut. de Fluv. 22; Steph. B. s. v.) We learn from Leake that the reputed sources of the Achelous are at a village called Khaliki, which is probably a corruption of Chalcis, at which place Dionysius Periegetes (496) places the sources of the river. Its waters are swelled by numerous torrents, which it receives in its passage through the mountains, and when it emerges into the plain near Stratus its bed is not less than three-quarters of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed is often filled, but in the middle of summer the river is divided into five or six rapid streams, of which only two are of a considerable size. After leaving Stratus the river becomes narrower; and, in the lower part of its course, the plain through which it flows was called in antiquity Paracheloitis after the river. This plain was celebrated for its fertility, though covered in great part with marshes, several of which were formed by the overflowings of the Achelous. In this part of its course the river presents the most extraordinary series of wanderings; and these deflexions, observes a recent traveller, are not only so sudden, but so extensive, as to render it difficult to trace the exact line of its bed, -and sometimes, for several miles, having its direct course towards the sea, it appears to flow back into the mountains in which it rises. The Achelous brings down from the mountains an immense quantity of earthy particles, which have formed a number of small islands at its mouth, which belong to the group anciently called Echinades; and part of the mainland near its mouth is only alluvial deposition. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 136, seq., vol. iii. p. 513, vol. iv. p. 211; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 102.) The chief tributaries of the Achelous were:- on its left, the Campylus (Kampulos, Diod. xix. 67: Medghova), a river of considerable size, flowing from Dolopia through the territory of the Dryopes and Eurytanes, and the Cyathus (Kuathos, Pol. ap. Ath. p. 424, c.) flowing out of the lake Hyrie into the main stream just above Conope:- on its right the Petitarus (Liv. xliii. 22) in Aperantia, and the Anapus (Anapos), which fell into the main stream in Acarnania 80 stadia S. of Stratus. (Thuc. ii. 82.)
  The Achelous was regarded as the ruler and representative of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence he is called by Homer (Il. xx. 194) Kreion Acheloios, and was worshipped as a mighty god throughout Greece. He is celebrated in mythology on account of his combat with Heracles for the possession of Deianeira. The river-god first attacked Heracles in the form of a serpent, and on being worsted assumed that of a bull. The hero wrenched off one of his horns, which forthwith became a cornucopia, or horn of plenty. (Soph. Trach. 9; Ov. Met. ix. 8, seq.; Apollod. ii. 7. § 5.) This legend alludes apparently to some efforts made at an early period to check the ravages, which the inundations of the river caused in this district; and if the river was confined within its bed by embankments, the region would be converted in modern times into a land of plenty. For further details respecting the mythological character of the Achelous, see Diet. of Biogr. and Myth. s. v.
  In the Roman poets we find Acheloides, i. e. the Sirenes, the daughters of Achelous (Ov. Met. v. 552): Acheloia Callirhoe, because Callirhoe was the daughter of Achelous (Ov. Met. ix. 413): pocula Acheloia, i. e. water in general (Virg. Geory. i. 9): Acheloius heros, that is, Tydeus, son of Oeneus, king of Calydon, Acheloius here being equivalent to Aetolian. (Stat. Theb. ii. 142.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Agrinium

AGRINION (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Agrinium (Agrinion), a town of Aetolia, situated towards the NE. of Aetolia, near the Achelous. Its position is quite uncertain. From its name we might conjecture that it was a town of the Agraci; but the narrative in Polybius (v. 7) would imply that it was not so far north. In B.C. 314 we find Agrinium in alliance with the Acarnanians, when Cassander marched to the assistance of the latter against the Aetolians. As soon as Cassander returned to Macedonia, Agrinium was besieged by the Aetolians,and capitulated; but the Aetolians treacherously put to death the greater part of the inhabitants. (Died. xix. 67, 68; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 156.)

Acarnania

AKARNANIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Acarnania (Akarnania: Akarnan, -anos, Acarnan,-anis), the most westerly province of Greece, was bounded on the N. by the Ambracian gulf, on the NE. by Amphilochia, on the W. and SW. by the Ionian sea, and on the E. by Aetolia. It contained about 1571 square miles. Under the Romans, or probably a little earlier, the river Achelous formed the boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia; but in the time of the Peloponnesian war, the territory of Oeniadae, which was one of the Acarnanian towns, extended E. of this river. The interior of Acarnania is covered with forests and mountains of no great elevation, to which some modern writers erroneously give the name of Crania. Between these mountains there are several lakes, and many fertile vallies. The chief river of the country is the Achelous, which in the lower part of its course flows through a vast plain of great natural fertility, called after itself the Paracheloitis. This plain is at present covered with marshes, and the greater part of it appears to have been formed by the alluvial depositions of the Achelous. Owing to this circumstance, and to the river having frequently altered its channel, the southern part of the coast of Acarnania has undergone numerous changes. The chief affluent of the Achelous in Acarnania is the Anapus (Anapos), which flowed into the main stream 80 stadia S. of Stratus. There are several promontories on the coast, but of these only two are especially named, the promontory of Actium and that of Crithote (Krithote), on the W. coast, forming one side of the small bay, on which the town. of Astacus stood. Of the inland lakes, the only one mentioned by name is that of Melite (Melige: Trikardho), 30 stadia long and 20 broad, N. of the mouth of the Achelous, in the territory of the Oeniadae. There was a lagoon, or salt lake, between Leucas and the Ambracian gulf, to which Strabo (p. 459) gives the name of Myrtuntium (Murtountion). Although the soil of Acarnania was fertile, it was not much cultivated by the inhabitants. The products of the country are rarely mentioned by the ancient writers. Pliny speaks of iron mines (xxxvi. 19. s. 30), and also of a pearl-fishery off Actium (ix. 56). A modern traveller states that the rocks in Acarnania indicate, in many places, the presence of copper, and he was also informed, on good authority, that the mountains produce coal and sulphur in abundance. (Journal of the Geographical Society, vol. iii. p. 79.) The chief wealth of the inhabitants consisted in their herds and flocks, which pastured in the rich meadows in the lower part of the Achelous. There were numerous islands off the western coast of Acarnania. Of these the most important were the Echiinades, extending from the mouth of the Achelous along the shore to the N.; the Taphiae Insulae, lying between Leucas and Acarnania, and Leucas itself, which originally formed part of the mainland of Acarnania, but was afterwards separated from--the latter by a canal. (Respecting Acarnania in general see Strab. p. 459, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 488, seq.; Fiedler, Reise durch Griechenland, vol. i. p. 158, seq.)
  Amphilochia, which is sometimes reckoned a part of Acarnania, is spoken of in a separate article.
  The name of Acarnania appears to have been unknown in the earliest times. Homer only calls the country opposite Ithaca and Cephallenia, under the general name of Epeirus (epeiros), or the mainland (Strab. p. 451, sub fin.), although he frequently mentions the Aetolians.1
  The country is said to have been originally inhabited by the Taphii, or Teleboae, the Leleges, and the Curetes. The Taphii, or Teleboae were chiefly found in the islands off the western coast of Acarnania, where they maintained themselves by piracy. The Leleges were more widely disseminated, and were also in possession at one period of Aetolia, Locris, and other parts of Greece. The Curetes are said to have come from Aetolia, and to have settled in Acarnania, after they had been expelled from the former country by Aetolus and his followers (Strab. p. 465). The name of Acarnania is derived from Acarnan, the son of Alcmaeon, who is said to have settled at the mouth of the Achelous. (Thuc. ii. 102.) If this tradition is of any value, it would intimate that an Argive colony settled on the coast of Acarnania at an early period. In the middle of the 7th century B.C., the Corinthians founded Leucas, Anactorium, Sollium, and other towns on the coast. (Strab. p. 452.) The original inhabitants of the country were driven more into the interior; they never made much progress in the arts of civilised life; and even at the time of the Peloponnesian war, they were a rude and barbarous people, engaged in continual wars with their neighbours, and living by robbery and piracy. (Thuc. i. 5.) The Acarnanians, however, were Greeks, and as such were allowed to contend in the great Pan-Hellenic games, although they were closely connected with their neighbours, the Agraeans and Amphilochians on the gulf of Ambracia, who were barbarian or non-Hellenic nations. Like other rude mountaineers, the Acarnanians are praised for their fidelity and courage. They formed good light-armed troops, and were excellent slingers. They lived, for the most part dispersed in villages, retiring, when attacked, to the mountains. They were united, however, in a political League, of which Aristotle wrote an account in a work now lost. (Akarnanon Politeia, Strab. p. 321.) Thucydides mentions a hill, named Olpae, near the Amphilochian Argos, which the Acarnanians had fortified as a place of judicial meeting for the settlement of disputes. (Thuc. iii. 105.) The meetings of the League were usually held at Stratus, which was the chief town in Acarnania (Xen. Hell. iv. 6. 4; comp. Thuc. ii. 80); but, in the time of the Romans, the meetings took place either at Thyrium, or at Leucas, the latter of which places became, at that time, the chief city in Acarnania (Liv. xxxiii. 16, 17; Polyb. xxviii. 5.) At an early period, when part of Amphilochia belonged to the Acarnanians, they used to hold a public judicial congress at Olpae, a fortified hill about 3 miles from Argos Amphilochicum. Of the constitution of their League we have scarcely any particulars. We learn from an inscription found at Punta, the site of ancient Actium, that there was a Council and a general assembly of the people, by which decrees were passed. (Edoxe tai boulai kai toi koinoi ton Hakarnanon). At the head of the League there was a Strategus (Stragegos) or General; and the Council had a Secretary (grammateus), who appears to have been a person of importance, as in the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues. The chief priest (hierapolos) of the temple of Apollo at Actium seems to have been a person of high rank; and either his name or that of the Strategus was employed for official dates, like that of the first Archon at Athens. (Bockh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.)
  The history of the Acarnanians begins in the time of the Peloponnesian war. Their hatred against the Corinthian settlers, who had deprived them of all their best ports, naturally led them to side with the Athenians; but the immediate cause of their alliance with the latter arose from the expulsion of the Amphilochians from the town of Argos Amphilochicum by the Corinthian settlers from Ambracia, about B.C. 432. The Acarnanians espoused the cause of the expelled Amphilochians, and in order to obtain the restoration of the latter, they applied for assistance to Athens. The Athenians accordingly sent an expedition under Phormio, who took Argos, expelled the Ambraciots, and restored the town to the Amphilochians and Acarnanians. An alliance was now formally concluded between the Acarnamians and Athenians. The only towns of Acarnania which did not join it were Oeniadae and Astacus. The Acarnanians were of great service in maintaining the supremacy of Athens in the western part of Greece, and they distinguished themselves particularly in B.C. 426, when they gained a signal victory under the command of Demosthenes over the Peloponnesians and Ambraciots at Olpae. (Thuc. iii. 105, seq.) At the conclusion of this campaign they concluded a peace with the Ambraciots, although they still continued allies of Athens (Thuc. iii. 114.) In B.C. 391 we find the Acarnanians engaged in war with the Achaeans, who had taken possession of Calydon in Aetolia; and as the latter were hard pressed by the Acarnanians, they applied for aid to the Lacedaemonians, who sent an army into Acarnania, commanded by Agesilaus. The latter ravaged the country, but his expedition was not attended with any lasting consequences (Xen. Hell. iv. 6). After the time of Alexander the Great the Aetolians conquered most of the towns in the west of Acarnania; and the Acarnanians in consequence united themselves closely to the Macedonian kings, to whom. they remained faithful in their various vicissitudes of fortune. They refused to desert the cause of Philip in his war with the Romans, and it was not till after the capture of Leucas, their principal town, and the defeat of Philip at Cynoscephalae that they submitted to the Romans. (Liv. xxxiii. 16-17.) When Antiochus III. king of Syria, invaded Greece, B.C. 191, the Acarnanians were persuaded by their countryman Mnasilochus to espouse his cause; but on the expulsion of Antiochus from Greece, they came again under the supremacy of Rome. (Liv. xxxvi. 11-12.) In the settlement of the affairs of Greece by Aemilius Paulus and the Roman commissioners after the defeat of Perseus (B.C. 168), Leucas was separated from Acarnania, but no other change was made in the country. (Liv. xlv. 31.) When Greece was reduced to the form of a Roman province, it is doubtful whether Acarnania was annexed to the province of Achaia or of Epeirus, but it is mentioned at a later time as part of Epeirus. The inhabitants of several of its towns were removed by Augustus to Nicopolis, which he founded after the battle of Actium; and in the time of this emperor the country is described by Strabo as utterly worn out and exhausted. (Strab. p. 460.)
  The following is a list of the towns of Acarnania. On the Ambracian gulf, from E. to W.: Limnaea Echinus (Echinos, Steph. B. s. v.; Plin. iv. 2; Ai Vasili), Heracleia (Plin. iv. 2; Vonitza), Anactorium, Actium. On or near the west of the Ionian sea, from N. to S.: Thyrium, Palaeibus, Alyzia, Sollium, Astacus, Oeniadae. In the interior from S. to N.: Old Oenia, Coronta, Metropolis, Stratus, Rhynchus (Hpunchos), near Stratus, of uncertain site (Pol. ap. Ath. iii. p. 95, d.); Phytia or Phoeteiae, Medeon. The Roman Itineraries mention only one road in Acarnania, which led from Actium along the coast to Calydon in Aetolia.
1 In the year B.C. 239, the Acarnanians, in the embassy which they sent to Rome to solicit assistance, pleaded that they had taken no part in the expedition against Troy, the ancestor of Rome, being the first; time probably, as Thirlwall remarks, that they had ever boasted of the omission of their name from the Homeric catalogue. (Justin, xxviii. 1; Strab. p. 462; Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. viii. pp. 119, 120.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Acrae

AKRES (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
Acrae (Akrai), a town in Aetolia of uncertain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. Stephanus erroneously calls it an Acarnanian town. (Pol. v. 13; Steph. B. s. v. Akra.)

