(Dume, Dymae, Liv. xxvii. 31: Eth. Dumaios, also Dumios, Steph. B.
s. v., Dymaeus, Cic. ad Att. xvi. 1; The territory he Dumaia, Pol. v. 17: nr.
A town of Achaia, and the most westerly of the 12 Achaean cities,
from which circumstance it is said to have derived its name. (Herod. i. 145; Pol.
ii. 41; Strab. viii. p. 387.) It was situated near the coast, according to Strabo
60 stadia from the promontory Araxus, and according to Pausanias 30 stadia from
the river Larisus, which separated its territory from Elis. It is further said
by Strabo (viii.) to have been formed out of an union of 8 villages, one of which
was called Teuthea; and it is probable, that some of the different names, by which
the city is said to have been called, were originally the names of the separate
villages. Thus, its more ancient name is stated by Pausanias to have been Paleia
(Paleia), and by Strabo to have been Stratus (Stratos). The poet Antimachus gave
it the epithet Cauconis, which was derived by some from the iron Caucon in the
neighbourhood, and by others from the Caucones, who were supposed to have originally
inhabited this district. (Strab., Paus. vii. 17. § 5, seq.) After the death of
Alexander the Great, Dyme fell into the hands of Cassander, but his troops were
driven out of the city by Aristodemus, the general of Antigonus, B.C. 314. (Diod.
xix. 66.) This city had the honour, along with Patrae, of reviving the Achaean
League in 280; and about this time or shortly afterwards its population received
an accession from some of the inhabitants of Olenus, who abandoned their town.
(Pol. ii. 41.) In the Social War (B.C. 220, seq.), the territory of Dyme, from
its proximity to Elis, was frequently laid waste by the Eleans. (Pol. iv. 59,
60, v. 17.) It is mentioned by Livy in the history of the war between Philip and
the Romans, and Pausanias says that, in consequence of its being the only one
of the Achaean cities which espoused the cause of the Macedonian king, it was
plundered by the Romans (Paus. l. c.). From this blow it never recovered; and
it is said to have been without inhabitants when Pompey settled here a large number
of Cilician pirates. In the civil wars which followed, some of these new inhabitants
were expelled from their lands, and resumed in consequence their old occupation.
(Strab. pp. 387, 665; Appian Mithr. 96; Plut. Pomp. 28; Cic. ad Att. xvi. 1, Dymaeos
agro pulses mare infestum habere, nil miruim.) Both Strabo and Pliny (iv. 6) call
Dyme a colony; but this statement appears to be a mistake, since we know that
Dyme was one of the towns placed under the authority of Patrae, when it was made
a Roman colony by Augustus (Paus. l. c.); and we are expressly told that no other
Achaean town except Patrae was allowed the privilege of self-government. The remains
of Dyme are to be seen near the modern village of Karavostasi.
In the territory of Dyme, near the promontory Araxus, there was a
fortress, called Teichos, which was said to have been built by Hercules, when
he made war upon the Eleans. It was only a stadium and a half in circumference,
but its walls were 30 cubits high. It was taken by the Eleans under Euripides
in the Social War, B.C. 220, but it was recovered by Philip and restored to the
Dymaeans in the following year. Its site is perhaps occupied by the castle of
Kallogria. (Pol. iv. 59, 88) There were also two other places in the territory
of Dyme, between the city and the frontiers of Elis, named Hecatombeon (Ekatombaion)
and Langon (Langon, the latter of which, however, appears properly to have belonged
to the Eleans. Near Hecatombaeon Aratus and the Achaeans were defeated by Cleomenes,
who followed up his victory by gaining possession of Langon, B.C. 224. (Pol. ii.
51; Plut. Cleom. 14.)
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)