Actium

AKTION (Ancient port) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Actium (Aktion: Eth. Aktios, Actius: Adj. Aktiakos, Actiacus, also Aktios, Actius), a promontory in Acarnania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf (Gulf of Arta) off which Augustus gained his celebrated victory over Antony and Cleopatra, on September 2nd, B.C. 31. There was a temple of Apollo on this promontory, which Thutydides mentions (i. 29) as situated in the territory of Anactorium. This temple was of great antiquity, and Apollo derived from it the surname of Actius and Actiacus. There was also an ancient festival named Actia, celebrated here in honour of the god. Augustus after his victory enlarged the temple, and revived the ancient festival, which was henceforth celebrated once in four years (pentaeteris, ludi quinquennales), with musical and gymnastic contests, and horse races. (Dion Cass. li. 1; Suet. Aug. 18.) We learn from a Greek inscription found on the site of Actium, and which is probably prior to the time of Augustus, that the chief priest of the temple was called Hierapolos, and that his name was employed in official documents, like that of the first Archon at Athens, to mark the date. (Bockh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.) Strabo says (p. 325) that the temple was situated on an eminence, and that below was a plain with a grove of trees, and a dock-yard; and in another passage (p. 451) he describes the harbour as situated outside of the gulf. On the opposite coast of Epirus, Augustus founded the city of Nicopolis in honour of his victory. Actium was properly not a town, though it is sometimes described as such; but after the foundation of Nicopolis, a few buildings sprang up around the temple, and it served as a kind of suburb to Nicopolis.
  The site of Actium has been a subject of dispute. The accompanying plan of the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, taken from the map published by Lieut. Wolfe (Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. iii.) will give the reader a clear idea of the locality.
  The entrance of the Ambraciot gulf lies between the low point off Acarnania, on which stands Fort La Punta, and the promontory of Epirus, on which stands the modern town of Prevesa, near the site of the ancient Nicopolis. The narrowest part of this entrance is only 700 yards, but the average distance between the two shores is half a mile. After passing through this strait, the coast turns abruptly round a small point to the SE., forming a bay about 4 miles in width, called the Bay of Prevesa. A second entrance is then formed to the larger basin of the gulf by the two high capes of La Scara in Epeirus, and of Madonna in Acarnania, the width of this second entrance being about one mile and a half. Now some modern writers, among others D'Anville, suppose Actium to have been situated on Cape Madonna, and Anactorium, which Strabo (p. 451) describes as 40 stadia from Actium, on La Punta. Two reasons have led them to adopt this conclusion: first, because the ruins on C. Madonna are sometimes called Azio, which name is apparently a corruption of the ancient Actium; and, secondly, because the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo to have stood on a height, which description answers to the rocky eminence on C. Madonna, and not to the low peninsula of La Punta. But these reasons are not conclusive, and there can be no doubt that the site of Actium corresponds to La Punta. For it should be observed, first, that the name Azio is unknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been introduced by the Venetians, who conjectured that the ruins on C. Madonna were those of Actium, and therefore invented the word; and, secondly, that though Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a height, he does not say that this height was on the sea, but on the contrary, that it was at some little distance from the sea. In other respects Strabo's evidence is decisive in favour of the identification of Actium with La Punta. He says that Actium is one point which forms the entrance of the bay; and it is clear that he considered the entrance of the bay to be between Prevesa and La Punta, because he makes the breadth of the strait a little more than four stadia, or half a mile, which is true when applied to the first narrow entrance, but not to the second. That the strait between Prevesa and La Punta was regarded as the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, is clear, not only from the distance assigned to it by Strabo, but from the statements of Polybius (iv. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Scylax (v. Kassopii), who makes it 4 stadia, and of Pliny (iv. 1) who makes it 500 paces. Anactorium is described by Strabo as situated within the bay, while Actium makes the mouth of the bay. (Strab. pp. 325, 451.) Anactorium, therefore, must be placed on the promontory of C. Madonna. The testimony of Strabo is confirmed by that of Dion Cassius. The latter writer says (l. 12) that Actium is a temple of Apollo, and is situated before the mouth of the strait of the Ambraciot gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis. Cicero tells us (ad Fam. xvi. 6, 9) that in coasting from Patrae to Corcyra he touched at Actium, which he could hardly have done, if it were so far out of his way as the inner strait between C. La Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the conclusion that the promontory of Actium was the modern La Punta, and that the temple of Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the strait, probably near the Fort La Punta.
  A few remarks are necessary respecting the site of the battle, which has conferred its chief celebrity upon Actium. The fleet of Antony was stationed in the Bay of Prevesa. His troops had built towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and they occupied the channel itself with their ships. Their camp was near the temple of Apollo, on a level spacious ground. Augustus was encamped on the opposite coast of Epirus, on the spot where Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the harbour of Mitika, to the N. of Nicopolis, in the Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival of Augustus, he proceeded to Actium, and after a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But having experienced some misfortunes, he subsequently re-crossed the strait and joined the main body of his army at Actium. By the advice of Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt. He accordingly sailed out of the strait, but was compelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fight. After the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, who was followed by Antony, sailed through the middle of the contending fleets, and took to flight. They succeeded in making their escape, but most of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La Punta and Prevesa (exo ton stenon, Dion Cass. 1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated by some writers. (Dion Cass. 1. 12, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 28, seq.; Wolfe, l. c.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Halicyrna

ALIKARNA (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
Halikurna: Eth. Hadikurnaios. A village of Aetolia, described by Strabo as situated 30 stadia below Calydon towards the sea Pliny places it near Pleuron. Leake discovered some ruins, midway between Kurt-aga (the site of Calydon) and the eastern termination of the lagoon of Mesolonghi, which he supposes to be the remains of Halicyrna.

Alyzia

ALYZIA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Aluzia (Thuc.vii.31, et alii), Aluzeia (Steph. B.s.v.:), Eth. Aluzeus, Aluzaios, Aluzeios (ap. Bockh. Corpus Inscript. No. 1793: Kandili). A town on the west coast of Acarnania. According to Strabo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on which it possessed a harbour and a sanctuary, both dedicated to Heracles. In this sanctuary were some works of art by Lysippus, representing the labours of Hercules, which a Roman general caused to be removed to Rome on account of the deserted state of the place. The remains of Alyzia are still visible in the valley of Kandili. The distance of the bay of Kandili from the ruins of Leucas corresponds with the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the distance between Alyzia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. 450, 459; Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 2; Plin. iv. 2; Ptolem. iii. 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name from Alyzeus, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452; Steph. Byz. s. v.) It is first mentioned by Thucydides. In B.C. 374, a naval battle was fought in the neighbourhood of Alyzia between the Athenians under Timotheus and the Lacedaemonians under Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected their trophy at Alyzia, and the Lacedaemonians in the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that the island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Carnus, the modern Kalamo. (Thuc. vii. 31; Xen. Hell. v. 4. 65, 66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 14, seq.) (ap. Bockh. Corpus Inscript. No. 1793: Kandili). A town on the west coast of Acarnania. According to Strabo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on which it possessed a harbour and a sanctuary, both dedicated to Heracles. In this sanctuary were some works of art by Lysippus, representing the labours of Hercules, which a Roman general caused to be removed to Rome on account of the deserted state of the place. The remains of Alyzia are still visible in the valley of Kandili. The distance of the bay of Kandili from the ruins of Leucas corresponds with the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the distance between Alyzia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. 450, 459; Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 2; Plin. iv. 2; Ptolem. iii. 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name from Alyzeus, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452; Steph. Byz. s. v.) It is first mentioned by Thucydides. In B.C. 374, a naval battle was fought in the neighbourhood of Alyzia between the Athenians under Timotheus and the Lacedaemonians under Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected their trophy at Alyzia, and the Lacedaemonians in the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that the island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Carnus, the modern Kalamo. (Thuc. vii. 31; Xen. Hell. v. 4. 65, 66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 14, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Amphilochia

AMFILOCHIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Amphilochia (Amphilochia: Amphilochos), a small district at the eastern end of the Ambraciot gulf, bounded on the N. by Ambracia and on the S. by the territory of the Agraei. It did not extend far inland. It is a mountainous district, and the rocks along the coast rise in some parts to 450 or 500 feet high. The Amphilochi were a non-Hellenic tribe, although they were supposed to have derived their name from the Argive Amphilochus, the son of Amphiaraus. Strabo (p. 326) describes them as an Epirot people, but their country is more usually described as a part of Acarnania. (Steph. B. s.v.; Scyl. p 12.) Their lineage, as Grote remarks, was probably something intermediate between the Acarnanians and Epirots. At the time of the Peloponnesian war the Amphilochi were in close alliance with the Acarnanians. After the death of Alexander the Great the Amphilochi were conquered by the Aetolians; and they were at a later time included in the Roman province of Epirus. The only town in their country was Argos, surnamed Amphilochicum, under which the history of the people is more fully given. There were also a few villages or fortresses, which owe their importance simply to their connection with the history of Argos, and which are therefore described in that article.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Anactorium

ANAKTORION (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Anaktorion: Anaktorios. A town in Acarnania, situated on the Ambraciot gulf, and on the promontory, which now bears the name of C. Madonna. On entering the Ambraciot gulf from the Ionian sea it was the first town in Acarnania after Actium, from which it was distant 40 stadia, and which was in the territory of Anactorium. This town was for some time one of the most important places in this part of Greece. It was colonized jointly by the Corinthians and Corcyraeans; but in the war between these peoples, in B.C. 432, the Corinthians obtained sole possession of the place by fraud. It remained in the hands of the Corinthians till B.C. 425, when it was taken by the Acarnanians with the assistance of the Athenians, and the Corinthian settlers were expelled. Augustus removed its inhabitants to the town of Nicopolis, which he founded on the opposite coast of Epirus, and Strabo describes it as an emporium of the latter city. The site of Anactorium has been disputed, and depends upon the position assigned to Actium. It has however been shown that Actium must be placed at the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf on La Punta, and Anactorium on C. Madonna. At the western extremity of the latter promontory are the ruins of a Greek town, about two miles in circumference, which Leake supposes to have been Anactorium. They are situated near a small church of St. Peter, which is the name now given to the place. Other writers place Anactorium at Vonitza, on the E. extremity of the promontory, but with less probability.

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Aracynthus

ARAKYNTHOS (Mountain) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Aracynthus (Arakunthos: Zygos), a range of mountains in Aetolia running in a south-easterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. pp. 450, 460; Dionys. Perieg. 431; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 121.) Pliny (iv. 2. § 3) and Solinus (7. § 22) erroneously call Aracynthus a mountain of Acarnania. If we can trust the authority of later writers and of the Roman poets, there was a mountain of the name of Aracynthus both in Boeotia and in Attica, or perhaps on the frontiers of the two countries. Thus Stephanus B. (s. v.) and Servius (ad Virg. Eel. ii. 24) speak of a Boeotian Aracynthus; and Sextus Empiricus (adv. Gramm. c. 12, p. 270), Lutatius (ad Stat. Theb. ii. 239), and Vibius Sequester (de Month. p. 27) mention an Attic Aracynthus. The mountain is connected with the Boeotian hero Amphion both by Propertius (iii. 13. 42) and by Virgil (Ecl. ii. 24); and the line of Virgil - Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeo Aracyntho - would seem to place the mountain on the frontiers of Boeotia and Attica. (Comp. Brandstater, Die Gesch. des Aetol. Landes, p. 108.)

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Argos Amphilochicum

ARGOS AMFILOCHIKON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Argos Amphilochicum (Argos to Amphilochikon: Eth. Argeios: Neokhori), the chief town of Amphilochia, situated at the eastern extremity of the Ambraciot gulf, on the river Inachus. Its territory was called Argeia (Argeia). Its inhabitants laid claim to their city having been colonized from the celebrated Argos in Peloponnesus, though the legends of its foundation somewhat different. According to one tradition, Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus, being dissatisfied with the state of things in Argos on his return from Troy, emigrated from his native place, and founded a city of the same name on the Ambraciot gulf. According to another tradition, it was founded by Alcmaeon, who called it after his brother Amphilochus. (Thuc. ii. 68; Strab. p. 326; comp. Apollod. iii. 7. § 7.) But whether the city owed its origin to an Argive colony or not, we know that the Amphilochi were regarded as barbarians, or a-non-Hellenic race, at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, and that shortly before that time the inhabitants of Argos were the only portion of the Amphilochi, who had become Hellenized. This they owed to some colonists from Ambracia, whom they admitted into the city to reside along with them. The Ambraciots, however, soon expelled the original inhabitants, and kept the town, with its territory, exclusively for themselves. The expelled inhabitants placed themselves under the protection of the Acarnanians, and both people applied to Athens for assistance. The Athenians accordingly sent a force under Phormio, who took Argos, sold the Ambraciots as slaves, and restored the town to the Amphilochians and Acarnanians, both of whom now concluded an alliance with Athens. This event probably happened in the year before the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 432. Two years afterwards (430) the Ambraciots, anxious to recover the lost town, marched against Argos, but were unable to take it, and retired, after laying waste its territory. (Thuc. ii. 68.) In B.C. 426 they made a still more vigorous effort to recover Argos; and as the history of this campaign illustrates the position of the places in the neighbourhood of Argos, it requires to be related a little in detail. The Ambraciots having received the promise of assistance from Eurylochus, the Spartan commander, who was then in Aetolia, marched with 3000 hoplites into the territory of Argos, and captured the fortified hill of Olpae (Olpai), close upon the Ambracian gulf, 25 stadia (about 3 miles) from Argos itself. Thereupon the Acarnanians marched to the protection of Argos, and took up their position at a spot called Crenae (Krenai), or the Wells, at no great distance from Argos. Meantime Eurylochus, with the Peloponnesian forces, had marched through Acarnania, and had succeeded in joining the Ambraciots at Olpae, passing unperceived between Argos itself and the Acarnanian force at Crenae. He then took post at Metropolis (Metropolis), a place probably NE. of Olpae. Shortly afterwards Demosthenes, who had been invited by the Acarnanians to take the command of their troops, arrived in the Ambraciot gulf with 20 Athenian ships, and anchored near Olpae. Having disembarked his men, and taken the command, he encamped near Olpae. The two armies were separated only by a deep ravine: and as the ground was favourable for ambuscade, Demosthenes hid some men in a bushy dell, so that they might attack the rear of the enemy. The stratagem was successful, Demosthenes gained a decisive victory, and Eurylochus was slain in the battle. This victory was followed by another still more striking. The Ambraciots at Olpae had some days before sent to Ambracia, to beg for reinforcements; and a large Ambraciot force had entered the territory of Amphilochia about the time when the battle of Olpae was fought. Demosthenes being informed of their march on the day after the battle, formed a plan to sur prise them in a narrow pass above Olpae. At this pass there were two conspicuous peaks, called respectively the greater and the lesser Idomene (Idomene). The lesser Idomene seems to have been at the northern entrance of the pass, and the greater Idomene at the southern entrance. As it was known that the Ambraciots would rest for the night at the lower of the two peaks, ready to march through the pass the next morning, Demosthenes sent forward a detachment to secure the higher peak, and then marched through the pass in the night. The Ambraciots had obtained no intelligence of the defeat of their comrades at Olpae, or of the approach of Demosthenes; they were surprised in their sleep, and put to the sword without any possibility of resist. ance. Thucydides considers the loss of the Ambraciots to have been the greatest that befell any Grecian city during the whole war prior to the peace of Nicias; and he says, that if Demosthenes and the Acarnanians had marched against Ambracia at once, the city must have surrendered without a blow. The Acarnanians, however, refused to undertake the enterprise, fearing that the Athenians might be more troublesome neighbours to them than the Ambraciots. On the contrary, they and the Amphilochians now concluded a peace with the Ambraciots [p. 208] for 100 years. (Thuc. iii. 105--114; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. vi. p. 408, &c.) We know little more of the history of Argos. Some time after the death of Alexander the Great, it fell into the hands of the Aetolians, together with the rest of Ambracia: and it was here that the Roman general, M. Fulvius, took up his quarters, when he concluded the treaty between Rome and the Aetolians. (Liv. xxxviii. 10; Pol. xxii. 13.) Upon the foundation of Nicopolis by Augustus, after the battle of Actium, the inhabitants of Argos were removed to the former city, and Argos was henceforth deserted. (Anth. Graec. ix. 553.)
  It is, however, mentioned by later writers. (Plin. iv. 1; Mel. ii. 3; Ptol. iii. 14.) The site of Argos has been a subject of dispute. Thucydides says (iii. 105), that it was situated on the sea. Polybius (xxii. 13) describes it as distant 180 stadia, and Livy (xxxviii. 10) 22 miles from Ambracia. Leake places it in the plain of Vlikha, at the modern village of Neolhori, where are the ruins of an ancient city, the walls of which were about a mile in circumference. The chief objection to Neokhori as the site of Argos is, that Neokhori is situated at a short distance from the coast; whereas Thucydides, as we have already seen, describes Argos as a maritime city. But it is very probable that the marsh or lagoon, which now separates Neokhori from the inlet of Armyro, may have been rendered shallower than it was formerly by alluvial depositions, and that it may once have afforded a commodious harbour to Argos. The distance of Neokchori from the ruins of Ambracia corresponds to the distance assigned by Polybius and Livy between Argos and Ambracia. Near Neokhori also is the river of Ariadha, corresponding to the Inachus, on whichArgos is said to have been situated. The only other ruins in the neighbourhood, which could be regarded as the remains of Argos, are those further south, at the head of the bay of Kervasara, which Lieutenant Wolfe, who visited the country in 1830, supposes to have been the site of Argos: but there are strong reasons for believing that this is the site of Limnaea. Fixing the site of Argos at Neokhori, we are able to identify the other places mentioned in the history of the campaign of B.C. 426. Crenae probably corresponds to Armyro on the coast, SW. of Argos; and Olpae to Arapi, also on the coast, NW. of Argos, at both of which places there are Hellenic remains. At Arapi at present there is a considerable lagoon, which was probably not so large in ancient times. The ravine, which separated the army of Demosthenes from that of Eurylochus, seems to have been the torrent which enters the lagoon from the north, and Metropolis to have been a place on its right bank, at the southern extremity of the mountains called Makrinoro. Thucydides expressly mentions Olpae and Metropolis as two different places; and there is no reason to suppose them only different names of one place, as some modern commentators have done. The pass, where Demosthenes gained his second victory over the Ambraciots, is the pass of Makrinoro, which is one of the most important in this part of Greece. The southern extremity of the mountain corresponds to the greater Idomene, which Demosthenes occupied; while the northern extremity, where the Am. braciots were attacked, was the lesser Idomene. On the latter are remains of ancient fortifications,which bear the name of Paleopyryo.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Astacus

ASTAKOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Astakos: Eth. Anstakenis, Astakios. a town on the W. coast of Acarnania, on the bay now called Dragamesti, one side of which is formed by the promontory anciently named Crithote. The ruins of Astacus are probably those described by Leake as below a monastery of St. Elias, and which he supposes to be those of Crithote. There was, however, no town Crithote, but only a promontory of this name; and Leake has misunderstood the passage of Strabo, in which Crithote is mentioned. Astacus is said to have been a colony of Cephallenia. At the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, it was governed by a tyrant, named Evarchus, who was deposed by the Athenians (B.C. 431), but was shortly afterwards restored by the Corinthians. It is mentioned as one of the towns of Acarnania in a Greek inscription, the date of which is subsequent to B.C. 219.

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Chalcis

CHALKIS (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS
Chalcis. Also called Chalceia, and Hypohalcis (Chalkeia, Pol. v. 94; Hupochalkis, Strab. p. 451; Steph. B. s. v.) A town of Aetolia, situated upon the coast, at a short distance E. of the mouth of the Evenus, and at the foot of a mountain of the same name, whence it was called Hypochalcis. Chalcis is one of the 5 Aetolian towns spoken of by Homer,who gives it the epithet of anchialos, and it continued to be mentioned in the historical period. (Hom. Il. ii. 640; Thuc. ii. 83; Pol. v. 94; Strab. pp. 451,459 460.) There are two great mountains situated between the river Fidhari (the Evenus) and the castle of Rumili (Antirrhium), of which the western mountain, called Varassova, corresponds to Chalcis, and the eastern, called Kaki-skala, to Taphiassus. The town of Chalcis appears to have stood in the valley between the two mountains, probably at Ovrio-castro, where there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. There was some confusion in the ancient writers respecting the position of mount Chalcis, and Artemidorus, who called it Chalcia, placed it between the Achelous and Pleuron (Strab. p. 460); but this is clearly an error.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Echinus

ECHINOS (Ancient city) AKTIO - VONITSA
  Echinos: Eth. Echinaieus. A town in Acarnania, also said to have been founded by Echion. It was mentioned by the poet Rhianus, and occurs in the list of Acarnanian towns preserved by Pliny, where it is placed between Heraclia and Actium. Leake places it at Ai Vasili, remarking that, from Stephanus and the poet Rhianus, it is evident that Echinus was an Acarnanian town of some importance: the story attached to it shows that it was one of the early colonies of this coast; the ruins at Ai Vasili indicate a remote antiquity, and their safe position on a mountain removed from the sea, is in conformity with that which is generally found in the early foundations of the Greeks.

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Elaeus

ELEOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Elaios. A town of Aetolia, belonging to Calydon, was strongly fortified, having received all the necessary munitions from king Attalus. It was taken by Philip V., king of Macedonia, B.C. 219. Its name indicates that it was situated in a marshy district; and it must have been on the coast to have received supplies from Attalus. We may therefore place it near Mesolonghi.

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Aetolia

ETOLIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Aetolia (Aitolia: Eth. Aitolos, Aetolus), a district of Greece, the boundaries of which varied at different periods. In the time of Strabo it was bounded on the W. by Acarnania, from which it was separated by the river Achelous, on the N. by the mountainous country inhabited by the Athamanes, Dolopes, and Dryopes, on the NE. by Doris and Malis, on the SE. by Locris, and on the S. by the entrance to the Corinthian gulf. It contained about 1165 square miles. It was divided into two districts, called Old Aetolia (he archaia Aitolia), and Aetolia Epictetus (he epiktetos), or the Acquired. The former extended along the coast from the Achelous to the Evenus, and inland as far as Thermum, opposite the Acarnanian town of Stratus: the latter included the northern and more mountainous part of the province, and also the country on the coast between the Evenus and Locris. When this division was introduced is unknown; but it cannot have been founded upon conquest, for the inland Aetolians were never subdued. The country between the Achelous and the Evenus appears in tradition as the original abode of the Aetolians; and the term Epictetus probably only indicates the subsequent extension of their name to the remainder of the country. Strabo makes the promontory Antirrhium the boundary between Aetolia and Locris, but some of the towns between this promontory and the Evenus belonged originally to the Ozolian Locrians. (Strab. pp. 336, 450, 459.)
  The country on the coast between the Achelous and the Evenus is a fertile plain, called Paracheloitis (Paracheloitis), after the former river. This plain is bounded on the north by a range of hills called Aracynthus, north of which and of the lakes Hyria and Trichonis there again opens out another extensive plain opposite the town of Stratus. These are the only two plains in Aetolia of any extent. The remainder of the country is traversed in every direction by rugged mountains, covered with forests, and full of dangerous ravines. These mountains are a south-westerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, and have never been crossed by any road, either in ancient or modern times. The following mountains are mentioned by special names by the ancient writers:
1.Tymphrestus (Tumphrestos), on the northern frontier, was a southerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, and more properly belongs to Dryopis.
2. Bomi (Bomoi), on the north-eastern frontier, was the most westerly part of Mt. Oeta, inhabited by the Bomienses. In it were the sources of the Evenus. (Strab. x. p. 451; Thuc. iii. 96; Steph. B. s. v. Bomoi.)
3. Coraxa (Korax), also on the north-eastern frontier, was a south-westerly continuation of Oeta, and is described by Strabo as the greatest mountain in Aetolia. There was a pass through it leading to Thermopylae, which the consul Acilius Glabrio crossed with great difficulty and the loss of many beasts of burthen in his passage, when he marched from Thermopylae to Naupactus in B.C. 191. Leake remarks that the route of Glabrio was probably by the vale of the Vistritza into that of the Kokkcino, over the ridges which connect Velukhi with Vardhusi, but very near the latter mountain, which is thus identified with Corax. Corax is described on that occasion by Livy as a very high mountain, lying between Callipolis and Naupactus. (Strab. x. p. 450; Liv. xxxvi. 30; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 624.)
4. Taphiassus (Taphiassos: Kaki--scala), a southerly continuation of Corax, extended down to the Corinthian gulf, where it terminated in a lofty mountain near the town of Macynia. In this mountain Nessus and the other Centaurs were said to have been buried, and from their corpses arose the stinking waters which flowed into the sea, and from which the western Locrians are said to have derived the name of Ozolae, or the Stinking. Modern travellers have found at the base of Mt. Taphiassus a number of springs of fetid water. Taphiassus derives its modern name of Kaki--skala, or Bad-ladder, from the dangerous road, which runs along the face of a precipitous cliff overhanging the sea, half way up the mountain. (Strab. pp. 427, 451, 460; Antig. Caryst. 129; Plin. iv. 2; Leake, vol. i. p. 111; Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 135; Gell, Itiner. p. 292.)
5. Chalcis or Chalceia (Chalkis e Chalkia: Varassova), an offshoot of Taphiassus, running down to the Corinthian gulf, between the mouth of the Evenus and Taphiassus. At its foot was a town of the same name. Taphiassus and Chalcis are the ancient names of the two great mountains running close down to the sea-coast, a little west of the promontory Antirrhium, and separated from each other by some low ground. Each of these mountains rises from the sea in one dark gloomy mass. (Strab. pp. 451, 460; Horn. Il. ii. 640; Leake, l. c.; Mure, vol. i. p. 171.)
6. Aracyntus (Arakunthos: Zygos), a range of mountains running in a south-easterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. x. p. 450.)
7. Panaetolium (Viena), a mountain NE. of Thermum, in which city the Aetolians held the meetings of their league. (Plin. iv. 2; Pol. v. 8; Leake, vol. i. p. 131.)
8. Myenus (to oros Muenon, Plut. de Fluviis, p. 44), between the rivers Evenus and Hylaethus.
9. Macynium mentioned only by Pliny (l. c.), must, from its name, have been near the town of Macynia on the coast, and consequently a part of Mt. Taphiassus.
10. Curium (Kourion), a mountain between Pleuron and lake Trichonis, from which the Curetes were said to have derived their name. It is a branch of Aracynthus. (Strab. x. p. 451.)
  The two chief rivers of Aetolia were the Achelous and the Evenus, which flowed in the lower part of their course nearly parallel to one another. There were no other rivers in the country worthy of mention, with the exception of the Campylus and Cyathus, both of which were tributaries of the Achelous.
  There were several lakes in the two great plains of Aetolia. The upper plain, N. of Mt. Aracynthus, contained two large lakes, which communicated with each other. The eastern and the larger of the two was called Trichonis (Trichonis, Pol. v. 7, xi. 4: Lake of Apokuro), the western was named Hyria (Lake of Zygos); and from the latter issued the river Cyathus, which flowed into the Achelous near the town of Conope, afterwards Arsinoe (Ath. x. p. 424). This lake, named Hyrie by Ovid (Met. vii. 371, seq.) is called Hydra (gdra) in the common text of Strabo, from whom we learn that it was afterwards called Lysimachia (Ausimachia) from a town of that name upon its southern shore. (Strab. p. 460.) Its proper name appears to have been Hyria, which might easily be changed into Hydra. (Muller, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 481.) This lake is also named Conope by Antoninus Liberalis (Met. 12). The mountain Aracynthus runs down towards the shores of both lakes, and near the lake Hyrie there is a ravine, which Ovid (l. c.) calls the Cycneia Tempe, because Cycnus was said to have been here changed into a swan by Apollo. The principal sources which form both the lakes are at the foot of the steep mountain overhanging the eastern, or lake Trichonis; a current flows from E. to W. through the two lakes; and the river of Cyathus is nothing more than a continuation of the same stream (Leake, vol. i. p. 154).
  In the lower plain of Aetolia there were several smaller lakes or lagoons. Of these Strabo (pp. 459, 460) mentions three.
1. Cynia (Kunia), which was 60 stadia long and 20 broad, and communicated with the sea.
2. Uria (Ouria), which was much smaller than the preceding and half a stadium from the sea.
3. A large lake near Calydon, belonging to the Romans of Patrae: this lake, according to Strabo, abounded in fish (euopsos), and the gastronomic poet Archestratus said that it was celebrated for the labrax (labrax, a ravenous kind of fish. (Ath. vii. p. 311, a.)
  There is some difficulty in identifying these lakes, as the coast has undergone numerous changes; but Leake supposes that the lagoon of Anatoliko was Cynia, that of Mesolonghi Uria, and that of Bokhori the lake of Calydon. The last of these lakes is perhaps the same as the lake Onthis (Onthis), which Nicander (ap. Schol. ad Nicand. Ther. 214) speaks of in connection with Naupactus. (Leake, vol. iii. p. 573, &c.)
  In the two great plains of Aetolia excellent corn was grown, and the slopes of the mountains produced good wine and oil. These plains also afforded abundance of pasture for horses; and the Aetolian horses were reckoned only second to those of Thessaly. In the mountains there were many wild beasts, among which we find mention of boars and even of lions, for Herodotus gives the Thracian Nestus and the Achelous as the limits within which lions were found in Europe. (Herod. v. 126.)
  The original inhabitants of Aetolia are said to have been Curetes, who according to some accounts had come from Euboea. (Strab. x. p. 465.) They inhabited the plains between the Achelous and the Evenus, and the country received in consequence the name of Curetis. Besides them we also find mention of the Leleges and the Hyantes, the latter of whom had been driven out of Boeotia. (Strab. pp. 322, 464.) These three peoples probably belonged to the great Pelasgic race, and were at all events not Hellenes. The first great Hellenic settlement in the country is said to have been that of the Epeans, led by Aetolus, the son of Endymion, who crossed over from Elis in Peloponnesus, subdued the Curetes, and gave his name to the country and the people, six generations before the Trojan war. Aetolus founded the town of Calydon, which he called after his son, and which became the capital of his dominions. The Curetes continued to reside at their ancient capital Pleuron at the foot of Mt. Curium, and for a long time carried on war with the inhabitants of Calydon. Subsequently the Curetes were driven out of Pleuron, and are said to have crossed over into Acarnania. At the time of the Trojan war Pleuron as well as Calydon were governed by the Aetolian chief Thoas. (Paus. v. 1. § 8; Hom. Il. ix. 529, seq.; Strab. p. 463.) Since Pleuron appears in the later period of the heroic age as an Aetolian city, it is represented as such from the beginning in some legends. Hence Pleuron, like Calydon, is said to have derived its name from a son of Aetolus (Apollod. i. 7. § 7); and at the very time that some legends represent it as the capital of the Curetes, and engaged in war with Oeneus, king of Calydon, others relate that it was governed by his own brother Thestius.
  Aetolia was celebrated in the heroic age of Greece on account of the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and the exploits of Tydeus, Meleager and the other heroes of Calydon and Pleuron. The Aetolians also took part in the Trojan war under the command of Thoas; they came in 40 ships from Pleuron, Calydon, Olenus, Pylene and Chalcis (Hom. Il. ii. 638). Sixty years after the Trojan war some Aeolians, who had been driven out of Thessaly along with the Boeotians, migrated into Aetolia, and settled in the country around Pleuron and Calydon, which was hence called Aeolis after them. (Strab. p. 464; Thuc. iii. 102.) Ephorus (ap. Strab. p. 465) however places this migration of the Aeolians much earlier, for he relates that the Aeolians once invaded the district of Pleuron, which was inhabited by the Curetes and called Curetis, and expelled this people. Twenty years afterwards occurred the great Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus under the command of the descendants of Heracles. The Aetolian chief Oxylus took part in this invasion, and conducted the Dorians across the Corinthian gulf. In return for his services he received Elis upon the conquest of Peloponnesus.
  From this time till the commencement of the Peloponnesian war we know nothing of the history of the Aetolians. Notwithstanding their fame in the heroic age, they appear at the time of the Peloponnesian war as one of the most uncivilized of the Grecian tribes; and Thucydides (i. 5) mentions them, together with their neighbours the Ozolian Locrians and Acarnanians, as retaining all the habits of a rude and barbarous age. At this period there were three main divisions of the Aetolians, the Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes. The last, who were the most numerous of the three, spoke a language which was unintelligible, and were in the habit of eating raw meat. (Thuc. iii. 102.) Thucydides, however, does not call them Barbaroi; and notwithstanding their low culture and uncivilized habits, the Aetolians ranked as Hellenes, partly, it appears, on account of their legendary renown, and partly on account of their acknowledged connection with the Eleans in Peloponnesus. Each of these three divisions was subdivided into several village tribes. Their villages were unfortified, and most of the inhabitants lived by plunder. Their tribes appear to have been independent of each other, and it was only in circumstances of common danger that they acted in concert. The inhabitants of the inland mountains were brave, active, and invincible. They were unrivalled in the use of the javelin, for which they are celebrated by Euripides. (Phoeniss. 139, 140; comp. Thuc. iii. 97.)
  The Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes, inhabited only the central districts of Aetolia, and did not occupy any part of the plain between the Evenus and the Achelous, which was the abode of the more civilized part of the nation, who bore no other name than that of Aetolians. The Apodoti (Apodotoi, Thuc. iii. 94; Apodotoi, Pol. xvii. 5) inhabited the mountains above Naupactus, on the borders of Locris. They are said by Polybius not to have been Hellenes. (Comp. Liv. xxxii. 34.) North of these dwelt the Ophionenses or Ophienses (Ophioneis, Thuc. l. c.; Ophieis, Strab. pp. 451,465), and to them belonged the smaller tribes of the Bomienses (Bomies, Thuc. iii. 96; Strab. p. 451; Steph. Byz. s. v. Bomoi) and Callienses (Kallies, Thuc.), both of which inhabited the ridge of Oeta running down towards the Malic gulf: the former are placed by Strabo at the sources of the Evenus, and the position of the latter is fixed by that of their capital town Callium. The Eurytanes (Eurutanes, Thuc. iii. 94, et alii) dwelt north of the Ophionenses, as far, apparently, as Mt. Tymphrestus, at the foot of which was the town Oechalia, which Strabo describes as a place belonging to this people. They are said to have possessed an oracle of Odysseus. (Strab. pp, 448, 451, 465; Schol. ad Lycophr. 799.)
  The Agraei, who inhabited the north-west corner of Aetolia, bordering upon Ambracia, were not a division of the Aetolian nation, but a separate people, governed at the time of the Peloponnesian war by a king of their own, and only united to Aetolia at a later period. The Aperanti, who lived in the same district, appear to have been a subdivision of the Agraei. Pliny (iv. 3) mentions various other peoples as belonging to Aetolia, such as the Athamanes, Tymphaei, Dolopes, &c.; but this statement is only true of the later period of the Aetolian League, when the Aetolians had extended their dominion over most of the neighbouring tribes of Epirus and Thessaly.
  At the commencement of the Peloponnesian war the Aetolians had formed no alliance either with Sparta or Athens, and consequently are not mentioned by Thucydides in his enumeration of the allied forces of the two nations. It was the unprovoked invasion of their country by the Athenians in the sixth year of the war (B.C. 455), which led. them to espouse the Lacedaemonian side. In this year the Messenians, who had been settled at Naupactus by the Athenians, and who had suffered greatly from the inroads of the Aetolians, persuaded the Athenian general, Demosthenes, to march into the interior of Aetolia, with the hope of conquering the three great tribes of the Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes, since if they were subdued the Athenians would become masters of the whole country between the Ambracian gulf and Parnassus. Having collected a considerable force, Demosthenes set out from Naupactus; but the expedition proved a complete failure. After advancing a few miles into the interior, he was attacked at Aegitium by the whole force of the Aetolians, who had occupied the adjacent hills. The rugged nature of the ground prevented the Athenian hoplites from coming to close quarters with their active foe; Demosthenes had with him only a small number of light-armed troops; and in the end the Athenians were completely defeated, and fled in disorder to the coast. Shortly afterwards the Aetolians joined the Peloponnesians under Eurylochus in making an attack upon Naupactus, which Demosthenes caved with difficulty, by the help of the Acarnanians. (Thuc. iii. 94, &c.) The Aetolians took no further part in the Peloponnesian war; for those of the nation who fought under the Athenians in Sicily were only mercenaries. (Thuc. vii. 57.) From this time till that of the Macedonian supremacy, we find scarcely any mention of the Aetolians. They appear to have been frequently engaged in hostilities. with their neighbours and ancient enemies, the Acarnanians.
  After the death of Alexander the Great (B.C. 323) the Aetolians joined the confederate Greeks in what is usually called the Lamian war. This war was brought to a close by the defeat of the confederates at Crannon (B.C. 322); whereupon Antipater and Craterus, having first made peace with Athens, invaded Aetolia with a large army. The Aetolians, however, instead of yielding to the invaders, abandoned their villages in the plains and retired to their impregnable mountains, where they remained in safety, till the Macedonian generals were obliged to evacuate their territory in order to march against Perdiecas. (Diod. xviii. 24, 25.) In the wars which followed between the different usurpers of the Macedonian throne, the alliance of the Aetolians was eagerly courted by the contending armies; and their brave and warlike population enabled them to exercise great influence upon the politics of Greece. The prominent part they took in the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece (B.C. 279). still further increased their reputation. In the army which the Greeks assembled at Thermopylae to oppose the Gauls, the contingent of the Aetolians was by far the largest, and they here distinguished themselves by their bravery in repulsing the attacks of the enemy; but they earned their chief glory by destroying the greater part of a body of 40,000 Gauls, who had invaded their country, and had taken the town of Callium, and committed the most horrible atrocities on the inhabitants. The Aetolians also assisted in the defence of Delphi when it was attacked by the Gauls, and in the pursuit of the enemy in their retreat. (Paus. x. 20--23.) To commemorate the vengeance they had inflicted upon the Gauls for the destruction of Callium, the Aetolians dedicated at Delphi a trophy and a statue of an armed heroine, representing Aetolia. They also dedicated in the same temple the statues of the generals under whom they had fought in this war. (Paus. x. 18. § 7, x. 15. § 2.)
  From this time the Aetolians appear as one of the three great powers in Greece, the other two being the Macedonians and Achaeans. Like the Achaeans, the Aetolians were united in a confederacy or league. At what time this league was first formed is uncertain. It is inferred that the Aetolians must have been united into some form of confederacy at least as early as the time of Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, from an inscription on the statue of Aetolus at Thermum, quoted by Ephorus (Strab. p. 463: Aitolon tond anepheikan Aitoloi spheteras mnem aretes esorain), and from the cession of Naupactus, which was made to them by Philip. (Strab. p. 427: esti de nun Aitolon, philippou proskrinantos, quoted by Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. viii. p. 207.) But it was not till after the death of Alexander the Great that the league appears to have come into full activity; and it was probably the invasion of their country by Antipater and Craterus, and the consequent necessity of concerting measures for their common defence, that brought the Aetolians into a closer political association. The constitution of the league was democratical, like that of the Aetolian towns and tribes. The great council of the nation, called the Panaetolicon (Liv. xxxi. 9), in which it is probable that every freeman above the age of thirty had the right of voting, met every autumn at Thermum, for the election of magistrates, general legislation, and the decision of all questions respecting peace and war with foreign nations. There was also another deliberative body, called Apocleti (Apokletoi), which appears to have been a kind of permanent committee. (Pol. xx. 1; Liv. xxxvi. 28.) The chief magistrate bore the title of Strategus Hstrategos), He was elected annually, presided in the assemblies, and had the command of the troops in war. The officers next in rank were the Hipparchus (Hipparchos), or commander of the cavalry, and the chief Secretary Grammateus), both of whom were elected annually.
  After the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece, the Aetolians began to extend their dominions over the neighbouring nations. They still retained the rude and barbarous habits which had characterised them in the time of Thucydides, and were still accustomed to live to a great extent by robbery and piracy. Their love of rapine was their great incentive to war, and in their marauding expeditions they spared neither friends nor foes, neither things sacred nor profane. Such is the character given to them by Polybius (e.g. ii. 45, 46, iv. 67, ix. 38), and his account is confirmed in the leading outlines by the testimony of other writers; though justice requires us to adds that the enmity of the Aetolians to the Achaeans has probably led the historian to exaggerate rather than underrate the vices of the Aetolian people. At the time of their greatest power, they were masters of the whole of western Acarnania, of the south of Epirus and Thessaly, and of Locris, Phocis, and Boeotia. They likewise assumed the entire control of the Delphic oracle and of the Amphictyonic assembly. (Plut. Demetr. 40; Pol. iv. 25; Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 210.) Their league also embraced several towns in the heart of Peloponnesus, the island of Cephallenia, and even cities in Thrace and Asia Minor, such as Lysimachia on the Hellespont, and Cios on the Propontis. The relation of these distant places to the league is a matter of uncertainty. They could not have taken any part in the management of the business of the confederacy; and the towns in Asia Minor and Thrace probably joined it in order to protect themselves against the attacks of the Aetolian privateers.
  The Aetolians were at the height of their power in B.C. 220, when their unprovoked invasion of Messenia engaged them in a war with the Achaeans, usually called the Social War. The Achaeans were supported by the youthful monarch of Macedonia, Philip V., who inflicted a severe blow upon the Aetolians in B.C. 218 by an unexpected march into the interior of their country, where he surprised the capital city of Thermum, in which all the wealth and treasures of the Aetolian leaders were deposited. The whole of these fell into the hands of the king, and were either carried off or destroyed; and before quitting the place, Philip set fire to the sacred buildings, to retaliate for the destruction of Dium and Dodona by the Aetolians. (Pol. v.2--9, 13, 14; for the details of Philip's march, see Thermun) The Social war was brought to a close by a treaty of peace concluded in B.C. 217. Six years afterwards (B.C. 211) the Aetolians again declared war against Philip, in consequence of having formed an offensive and defensive alliance with the Romans, who were then engaged in hostilities with Philip. The attention of the Romans was too much occupied by the war against Hannibal in Italy to enable them to afford much assistance to the Aetolians, upon whom, therefore, the burden of the war chiefly fell. In the course of this war Philip again took Thermum (Pol. xi. 4), and the Aetolians became so disheartened that they concluded peace with him in B.C. 205. This peace, was followed almost immediately by one between Philip and the Romans.
  On the renewal of the war between Philip and the Romans in B.C. 200, the Aetolians at first resolved to remain neutral; but the success of the consul Galba induced them to change their determination, and before the end of the first campaign they declared war against Philip. They fought at the battle of Cynoscephalae in B.C. 197, when their cavalry contributed materially to the success of the day. (Liv. xxxiii. 7.) The settlement of the affairs of Greece by Flamininus after this victory caused great disappointment to the Aetolians; and as soon as Flamininus returned to Italy, they invited Antiochus to invade Greece, and shortly afterwards declared war against the Romans. (B.C. 192.) The defeat of Antiochus at Thermopylae (B.C. 191) drove the monarch back to Asia, and left the Aetolians exposed to the full vengeance of the Romans. They obtained a short respite by a truce which they solicited from the Romans; but having subsequently resumed hostilities on rumours of some success of Antiochlis in Asia, the Roman consul M. Fulvius Nobilior crossed over into Greece, and commenced operations by laying siege to Ambracia (B.C. 189), which was then one of the strongest towns belonging to the league. Meantime news had arrived of the total defeat of Antiochus at the battle of Magnesia, and the Aetolians resolved to purchase peace at any price. It was granted to them by the Romans, but on terms which destroyed for ever their independence, and rendered them only the vassals of Rome. (Pol. xxii. 15; Liv. xxxviii. 11.) After the conquest of Perseus (B.C. 167), the Roman party in Aetolia, assisted by a body of Roman soldiers, massacred 550 of the leading patriots. All the survivors, who were suspected of opposition to the Roman policy, were carried off as prisoners to Italy. It was at this time that the league was formally dissolved. (Liv. xlv. 28, 31; Justin, xxxiii. Prol. and 2.) Aetolia subsequently formed part of the province of Achaia; though it is doubtful whether it formed part of this province as it was at first constituted. The inhabitants of several of its towns were removed by Augustus to people the city of Nicopolis, which he founded to commemorate his victory at Actium, B.C. 31; and in his time the country is described by Strabo as utterly worn out and exhausted. (Strab.) Under the Romans the Aetolians appear to have remained in the same rude condition in which they had always been. The interior of Aetolia was probably rarely visited by the Romans, for they had no road in the inland part of the country; and their only road was one leading from the coast of Acarnania across the Achelous, by Pleuron and Calydon to Chalcis and Molycreia on the Aetolian coast. (Comp. Brandstaten, Die Geschichten des Aetolischen Landes, Volkes und Bundes, Berlin, 1844.)
  The towns in Aetolia were: In Old Aetolia. In the lower plain, between the sea and Mount Aracynthus, Calydon, Pleuron, Olenus, Pylene, Chalcis (these 5 are the Aetolian towns mentioned by Homer), Halicyrna, Elaeus, Paeanium or Phana, Proschium, Ithoria, Conope (afterwards Arsinoe), Lysimachia. In the upper plain N. of Mount Aracynthus, Acraee, Metapa, Pamphia, Phyteum, Trichonium, Thestienses, Thermon. In Aetolia Epictetus, on the sea-coast, Macynia, Molycreium or Molycreia: a little in the interior, on the borders of Locris, Potidania, Crocyleium, Teichium, Aagitium: further in the interior, Callium Oechalia, Aerantia, Agrinium, Ephyra, the last of which was a town of the Agraei. The site of the following towns is quite unknown: -Ellopium (Ellopion, Pol. ap. Steph. B. s. v.); Thorax (Thorax, s. v.); Pherae (pherai, Steph. B. s. v.)

Evenus

EVINOS (River) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Evenus (Euenos, less frequently, Euenos: Fidhari or Fidharo), originally called Lycormas (Lukormas). An important river of Aetolia, rising in the highest summit of Mt. Oeta in the territory of the Bomienses, a subdivision of the Aetolian tribe of the Ophienses. (Strab. p. 451.) Dicaearchus was mistaken in saying that the Evenus rises in Pindus: Ptolemy (iii. 16. § 6) more correctly places its source in Callidromus, which is a part of Oeta. Strabo relates that the Evenus does not flow at first through the territory of the Curetes, which is the same as Pleuronia, but more to the E. by Chalcis and Calydon, that it afterwards turns to the W. towards the plains in which Old Pleuron was situated, and that it finally flows in a southerly direction into the sea, at the distance of 120 stadia from the promontory of Antirrhium. (Strab. pp. 451, 460; comp. Thuc. ii. 83; Mel. ii. 3; Plin. iv. 3.) Its real direction however is first westerly, and afterwards south-west. It receives numerous torrents from the mountains through which it flows, and in winter it becomes a considerable river, flowing with great rapidity, and difficult to cross on account of the great stones which are carried down by its stream. (Eveni rapidae undae, Ov. Met. ix. 104; Potamon polloi kumainonta kai huper tas ochthas airomenon, Philostr. Jun. Imag. 16.) The Evenus is celebrated in mythology on account of the death of the centaur Nessus, who was slain by Hercules because he offered violence to Deinaeira, as he carried her across this river. (Soph. Track. 557.) This tale is, perhaps, only a figure of the impetuosity of the river, and of the danger to which unwarytravellers are exposed in crossing its channel from the rise of the waters when swollen by sudden showers. (Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 170.) The river is said to have derived its name from Evenus, the son of Ares, and the father of Marpessa. When his daughter was carried off by Idas, the son of Aphareus, he pursued the ravisher; but being unable to overtake him he threw himself into the Lycormas, which was henceforward called after him. (Apollod. i. 7. § 8; Ov, Ibis, 515; Prop. i. 2. 18.) Its modern name of Fidharo or Fidhari is derived from Phidi, the Romaic form of Ophis, and is therefore supposed by Leake to be a vestige of Ophieis, the ancient people in whose territory the river rose. (Leake, Norsthern Greece, vol. ii. p. 625; comp. p. 599.) From Evenus is formed the adjective Eveninus. (Matres Calydonides Eveninae, Ov. Met. viii. 527.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Oechalia

ICHALIA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Oichalia: Eth. Oichalieus. In Aetolia. (Strab. x. p. 448.) Each of these cities was considered by the respective inhabitants as the residence of the celebrated Eurytus, who was conquered by Hercules, and the capture of whose city was the subject of an epic poem called Oichalias halosis, which was ascribed to Homer or Cresphylus. Hence among the early poets there was a difference of statement upon the subject. The Messenian Oechalia was called the city of Eurytus in the Iliad (ii. 596) and the Odyssey (xxi. 13), and this statement was followed by Pherecydes (ap.Schol. ad Soph. Trach. 354) and Pausanias (iv. 2. §3). The Euboean city was selected by the writer of the poem on the Capture of Oechalia (Schol. ap. Soph. l. c.), by Hecataeus (ap. Paus. l. c.), and by Strabo (x. p. 448). The Thessalian city is mentioned as the residence of Eurytus in another passage of the Iliad (ii. 730); and K. 0. Muller supposes that this was the city of the original fable. (Dorians, vol. i. p. 426, seq., transl.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Oeniadae

INIADES (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
  Oiniadai, Oineiadai, Eth. Oiniadai. A town in Acarnania, situated on the W. bank of the Achelous, about 10 miles from its mouth. It was one of the most important of the Acarnanian towns, being strongly fortified both by nature and by art, and commanding the whole of the south of Acarnania. It was surrounded by marshes, many of them of great extent and depth, which rendered it quite inaccessible in the winter to an invading force. Its territory appears to have extended on both sides of the Achelous, and to have consisted of the district called Paracheloitis, which was very fertile. It seems to have derived its name from the mythical Oeneus, the great Aetolian hero. The town is first mentioned about B.C. 455. The Messenians, who had been settled at Naupactus by the Athenians at the end of the Third Messenian War (455), shortly afterwards made an expedition against Oeniadae, which they took; but after holding it for a year, they were attacked by the Acarnanians and compelled to abandon the town. (Paus. iv. 25.) Oeniadae is represented at that time as an enemy of Athens, which is said to have been one of the reasons that induced the Messenians to attack the place. Twenty-three years before the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 454) Pericles laid siege to the town, but was unable to take it. (Thuc. i. 111; Diod. xi. 85.) In the Peloponnesian War, Oeniadae still continued opposed to the Athenians, and was the only Acarnanian town, with the exception of Astacus, which sided with the Lacedaemonians. In the third year of the war (429) Phormion made an expedition into Acarnania to secure the Athenian ascendancy; but though he took Astacus, he did not continue to march against Oeniadae, because it was the winter, at which season the marshes secured the town from all attack. In the following year (428) his son Asopius sailed up the Achelous, and ravaged the territory of Oeniadae; but it was not till 424 that Demosthenes, assisted by all the other Acarnanians, compelled the town to join the Athenian alliance. (Thuc. ii. 102, iii. 7, iv. 77.) It continued to be a place of great importance during the Macedonian and Roman wars. In the time of Alexander the Great, the Aetolians, who had extended their dominions on the W. bank of the Achelous, succeeded in obtaining possession of Oeniadae, and expelled its inhabitants in so cruel a manner that they were threatened with the vengeance of Alexander. (Diod. xviii. 8.) Oeniadae remained in the hands of the Aetolians till 219, when it was taken by Philip, king of Macedonia. This monarch, aware of the importance of the place, strongly fortified the citadel, and commenced uniting the harbour and the arsenal with the citadel by means of walls. (Polyb. iv. 65.) In 211 Oeniadae, together with the adjacent Nesus (Nesos) or Nasus, was taken by the Romans, under M. Valerius Laevinus, and given to the Aetolians, who were then their allies; but in 189 it was restored to the Acarnanians by virtue of one of the conditions of the peace made between the Romans and Aetolians in that year. (Pol. ix. 39; Liv. xxvi. 24; Polyb. xxii. 15; Liv. xxxviii. 11.) From this period Oeniadae disappears from history; but it continued to exist in the time of Strabo.
  The exact site of Oeniadae was long a matter of dispute. Dodwell and Gell supposed the ruins on the eastern side of the Achelous to represent Oeniadae; but these ruins are those of Pleuron. The true position of Oeniadae has now been fixed with certainty by Leake, and his account has been confirmed by Mure, who has since visited the spot. Its ruins are found at the modern Trikardho, on the W. bank of the Achelous, and are surrounded by morasses on every side. To the N. these swamps deepen into a reedy marsh or lake, now called Lesini or Katokhi, and by the ancients Melite. In this lake is a small island, probably the same as the Nasos mentioned above. Thucydides is not quite correct in his statement (ii. 102) that the marshes around the city were caused by the Achelous alone; he appears to take no notice of the lake of Melite, which afforded a much greater protection to the city than the Achelous, and which has no connection with this river. The city occupied an extensive insulated hill, from the southern extremity of which there stretches out a long slope in the direction of the Achelous, connecting the hill with the plain. The entire circuit of the fortifications still exists, and cannot be much less than three miles. The walls, which are chiefly of polygonal construction, are in an excellent state of preservation, often to a height of from 10 to 12 feet. Towards the N. of the city was the port, communicating with the sea by a deep river or creek running up through the contiguous marsh to Petala on the coast.
  Leake discovered the ruins of a theatre, which stood near the middle of the city ; but the most interesting remains in the place are its arched posterns or sallyports, and a larger arched gateway leading from the port to the city. These arched gateways appear to be of great antiquity, and prove that the arch was known in Greece at a much earlier period than is usually supposed. Drawings of several of these gateways are given by Mure.
  Strabo speaks of a town called Old Oenia (he palaia Oinaia), which was deserted in his time, and which he describes as midway between Stratus and the sea. New Oenia (he nun Oinaia), which he places 70 stadia above the mouth of the Achelous, is the celebrated town of Oeniadae, spoken of above. The history of Old Oenia is unknown. Leake conjectures that it may possibly have been Erysiche (Erusiche), which Stephanus supposes to be the same as Oeniadae; but this is a mistake, as Strabo quotes the authority of the poet Apollodorus to prove that the Erysichaei were a people in the interior of Acarnania. Leake places Old Oenia at Palea Mani, where he found some Hellenic remains.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Calydon

KALYDON (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
  Kaludon: Eth. Kaludonios, Calydonius: Kurt-aga. The most celebrated city of Aetolia, in the heroic age, was founded by Aetolus in the land of the Curetes, and was called Calydon, after the name of his son. Calydon and the neighbouring town of Pleuron are said by Strabo to have been once the ornament (proschema) of Greece, but to have sunk in his time into insignificance. Calydon was situated in a fertile plain near the Evenus, and at the distance of 7 1/2 (Roman) miles from the sea, according to Pliny It is frequently mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of petreessa and aipeine, from which we might conclude that the city was situated on a, rocky height; but Strabo says that these epithets were to be applied to the district and not to the city itself. Homer also celebrates the fertility of the plain of the lovely (eranne) Calydon. In the earliest times the inhabitants of Calydon appear to have been engaged in incessant hostilities with the Curetes, who continued to reside in their ancient capital Pleuron, and who endeavoured to expel the invaders from their country. A vivid account of one of the battles between the Curetes and Calydonians is given in ran episode of the Iliad (ix. 529, seq.). The heroes of Calydon are among the most celebrated of the heroic age. It was the residence of Oeneus, father of Tydeus and Meleager, and grandfather of Diomedes. In the time of Oeneus Artemis sent a monstrous boar to lay waste the fields of Calydon, which was hunted by Meleager and numerous other heroes. The Calydonians took part in the Trojan war under their king Thoas, the son (not the grandson) of Oeneus. (Hom. Il. ii. 638.)
  Calydon is not often mentioned in the historical period. In B.C. 391 we find it in the possession of the Achaeans, but we are not told how it came into their hands; we know, however; that Naupactus was given to the Achaeans at the close of the Peloponnesian war, and it was probably the Achaeans settled at Naupactus who gained possession of the town. In the above-mentioned year the Achaeans at Calydon, were so hard pressed by the Acarnanians that they applied to the Lacedaemonians for help; and Agesilaus in consequence was sent with an army into Aetolia. Calydon remained in the hands of the Achaeans till the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), when Eparninondas restored, the town to the Aetolians. In the civil war between Caesar. and Pompey (B.C. 48) it still appears as a considerable place; but a few years afterwards its inhabitants were removed by Augustus to Nicopolis, which he founded to commemorate his victory at Actium (B.C. 31). It continues however to be mentioned by the later geographers.
  Calydon was the head-quarters of the worship of Artemis Laphria, and when, the inhabitants of the town were removed to Nicopolis, Augustus gave to Patrae in Achaia the statue of this goddess which had belonged to Calydon. (Paus. iv. 31. § 7, vii. 18. § 8.) There was also a statue of Dionysus at Patrae which had been removed from Calydon. (Paus. vii. 21.) Near Calydon there was a temple of Apollo Laphrius (Strabo); and in the neighbourhood of the city there was also a lake celebrated for its fish.
  In the Roman poets we find Calydonis, a woman of Calydon, i. e. Deianira, daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon (Ov. Met. ix. 112); Calydonius hers, i. e Meleager; Calydonius amnis, i. e. the Achelous, separating Acarnania and Aetolia, because Calydon was the chief town of Aetolia; Calydonia regna, i. e. Apulia, because Diomedes, the son of Tydeus, and, grandson of Oeneus, king of. Calydon, afterwards obtained Apulia as his kingdom.
  There has been some dispute respecting the site of Calydon. The Peutingerian Table places it east of the Evenus, and 9 miles from this river; but this is clearly a mistake. It is evident from Strabo's account, and from all the legends relating to Calydon, that both this city and Pleuron lay on the western side of the Evenus, between this river and the Achelous. Leake supposes the ruins which he discovered at Kurt-aga, a little to the E. of the Evenus, to be those of Calydon. They are distant a ride of 1 hour and 35 minutes from Mesolonghi, and are situated on one of the last slopes of Mt. Aracynthus at the entrance of the vale of the Evenus, where that river issues from the interior valleys into the maritime plain. They do not stand on any commanding height, as the Homeric epithets above mentioned would lead us to suppose, and it is perhaps for this reason that Strabo, supposes these epithets to apply to the surrounding country. Thee remains of the walls are traceable in their whole circuit of near two miles and a half; and outside the walls Leake discovered some ruins, which may have been the peribolus of the temple of, Artemis Laphria.

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Conope

KONOPAS (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
  Afterwards Arsinoe. Konope: Eth. Konopeus, Konopites, Konopaios Arsinoe: Eth. Arsinoites, Arsinoeus: Anghelokastro. A town of Aetolia, near the eastern bank of the Achelous, and 20 stadia from the ford of this river. It was only a village, till it was enlarged by Arsinoe, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Polybius, in his history of the Social War (B.C. 220--217), calls it Conope, though elsewhere he calls it Arsinoe or Arsinoia (Arsinoia). It is mentioned by Cicero under the name of Arsinoe. Near this town the river Cyathus flowed into the Achelous from the lake Hyria, which is also called Conope by Antoninus Liberalis.

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Coronta

KORONDA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Coronta (ta Koronta: Eth. Koronteus: near Proldhromo), a small town in the interior of Acarnania, probably lying between Metropolis and Old Oenia. At a mile from Prodhromo Leake discovered on an insulated hill the ruins of Hellenic walls, which are probably the remains of Coronta. (Thuc. ii. 102; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 514.)

Cyparissus

KYPARISSOS (Village) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Cyparissus (Kuparissos: Eth. Kuparisseus), an ancient town of Phocis, in the vicinity of Delphi. It is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue (Il. ii. 519) along with Pytho (Delphi), and is described by Dicaearchus as situated in the interior of Phocis. It is placed by Strabo below Lycoreia, which was situated on one of the heights of Parnassus (ix. p. 423), which position is more probable than the one assigned to it by Pausanias, who supposes Cyparissus to be the ancient name of the place afterwards called Anticyra (x. 36. § 5). Cyparissus is also mentioned by Statius (Theb. vii. 344) and Stephanus (s. v.). If we follow the authority of Strabo respecting the position of Cyparissus, its site is perhaps indicated by the walls of an Hellenic town, at the southern foot of the mountain, midway between the Schiste and Delphi. (Leake, vol. ii. p. 579.)

Limnaea

LIMNEA (Ancient city) AMFILOCHIA
  Limnaia: Eth. Limnaios: Kervasara. A town in Acarnania at the SE. corner of the Ambraciot gulf, on the very frontier of Acarnania towards Argos. There has been a dispute about its site, but the ruins at Kervasara are probably the remains of Limnaea: some modern writers would place it more to the W., either at Lutraki, or at Ruga. Tie former supposition, however, appears to be the more correct, since we learn from Thucydides that Limnaea lay on the road from Ambracia and Argos Amphilochicum to Stratus, which could not have been the case if Limnaea lay to the W. of Kervasara. Philip III., king of Macedonia, disembarked at Limnaea, when about to invade Aetolia. There is a marsh near Kervasara, two miles in length, from which Limnaea appears to have derived its name (Thuc. ii. 80, iii. 105 ; Pol. v. 5).

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Lysimachia

LYSSIMACHIA (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
  Lusimachia: Eth. Lusimacheus (Papadhates). A town of Aetolia, situated upon the southern shore of the lake formerly called Hyria or Hydra, and subsequently Lysimachia, after this town. The town was probably founded by Arsinoe, and named after her first husband Lysimachus, since we know that she enlarged the neighbouring town of Conope, and called it Arsinoe after herself. The position of the town is determined by the statement of Strabo that it lay between Pleuron and Conope, and by that of Livy, who places it on the line of march from Naupactus and Calydon to Stratus. Its site, therefore, corresponds to Papadhates, where Leake discovered some Hellenic remains. It was deserted in Strabo's time.

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Macynia

MAKYNIA (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS
  Makunia, Makuna, Makuneia, Eth. Makuneus. A town of Aetolia on the coast, at the foot of the eastern slope of Mount Taphiassus. According to Strabo it was built after the return of the Heraclidae into Peloponnesus. It is called a town of the Ozolian Locrians by the poet Archytas of Amphissa, who describes it in an hexameter line: the grape-clad, perfume-breathing, lovely Macuna. It is also mentioned in an epigram of Alcaeus, the Messenian, who was a contemporary of Philip V., king of Macedonia. Pliny mentions a mountain Macynium, which must have been part of Mount Taphiassus, near Macynia, unless it is indeea a mistake for the town.

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Metropolis

MITROPOLIS (Ancient city) AKTIO - VONITSA
  Lygovitzi. A town in the interior of Acarnania, S. of Stratus, and on the road from the latter place to Conope in Aetolia. At a later time it fell into the hands of the Aetolians, but was taken and burned by Philip in his expedition against the Aetolians, B.C. 219. It is mentioned as one of the towns of Acarnania, in a Greek inscription found at Actium, the date of which is probably prior to the time of Augustus.

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Molycreium

MOLYKRIA (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS
  Molycreium, Molycreia, or Molycria (Molukreion, Thuc. ii. 84; Molukreia, Strab. x. p. 451, et alii; Molukria, Polyb. v. 94; Paus. ix. 31. § 6: Eth. Molukrios, more rarely Molukrieus, Molukraios, fem. Molukrissa, Molukrias), a town of Aetolia, situated near the sea-coast, and at a short distance from the promontory Antirrhium, which was hence called Rhion to Molukrikon (Thuc. ii. 86), or Molukrion Hpion. (Strab. viii. p. 336.) Some writers call it a Locrian town. It is said by Strabo to have been built after the return of the Heracleidae into Peloponnesus. It was colonised by the Corinthians, but was subject to the Athenians in the early part of the Peloponnesian War. It was taken by the Spartan commander Eurylochus, with the assistance of the Aetolians, B.C. 426. It was considered sacred to Poseidon. (Strab. x. pp. 451, 460; Scyl. p. 14; Thuc. ii. 84, iii. 102 ; Diod. xii. 60; Polyb., Pans., ll. cc.; Plin. iv. 2. s. 3; Ptol. iii. 15. § 3; Steph. Byz. s. v.)

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Naupactus

NAFPAKTOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Naupaktos: Eth. Naupaktios (Epakto by the Greek peasants, Lepanto by the Italians). An important town of the Locri Ozolae, and the best harbour on the northern coast of the Corinthian gulf, was situated just within the entrance of this gulf, a little east of the promontory Antirrhium. It is said to have derived its name from the Heracleidae having here built the fleet with which they crossed over to Peloponnesus. (Strab. ix. p. 426; Paus. x. 38. § 10; Apollod. ii. 8. § 2.) Though Naupactus was indebted for its historical importance to its harbour at the entrance of the Corinthian gulf, it was probably originally chosen as a site for a city on account of its strong hill, fertile plains, and copious supply of running water. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 608.) After the Persian wars it fell into the power of the Athenians, who settled there the Messenians, who had been compelled to leave their country at the end of the Third Messenian War, B.C. 455 ; and during the Peloponnesian War it was the head-quarters of the Athenians in all their operations in Western Greece. (Paus. iv. 24. § 7; Thuc. i. 103, ii. 83, seq.) After the battle of Aegospotami the Messenians were expelled from Naupactus, and the Locrians regained possession of the town. (Paus. x. 38. § 10.) It afterwards passed into the hands of the Achaeans, from whom, however, it was wrested by Epaminondas. (Diod. xv. 75.) Philip gave it to the Aetolians (Strab. ix. p. 427; Dem. Phil. iii. p. 120), and hence it is frequently called a town of Aetolia. (Scylax, p. 14; Mela, ii. 3 ; Plin. iv. 2. s. 3.) The Aetolians vigorously defended Naupactus against the Romans for two months in B.C. 191. (Liv. xxxvi. 30, seq.; Polyb. v. 103.) Ptolemy (iii. 15. § 3) calls it a town of the Locri Ozolae, to whom it must therefore have been assigned by the Romans after Pliny's time.
  Pausanias saw at Naupactus a temple of Poseidon near the sea, a temple of Artemis, a cave sacred to Aphrodite, and the ruins of a temple of Asclepius (x. 38. §§ 12, 13). Naupactus is mentioned by Hierocles; but it was destroyed by an earth-quake in the reign of Justinian. (Procop. B. Goth. iv. 25.) The situation and present appearance of the town are thus described by Leake: - The fortress and town occupy the south-eastern and southern sides of a hill, which is one of the roots of Mount Rigasni, and reaches down to the sea. The place is fortified in the manner which was common among the ancients in positions similar to that of Epakto,--that is to say, it occupies a triangular slope with a citadel at the apex, and one or more cross walls on the slope, dividing it into subordinate enclosures. At Epakto there are no less than five enclosures between the summit and the sea, with gates of communication from the one to the other, and a side gate on the west leading out of the fortress from the second enclosure on the descent. It is not improbable that the modern walls follow exactly the ancient plan of the fortress, for in many parts they stand upon Hellenic foundations, and even retain large pieces of the ancient masonry amidst the modern work. The present town occupies only the lowest enclosure; in the middle of which is the small harbour which made so great a figure in ancient history: it is now choked with rubbish, and is incapable of receiving even the larger sort of boats which navigate the gulf. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 608.)

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Olenus

OLENOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Olenos: Eth. olenios. An ancient town in the S. of Aetolia, between the Achelous and the Evenus, was named after a son of Zeus or Hephaestus, and is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue. It was situated near New Pleuron, at the foot of Mount Aracynthus; but its exact site is uncertain. It is said to have been destroyed by the Aeolians; and there were only a few traces of it in the time of Strabo. (Strab.x. pp. 451, 460; Horn. Il. ii. 638; Apollod. i.8. § 4; Hyg. Poet. Astron. 2. § 13; Stat. Theb. iv. 104; Steph. B. s. v.) The Roman poets use Olenius as equivalent to Aetolian: thus Tydeus of Calydon in Aetolia is called Olenius Tydeus. (Stat. Theb. i. 402.)

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Palaerus

PALEROS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Palaipos: Eth. Palaipeus. A town on the W. coast of Acarnania, on the Ionian sea, which is placed by Strabo between Leucas and Alyzia. Its exact site is unknown. Leake places it in the valley of Livadhi. In the first year of the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 431) Palaerus was in alliance with the Athenians; and when the latter people took the neighbouring town of Sollium, which was a Corinthian colony, they gave both it and its territory to the inhabitants of Palaerus.

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Paeanium

PEANION (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
  Paeanium (Paianion), a town, in Aetolia, near the Achelous, a little S. of Ithoria, and N. of Oeniadae, which was on the other side of the river. It was only 7 stadia in circumference, and was destroyed by Philip, B.C. 219. (Polyb. iv. 65.) Paeanium was perhaps rebuilt, and may be the Same town as Phana (phana), which was taken by the Achaeans, and which we learn from the narrative in Pausanias was near the sea. (Paus. x. 18.) Stephanus mentions Phana as a town of Italy ; but for Polis Italias, we ought probably to read Polis Altolias. (Steph. B. s. v. phanai.)

Pleuron

PLEVRON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  (Pleuron: Eth. Pleuronios, also Pleuroneus, Pleuronius). the name of two cities in Aetolia, the territory of which was called Pleuronia. ( Strab. x. p. 465; Auson. Epitaph. 10.)
1. Old Pleuron ( he palaia Pleuron, Strab. x. p. 451), was situated in the plain between the Achelous and the Evenus, W. of Calydon, at the foot of Mount Curium, from which the Curetes are said to have derived their name. Pleuron and Calydon were the two chief towns of Aetolia in the heroic age, and are said by Strabo (x. p. 450) to have been the ancient ornament (proschema) of Greece. Pleuron was originally a town of the Curetes, and its inhabitants were engaged in frequent wars with the Aetolians of the neighbouring town of Calydon. The Curetes, whose attack upon Calydon is mentioned in an episode of the Iliad (ix. 529), appear to have been the inhabitants of Pleuron. At the time of the Trojan War, however, Pleuron was an Aetolian city, and its inhabitants sailed against Troy under the command of the Aetolian chief Thoas, the son (not the grandson) of Oeneus. (Hom. Il. ii. 639, comp. xiii. 217, xiv. 116.) Ephorus related that the Curetes were expelled from Pleuronia, which was formerly called Curetis, by Aeolians (ap. Strab. x. p. 465); and this tradition may also be traced in the statement of Thucydides (iii. 102) that the district, called Calydon and Pleuronia in the time of the Peloponnesian War, formerly bore the name of Aeolis. Since Pleuron appears as an Aetolian city in the later period of the heroic age, it is represented in some traditions as such from the beginning. Hence it is said to have derived its name from Pleuron, a son of Aetolus ; and at the very time that some legends represent it as the capital of the Curetes, and engaged in war with Oeneus, king of Calydon, others suppose it to have been governed by the Aetolian Thestius, the brother of Oeneus. Thestius was also represented as a descendant of Pleuron; and hence Pleuron had an heroum or a chapel at Sparta, as being the ancestor of Leda, the daughter of Thestius. But there are all kinds of variations in these. traditions. Thus we find in Sophocles Oeneus, and not Thestius, represented as king of Pleuron. (Apollod. i. 7. § 7; Paus. iii. 14. § 8; Soph. Trach. 7.) One of the tragedies of Phrynichus, the subject of which appears to have been the death of Meleager, the son of Oeneus, was entitled Pleuroniai, or the Pleuronian Women; and hence it is not improbable that Phrynichus, as well as Sophocles, represented Oeneus as king of Pleuron. (Paus. x. 31. § 4.) Pleuron is rarely mentioned in the historical period. It was abandoned by its inhabitants, says Strabo, in consequence of the ravages of Demetrius, the Aetolian, a surname probably given to Demetrius II., king of Macedonia (who reigned B.C. 239 - 229), to distinguish him from Demetrius Poliorcetes. (Strab. x. p. 451.) The inhabitants now built the town of
2. New Pleuron (he neotera Pleuron which was situated at the foot of Mt. Aracynthus. Shortly before the destruction of Corinth (B.C. 146), we find Pleuron, which was then a member of the Achaean League, petitioning the Romans to be dissevered from it. (Paus. vii. 11. § 3.) Leake supposes, on satisfactory grounds, the site of New Pleuron to be represented by the ruins called to Kastron tes Kurias Eirenes, or the Castle of Lady Irene about one hour's ride from Mesolonghi. These ruins occupy the broad summit of one of the steep and rugged heights of Mt. Zyqos (the ancient Aracynthus), which bound the plain of Mesolonghi to the north. Leake says that the walls were about a mile in circumference, but Mure and Dodwell describe the circuit as nearly two miles. The most remarkable remains within the ruined walls are a theatre about 100 feet in diameter, and above it a cistern, 100 feet long, 70 broad, and 14 deep, excavated on three sides in the rock, and on the fourth constructed of masonry. In the acropolis Leake discovered some remains of Doric shafts of white marble, which he conjectures to have belonged to the temple of Athena, of which Dicaearchus speaks (1. 55) ; but the temple mentioned by Dicaearchus must have been at Old Pleuron, since Dicaearchus was a contemporary of Aristotle and Theophrastus, and could not have been alive at the time of the foundation of New Pleuron. Dodwell, who visited the ruins of this city, erroneously maintains that they are those of Oeniadae, which were, however, situated among the marshes on the other side of the Achelous. Leake places Old Pleuron further south, at a site called Ghyfto-kastro, on the edge of the plain of Mesolonghi, where there are a few Hellenic remains.

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Pylene

PYLINI (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS
Pulene: Eth. Pulenios. An ancient town of Aetolia, between the Achelous and the Evenus, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of the Grecian ships, is placed by Pliny on the Corinthian gulf. It would therefore seem to have existed in later times; although Strabo says that the Aeolians, having removed Pylene higher up, changed its name into Proschium. The site of Pylene is uncertain.

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Proschium

  Proschium (Proschion: Eth. Proschieus), a town of Aetolia, between the Achelous and the Evenus, is said to have been founded by the Aeolians when they removed from the Homeric Pylene higher up into the country. Proschium also laid claim to high antiquity, since it possessed a shrine said to have been dedicated by Hercules to his cupbearer Cyathus, whom he had unintentionally slain. It is clear, from a narrative of Thucydides, that Proschium lay west of Calydon and Pleuron, and at no great distance from the Achelous. Leake places it on the western part of Mt. Zygos (the ancient Aracynthus), near the monastery of St. George between Anatoliko and Anghelokastro. (Strab. x. p. 451; Athen. x. p. 411, a.; Thuc. iii. 102, 106; Steph. B. s.v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 119.)

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Sollium

SOLION (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Sollium (Sollion: Eth. Sollieus), a town on the coast of Acarnania, on the lonian sea. Its exact site is uncertain, but it was probably in the neighbourhood of Palaerus, which lay between Leucas and Alyzia. Leake, however, places it S. of Alyzia, at Stravolimiona (i. e. Port Stravo). Sollium was a Corinthian colony, and as such was taken by the Athenians in the first year of the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 431), who gave both the place and its territory to Palaerus. It is again mentioned in B.C. 426, as the place at which Demosthenes landed when he resolved to invade Aetolia. (Thuc. ii. 30, iii. 95, comp. v. 30; Steph. B. s. v. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 18, seq.)

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Stratus

STRATOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Eth. Stratios: its territory he Stratike: Surovigli. The chief town of Acarnania, was situated in the interior of the country, in a fertile plain on the right bank of the Achelous. It commanded the principal approaches to the plain from the northward, and was thus a place of great military importance. Strabo (x. p. 450) places it 200 stadia from the mouth of the Achelous by the course of the river. At the distance of 80 stadia S. of the town the river Anapus flowed into the Achelous; and 5 Roman miles to its N., the Achelous received another tributary stream, named Petitaurus. (Thuc. ii. 82; Liv. xliii. 22.) Stratus joined the Athenian alliance, with most of the other Acarnanian towns, at the commencement of the Peloponnesian War. In B.C. 429 it was attacked by the Ambraciots, with a number of barbarian auxiliaries, aided by some Peloponnesian troops, under the command of Cnemus; but they were defeated under the walls of Stratus, and obliged to retire. Thucydides describes Stratus at that time as the chief town of Acarnania, which it is also called by Xenophon in his account of the expedition of Agesilaus into this country. (Thuc. ii. 80, seq., iii. 106; Xen. Hell. iv. 6) When the Aetolians extended their dominions, Stratus fell into the hands of this people, whence it is called by Livy a town of Aetolia. It is frequently mentioned during the Macedonian and Roman wars. Neither Philip V. nor his successor Perseus was able to wrest the town from the Aetolians; and it remained in the power of the latter till their defeat by the Romans, who restored it to Acarnania, together with the other towns, which the Aetolians had taken from the Acarnanians. (Polyb. iv. 63, v. 6, 7, 13, 14, 96; Liv. xxxvi. 11, xliii. 21, 22.) Livy (xliii. 21) gives an erroneous description of the position of Stratus when he says that it is situated above the Ambracian gulf, near the river Inachus.
  There are considerable remains of Stratus at the modern village of Surovigli. The entire circuit of the city was about 2 1/2 miles. The eastern wall followed the bank of the river. Leake discovered the remains of a theatre situated in a hollow: its interior diameter below is 105 feet, and there seem to have been about 30 rows of seats. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 137, seq.)

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Thermum

THERMON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Thermus or Therma (to Thermon, ta Therma, Themos, Eth. Thermios: Vlokho). The chief city of Aetolia during the flourishing period of the Aetolian League, and the place where the meetings of the league were usually held and an annual festival celebrated. It possessed a celebrated temple of Apollo, in connection with which the festival was probably celebrated. It was situated in the very heart of Aetolia, N. of the lake Trichonis, and on a height of Mt. Panaetolium (Viena). It was considered inaccessible to an army, and from the strength of its situation was regarded as a place of refuge, and, as it were, the Acropolis of all Aetolia. The road to it ran from Metapa, on the lake Trichonis, through the village of Pamphia. The city was distant 60 stadia from Metapa, and 30 from Pamphia; and from the latter place the road was very steep and dangerous, running along a narrow crest with precipices on each side. It was, however, surprised by Philip V., king of Macedonia, in his invasion of Aetolia in B.C. 218. The Aetolians, who had never imagined that Philip would have penetrated so far into their country, had deposited here all their treasures, the whole of which now fell into the hands of the king, together with a vast quantity of arms and armour. He carried off the most valuable part of the spoil, and burnt all the rest, among which were more than 15,000 suits of armour. Not content with this, he set fire to the sacred buildings, to retaliate for the destruction of Dium and Dodona. He also defaced all the works of art, and threw down all the statues, which were not less than 2000 in number, only sparing those of the Gods. (Pol. v. 6 - 9, 13.) A few years afterwards, when the Aetolians had sided with the Romans, Philip again surprised Thermus (about B.C. 206), when he destroyed everything which had escaped his ravages in his first attack. (Pol. xi. 4.) We have no further details of the history of Thermum. Polybius alludes, in one or two other passages (xviii. 31, xxviii. 4), to the meetings of the league held there. In the former of these passages Livy (xxxiii. 35) has misunderstood the words ten ton Thermikon sunodon to mean the assembly held at Thermopylae.
  Polybius's account of Philip's first invasion of Aetolia, which resulted in the capture of Thermum, supplies us with the chief information respecting the towns in the central plain of Aetolia. Philip set out from Limnaea, on the south-eastern corner of the Ambraciot gulf, crossed the Achelous between Stratus and Conope, and marched with all speed towards Thermum, leaving on his left Stratus, Agrinium, and Thestienses (Thestieis), and on his right Conope, Lysimachia, Trichonium, and Phoeteum. He thus arrived at Metapa, on the lake Trichonis, and from thence marched to Thermus by the road already mentioned, passing by Pamphia in his way. He returned by the same road as far as Metapa, but from the latter place he marched in one day to a place called Acrae, where he encamped, and on the next day to Conope. After remaining a day at Conope, he marched up the Achelous, and crossed it near Stratus.
  The remains of the walls of Thermum show that the city was about 2 1/2 miles in circumference. It was in the form of a triangle on the slope of a pyramidal hill, bordered on either side by a torrent flowing in a deep ravine. The only remains of a public edifice within the walls consist of a square, pyramidal, shapeless mass of stones.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Thyrium

THYRION (Ancient city) AKTIO - VONITSA
  Thurion, Aureon, Thourion, Thurrheion, Eth. Thurieus, Thyriensis. A city in Acarnania, the exact site of which is unknown. It is placed by Pouqueville in the interior near the sources of the Anapus; and his authority is followed by K. O. Muller and others. This, however, is evidently a mistake. Cicero tells us (ad Fam. xvi. 5) that in sailing from Alyzia to Leucas, he touched at Thyrium, where he remained two hours; and from this statement, as well as from the history of the events in which Thyrium is mentioned, we may infer that it was situated on or near the Ionian sea, and that it was the first town on the coast S. of the canal which separated Leucas from the mainland. It is placed by Leake in the plain of Zaverdha, but no ruins of it have been discovered. Its name does not occur in Strabo. Thyrium is first mentioned in B.C. 373, when its territory was invaded by Iphicrates. (Xen. Hell. vi. 2. 37) Xenophon describes it as a place of importance; and it appears as one of the chief cities of Acarnania at the time of the Roman wars in Greece, when its name frequently occurs. At this period Thyrium was one of the places at which the meetings of the Acarnanian League were usually held. It was one of the many towns whose ruin was occasioned by the foundation of NICOPOLIS to which its inhabitants were removed by order of Augustus. (Pol. iv. 6, 25, xvii. 10, xxii. 12, xxviii. 5; Liv. xxxvi. 11, 12, xxxviii. 9, xliii. 17; Anth. Graec. l. c.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 16.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Trichonium

TRICHONION (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
  Trichonion: Eth. Trichonieus. A town of Aetolia, from which the lake Trichonis derived its name. Its position is uncertain. Leake places it S. of the lake at a place called Gavala, and Kiepert, in his map E. of the lake. But since Strabo mentions it along with Stratus as situated in a fertile plain, it ought probably to be placed N. of the lake (Strab. x. p. 450; Pol. v. 7; Steph. B. s. v.). It was evidently a place of importance, and several natives of this town are mentioned in history. (Pol. iv. 3, v. 13, xvii. 10; Paus. ii. 37. § 3; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 155.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Achelous

ACHELOOS (River) ETOLOAKARNANIA
   The largest river in Greece. It rises in Mt. Pindus, and flows southward, forming the boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia, and falls into the Ionian Sea opposite the islands called Echinades. It is about 130 miles in length. The god of this river is described as the son of Oceanus and Tethys, and as the eldest of his 3000 brothers. He fought with Heracles for Deianira, but was conquered in the contest. He then took the form of a bull, but was again overcome by Heracles, who deprived him of one of his horns, which, however, he recovered by giving up the horn of Amalthea. According to Ovid, the Naiads changed the horn which Heracles took from Achelous into the horn of plenty. Achelous was from the earliest times considered to be a great divinity throughout Greece, and was invoked in prayers and sacrifices. Achelous was regarded as the representative of all fresh water; hence we find in Vergil Acheloia pocula, that is, water in general. The Sirens are called Acheloiades, as the daughters of Achelous.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Acarnania

AKARNANIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
   A western division of Greece, bounded on the north by the Ambracian Gulf, on the west and southwest by the Ionian Sea, on the northeast by Amphilochia, which is sometimes included in Acarnania, and on the east by Aetolia, from which, at a later time, it was separated by the Achelous. The name of Acarnania does not occur in Homer. In the most ancient times the land was inhabited by the Taphii, Teleboae, and Leleges, and subsequently by the Curetes. At a later time a colony from Argos, said to have been led by Acarnan, settled in the country. In the seventh century B.C. the Corinthians founded several towns on the coast. The Acarnanians first emerge from obscurity at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War, B.C. 431. They were then a rude people, living by piracy and robbery, and they always remained behind the rest of the Greeks in civilization and refinement. They were good slingers, and are praised for their fidelity and courage. The different towns formed a league, which met at Stratus, and subsequently at Thyrium or Leucas.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Actium

AKTION (Ancient port) ETOLOAKARNANIA
   A promontory in Acarnania at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, off which Augustus gained his celebrated naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra, September 2d, B.C. 31. Here was a temple of Apollo Actiacus or Actius, where the festival Actia had been celebrated. Augustus revived the celebration as a quinquennial feast in honour of his victory, and built Nicopolis on the opposite shore.
    The battle of Actium is one of the decisive battles of the world's history, since the stake for which it was fought was nothing less than the lordship of the Roman Empire--that is, of the occidental world. The chances of battle were all in favour of Antony. His troops, encamped on one shore of the gulf, were largely superior to his rival's in both numbers and discipline. He had 100,000 infantry, as against the 80,000 of Octavian (Augustus), an equal force of cavalry (12,000); while his ships not only numbered 500--double the number that Octavian's admiral Agrippa commanded, but were much larger, heavier, and better provided with the engines then in use for dis charging missiles. It was, perhaps, this great preponderance of naval force which led Cleopatra, who accompanied Antony, to urge upon him the plan of letting the issue of the war rest upon a naval battle. She herself, with her sixty ships, formed a line behind that of the vessels of Antony. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
    For a long time after the battle began, the light galleys of Octavian made little or no impression upon the massive ships that opposed them; but at last, by a skilful manoeuvre, Agrippa forced Antony to extend his line of battle. This done, Agrippa's ships succeeded in breaking through it and darting towards the vessels of Cleopatra. Alarmed at this, the Egyptian queen at once gave the signal for flight, and with her ships put hurriedly to sea. Antony, forgetful that the crisis of the battle had now arrived, recklessly sailed in pursuit of her, leaving his fleet to win or lose as best it might in his absence. Deserted by its commander, it still fought on, but with little heart, and by nightfall had been completely routed and destroyed. The troops of Antony were still encamped upon the promontory fronting the forces of Octavian; yet they did not at once give battle, but waited in the hope that their general would return. Seven days passed by, and when he failed to appear, after some hesitation, they surrendered to Octavian and accepted him as their commander, thus making him at a stroke the master of the world.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Alyzia

ALYZIA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
A town in Acarnania, near the sea, opposite Leucas, containing a temple sacred to Heracles.

Amphilochia

AMFILOCHIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
The country of the Amphilochi, an Epirot race, at the east end of the Ambracian Gulf, usually included in Acarnania. Their chief town was Argos Amphilochicum.

Argos Amphilochicum

ARGOS AMFILOCHIKON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
The chief town of Amphilochia in Acarnania, on the Ambracian Gulf.

Chalcis

CHALKIS (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS
A town in Aetolia, at the mouth of the Evenus, situated at the foot of the mountain Chalcis, and hence also called Hypochalcis.

Aetolia

ETOLIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
    A division of Greece, bounded on the west by Acarnania, from which it was separated by the river Achelous; on the north by Epirus and Thessaly; on the east by the Ozolian Locrians; and on the south by the entrance to the Corinthian Gulf. It was divided into two parts--Old Aetolia, from the Achelous to the Evenus and Calydon; and New Aetolia, or the Acquired, from the Evenus and Calydon to the Ozolian Locrians. On the coast the country is level and fruitful, but in the interior mountainous and unproductive. The mountains contained many wild beasts, and were celebrated in mythology for the hunt of the Calydonian boar. The country was originally inhabited by Curetes and Leleges, but was at an early period colonized by Greeks from Elis, led by the mythical Aetolus. The Aetolians took part in the Trojan War, under their king Thoas. They continued for a long time a rude and uncivilized people, living to a great extent by robbery; and even in the time of Thucydides (B.C. 410) many of their tribes spoke a language which was not Greek, and were in the habit of eating raw flesh. They appear to have been early united by a kind of league, but this league first acquired political importance about the middle of the third century B.C., and became a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean League. The Aetolians took the side of Antiochus III. against the Romans, and on the defeat of that monarch, B.C. 189, they became virtually the subjects of Rome. On the conquest of the Achaeans, B.C. 146, Aetolia was included in the Roman province of Achaea.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Evenus

EVINOS (River) ETOLOAKARNANIA
   A river of Aetolia, rising in Mount Oeta, and flowing into the sea, 120 stadia west of Antirrhium. It derived its name from Evenus, the father of Marpessa, who was carried off by Idas, the son of Aphareus; and Evenus, being unable to overtake the latter, threw himself into the river, which was henceforth called after him.

Heraclea

IRAKLIA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
A city of Acarnania, on the shore of the Ionian Sea, and opposite the island of Carnus.

Calydon

KALYDON (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
   A city of Aetolia, below the river Evenus, and between that stream and the sea. It was famed in Grecian story on account of the boar-hunt in its neighbourhood, the theme of poetry from Homer to Statius. We are told by mythologists that Oeneus, the father of Meleager and Tydeus, reigned at Calydon, while his brother Agrius settled in Pleuron. Frequent wars, however, arose between them on the subject of contiguous lands. Some time after the Peloponnesian War, we find Calydon in the possession of the Achaeans. It is probable that the Calydonians themselves invited over the Achaeans, to defend them against the Acarnanians. Their city was, in consequence, occupied by an Achaean garrison, until Epaminondas, after the battle of Leuctra, compelled them to evacuate the place. It was still a town of importance during the Social War, and as late as the time of Caesar. Augustus accomplished its downfall by removing the inhabitants to Nicopolis.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Limnaea

LIMNEA (Ancient city) AMFILOCHIA
(Aimnaia). A town in the north of Acarnania, near the Ambracian Gulf, on which it had a harbour.

Molycrium

MOLYKRIA (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS
(Molukreion). A town in the south of Aetolia, at the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf.

Naupactus

NAFPAKTOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
   (Naupaktos). The modern Lepanto; an ancient town of the Locri Ozolae, near the promontory Antirrhium, possessing the best harbor on the northern coast of the Corinthian Gulf. It is said to have derived its name from the Heraclidae having here built the fleet with which they crossed over to the Peloponnesus (from naus + pegnumi). After the Persian Wars it fell into the power of the Athenians, who settled here the Messenians who had been compelled to leave their country at the end of the Third Messenian War, B.C. 455. During the Peloponnesian War it was the military base of the Athenians in their operations against Western Greece. In later times, Philip of Macedon assigned it to Aetolia, and the Romans to Locris.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Olpae

OLPES (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
(Olpai) or Olpe (Olpe). A town of the Amphilochae in Acarnania on the Ambracian Gulf.

Palaerus

PALEROS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
(Palairos). A town on the coast of Acarnania near Leucas.

Panaetolium

PANETOLIKO (Mountain) ETOLOAKARNANIA
(Panaitolion). A mountain in Aetolia, near Thermon, in which town the panegyric festival of the Aetolians was held.

Pleuron

PLEVRON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
   An ancient city in Aetolia, situated at a little distance from the coast. It was abandoned by its inhabitants when Demetrius II., king of Macedonia, laid waste the surrounding country, and a new city was built under the same name near the ancient one. The two cities are distinguished by geographers under the names of Old Pleuron and New Pleuron respectively.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Pylene

PYLINI (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS
(Pulene). An ancient town of Aetolia near the coast, mentioned by Homer. The Aeolians who took Pylene afterwards removed higher up into the country and founded Proschium.

Stratus, Stratos

STRATOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
Now Lepenu or Lepanon, the chief town in Acarnania, ten stadia west of the Achelous. Its territory was called Stratice.

Thermum

THERMON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
(Thermon) or Therma (to Therma). A town of the Aetolians near Stratus, with warm mineral springs, and regarded for some time as the capital of the country.

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Acarnania

AKARNANIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Region of central western Greece, north of the entrance of the gulf of Calydon along the shores of the Ionian Sea.
  Acarnania owed its name to Acarnan, a son of Alcmaeon (the leader of the expedition of the Epigones against Thebes) and grandson of Amphiaraus (a king of Argos and a member of the expedition of the seven against Thebes), who was said to have first settled the region.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Aetolia

ETOLIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  Region of central Greece north of the gulf of Calydon.
  Aetolia owes its name to the mythological hero Aetolus, a son of the Aeolian Endymion, king of Elis. Endymion had three sons, Paeon, Epeius and Aetolus. In order to decide which one would succeed him, he organized a race between them in Olympia. Epeius won and became king of Elis, and Paeon fled to Macedon, while Aetolus stayed around and eventually succeeded his brother at his death. But later, Aetolus killed Apis, a son of Phoroneus (the first man according to Peloponnesian legends) who was then king of all Peloponnese but acted as a tyrant. As a result, Aetolus had to flee and he moved across the gulf of Corinth, where he was greeted by the local kings, Dorus (the eponym of the Dorians), Laodocus and Polypoetes, the three sons of Apollo and Phthia (the eponym of the region of Phthia). But Aetolus killed the three of them, expelled local residents, the Couretes, and reigned over the country, that took his name.
  He had two sons, Pleuron and Calydon, who gave their names to two cities of Aetolia.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Calydon

KALYDON (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
  City of Aetolia on the northern coast of the western part of the gulf of Corinth.
  In mythology, Calydon was founded by a king by that name, one of the sons of Aetolus and of Pronoe, the daughter of Phorbas. Calydon had only daughters, one of which, Epicaste, married Agenor, the son of her uncle Pleuron. Thus, Agenor became king of Pleuron and Calydon, as was his son Porthaon after him. In the next generation, Pleuron became the kingdom of Thestius, the son of Ares and of Porthaon's sister Demonice, while Calydon remained the kingdom of Oeneus, Porthaon's son.
  Oeneus first married Althaea, the daughter of Thestius, and they had two children, Meleagrus and Deiareina. Once grown up, Meleagrus took the lead in an episode called the hunt of Calydon, which tells the story of the hunt of a monstrous boar sent by Artemis in the country of Calydon after Oeneus had forgotten to name her in a thanksgiving ceremony at the end of the crops. To try and get rid of the beast, Meleagrus called upon heroes from all around Greece to come and help him in the hunt.
  After Althaea had died, Oeneus married Periboea, daughter of Hipponous, with whom he had a son, Tydeus. When Tydeus reached adulthood, he killed his brother and had to leave his country. He eventually arrived at the court of Adrastus in Argos at the same time as Polynices, the exiled son of Oedipus deprived of his share of kingship by his brother. Adrastus greeted them both, purified Tydeus of his crime and gave one of his daughters in marriage to each, promissing to help them recapture their throne. This is why Tydeus got involved in the expedition of the seven against Thebes, where he died, and his son Diomedes, who was thus also a grandson of Adrastus by his mother Deipyle, became king of Argos and participated in the victorious expedition of the Epigones against Thebes.
  Diomedes was also involved in a fight against the sons of Agrius, a brother of Oeneus, who had helped their father take over the throne of Calydon from an aging Oeneus unable to defend himself. Diomedes killed all but two of them who had fled in Peloponnese, and handed Oeneus' kingdom over to Andraemon, the husband of Oeneus' daughter Gorge.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Pleuron

PLEVRON (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA
  City of Aetolia on the northern coast of the gulf of Patrae.
  In mythology, Pleuron was founded by a king by that name, one of the sons of Aetolus, the eponym of the Aetolians, himself a son of Endymion, king of Elis, and of Pronoe, the daughter of Phorbas and sister of Augeas, another king of Elis. Pleuron was the brother of Calydon, who founded the nearby city by that name. He married Xanthippe, the daughter of Dorus (the eponym of the Dorians). They had several sons, starting with Agenor, who married Epicaste, the daughter of Calydon, to become king of Pleuron and Calydon (Calydon had no sons).
  Agenor was the father of Porthaon, who succeded him, and of Demonice, who was loved by Ares and became the mother of Thestius. Thestius became king of Pleuron while Oeneus, the son of Porthaon, became king of Calydon. Thestius was the father of, among others, Althaea and Leda. Althaea became the wife of her uncle Oeneus and the mother of Meleagrus and Deiareina (one of Heracles' wives), while Leda became the wife of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta, while he was in exile at the court of her father after having been unseated by his half-brother Hippocoon. Leda was loved by Zeus under the appearance of a swan and was the mother of Castor and Pollux, Helen and Clytaemnestra.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Local government Web-Sites

Municipality of Apodotia

APODOTIA (Municipality) NAFPAKTOS

Prefecture of Etoloakarnania

ETOLOAKARNANIA (Prefecture) GREECE

Municipality of Menidi

MENIDI (Municipality) AMFILOCHIA

Municipality of Nafpaktos

NAFPAKTOS (Municipality) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Municipality of Kekropia (Paleros)

PALAIROS (Municipality) AKTIO - VONITSA

Municipality of Stratos

STRATOS (Municipality) AMFILOCHIA

Local government WebPages

ANAKTORION (Municipality) ETOLOAKARNANIA

PALAIROS (Municipality) AKTIO - VONITSA
Geographical position
  The municipality of Paleros is located on the NW tip of the state of Aitoloakarnania. Has an area of 106. k.m2. (Sq. km) The coastal area is washed by the Ionian sea, the mainland borders with the municipalities of: Anaktorio, Αlyzias, Μedenon. In short distance from the coast of the municipality are the islands of: Lefkas, Κalamos, Meganissi etc.
Geographical Characteristics
  The geographic structure of the area of the municipality contains a large variety. Consists of: coastal zone, wetlands, valleys, forests, mountains and lakes. In the municipality exists the mountainous region of Serekas ( 1.171 m. ), which is a part of the 3 large Akarnanian mountains. There are also more small and big mountains. Of interest also is the rocky coastal area facing the Ionian sea, the salt lake between the municipality and Lefkas, the wetlands of Voulkaria lake.
Vegetation
  In the mountainous parts mostly there low vegetation with bushes and thin forests. One can find holm-oak, prikly broom, thyme, oregano, arbutus and heather. In the valley there are plantations of tobacco, cotton, wheat etc. In the wetlands there are bamboo, bulrush, plane tree, poplar tree, willow tree. In the hills there are olive groves. In the swamps there are low trees like cedar and holm-oak.
Enviroment
  The ecosystem of the municipality has not had serious consequences over the years. It is important to note that the area consists of diverse ecosystems such as: Amvrakikos gulf, the salt lake between Paleros and the island of Lefkas. The viability of these ecosystems is very important, without neglecting small ecosystems like forests, coastal zone, rivers etc. Any disturbance in an ecosystem has implications to others in the vicinity.
  Cattle and agriculture have not made visible changes to the environment. Intensive agriculture with use of fertilizers and pesticides in the long term can pollute nature and humans.
  Voulkaria Lake: is situated one km East of the community of St. Nikolaos. It is 5 m above the sea level and size 10.000 stremata (1 strema = 1.000 sq. m) It is a closed lake with sweet water. Has maximum depth 2.5 m, a dam and a channel connecting it with the sea at its NW section. The soil sand, clay type.
  In the lake one can find the following vegetation types:
•Nagas marina, Potamogeton spp., Phragmites australis, Tamarix spp etc.
  Around the wetlands there is agriculture and broad-leafed bushes.
  In the fauna one can find :
•Fish: Leuciscus cephlus, Barbus albanicus.
Amphibian: Hyla arborea.
•Reptiles: Cyrtodactylus kotchyi, Ablepharus Kitaibelii, Lacerta trilineata, Coluber najadum, Elaphe guatuorlineata, Natrix natrix.
•Birds: Egretta alba, Ardea purpurea, Plegadis falcinellus, Circus aeruginosus, C. Pygargus, Chlidonias niger, •Acrocephalus melanopogon, Ficedula semitorguata.
•Mammals: Pipistrellus, Meles meles, Lutra lutra.
  The wetlands are protected according to the RAMSAR treaty (order 79/409 E.U., Barcelona).
  East salt lake of Lefkas: it is a network of small bio systems that surround the most important ecosystem, of international recognition, Amvrakikos gulf. The salt lake covers 700 hectares. The average height of tide is 0.3 m. The ecosystem has bird’s classified ΑΙ according to E.U. order 409/79 ( birds under threat of extinction or very sensitive in environmental changes). These birds are recognized as protected species ( article 4 of E.U. order ).
  These birds are the following: Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Ardeola ralloides, Egretta garzetta, Egretta alba, Trigna glareola, Larus genei, Larus melanocephalus, Sterna sandvicensis, Sterna hirundo, Sterna albifrons, Alcedo atthis, Lanius collurio.
  Observed kinds of fauna:
•Fish, amphibians, reptiles, molluscs.
•Foliage Kinds that develop in soil rich in chloride natrium.

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MENIDI (Village) AMFILOCHIA

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