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Listed 100 (total found 160) sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "ACHAIA Prefecture GREECE" .


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CHELMOS (Mountain) ACHAIA

KALAVRYTA (Small town) ACHAIA

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DAFNI (Small town) KALAVRYTA

EGHIO (Municipality) ACHAIA

EGHIO (Town) ACHAIA

KALAVRYTA (Province) ACHAIA

PATRA (Town) ACHAIA

General

KRATHIS (River) ACHAIA

Crathis

Its sources are on the homonymous mountain, which Pausanias calls it Crathis like the river (Paus. 8,15,9) and constitutes the eastern part of the Mt. Aroania. The river is near the ancient city of Aigae and, according to the tradition, it received the waters of the mythical Styx.


Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

ACHAIA (Ancient country) GREECE

Achaia


AROI (Ancient city) PATRA

Aroe

(Patra) It is said to have been formed by an union of three small places, named Aroe (Aroe), Antheia (Antheia), and Mesatis (Mesatis), which had been founded by the Ionians, when they were in the occupation of the country. After the expulsion of the Ionians, the Achaean hero Patreus withdrew the inhabitants from Antheia and Mesatis to Aroe, which he enlarged and called Patrae after himself. The acropolis of the city probably continued to bear the name of Aroe, which was often used as synonymous with Patrac.

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DYMI (Ancient city) PATRA

Dyme

  (Dume, Dymae, Liv. xxvii. 31: Eth. Dumaios, also Dumios, Steph. B. s. v., Dymaeus, Cic. ad Att. xvi. 1; The territory he Dumaia, Pol. v. 17: nr. Karavostasi).
  A town of Achaia, and the most westerly of the 12 Achaean cities, from which circumstance it is said to have derived its name. (Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Strab. viii. p. 387.) It was situated near the coast, according to Strabo 60 stadia from the promontory Araxus, and according to Pausanias 30 stadia from the river Larisus, which separated its territory from Elis. It is further said by Strabo (viii.) to have been formed out of an union of 8 villages, one of which was called Teuthea; and it is probable, that some of the different names, by which the city is said to have been called, were originally the names of the separate villages. Thus, its more ancient name is stated by Pausanias to have been Paleia (Paleia), and by Strabo to have been Stratus (Stratos). The poet Antimachus gave it the epithet Cauconis, which was derived by some from the iron Caucon in the neighbourhood, and by others from the Caucones, who were supposed to have originally inhabited this district. (Strab., Paus. vii. 17. § 5, seq.) After the death of Alexander the Great, Dyme fell into the hands of Cassander, but his troops were driven out of the city by Aristodemus, the general of Antigonus, B.C. 314. (Diod. xix. 66.) This city had the honour, along with Patrae, of reviving the Achaean League in 280; and about this time or shortly afterwards its population received an accession from some of the inhabitants of Olenus, who abandoned their town. (Pol. ii. 41.) In the Social War (B.C. 220, seq.), the territory of Dyme, from its proximity to Elis, was frequently laid waste by the Eleans. (Pol. iv. 59, 60, v. 17.) It is mentioned by Livy in the history of the war between Philip and the Romans, and Pausanias says that, in consequence of its being the only one of the Achaean cities which espoused the cause of the Macedonian king, it was plundered by the Romans (Paus. l. c.). From this blow it never recovered; and it is said to have been without inhabitants when Pompey settled here a large number of Cilician pirates. In the civil wars which followed, some of these new inhabitants were expelled from their lands, and resumed in consequence their old occupation. (Strab. pp. 387, 665; Appian Mithr. 96; Plut. Pomp. 28; Cic. ad Att. xvi. 1, Dymaeos agro pulses mare infestum habere, nil miruim.) Both Strabo and Pliny (iv. 6) call Dyme a colony; but this statement appears to be a mistake, since we know that Dyme was one of the towns placed under the authority of Patrae, when it was made a Roman colony by Augustus (Paus. l. c.); and we are expressly told that no other Achaean town except Patrae was allowed the privilege of self-government. The remains of Dyme are to be seen near the modern village of Karavostasi.
  In the territory of Dyme, near the promontory Araxus, there was a fortress, called Teichos, which was said to have been built by Hercules, when he made war upon the Eleans. It was only a stadium and a half in circumference, but its walls were 30 cubits high. It was taken by the Eleans under Euripides in the Social War, B.C. 220, but it was recovered by Philip and restored to the Dymaeans in the following year. Its site is perhaps occupied by the castle of Kallogria. (Pol. iv. 59, 88) There were also two other places in the territory of Dyme, between the city and the frontiers of Elis, named Hecatombeon (Ekatombaion) and Langon (Langon, the latter of which, however, appears properly to have belonged to the Eleans. Near Hecatombaeon Aratus and the Achaeans were defeated by Cleomenes, who followed up his victory by gaining possession of Langon, B.C. 224. (Pol. ii. 51; Plut. Cleom. 14.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGES (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Aegae

  Aipsai: Eth. Aigaios, Aigeates, Aigaieus. Or Aega (Aiga), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated upon the river Crathis and upon the coast, between Aegeira and Bura. It is mentioned by Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times for its worship of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted by its inhabitants, who removed to the neighbouring town of Aegeira; and it had already ceased to be one of the 12 Achaean cities on the renewal of the League in B.C. 280, its place being occupied by Ceryneia. Its name does not occur in Polybius. All traces of Aegae have disappeared, but it probably occupied the site of the Khan of Akrata, which is situated upon a commanding height rising from the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Pausanias mention on which bank of the Crathis it stood, but it probably stood on the left bank, since the right is low and often inundated.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGHION (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Aegium

Aegium, Aigion, Ageion: Eth. Aigiens, Aegiensis: Vostitza. A town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated upon the coast W. of the river Selinus, 30 stadia from Rhypae, and 40 stadia from Helice. It stood between two promontories in the corner of a bay, which formed the best harbour in Achaia next to that of Patrae. It is said to have been formed out of an union of 7 or 8 villages. It is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue; and, after the destruction of the neighbouring city of Helice by an earthquake, in B.C. 373, it obtained the territory of the latter, and thus became the chief city of Achaia. From this time Aegium was chosen as the place of meeting for the League, and it retained this distinction, on the revival of the League, till Philopoemen carried a law that the meeting might be held in any of the towns of the confederacy. Even under the Roman empire the Achaeans were allowed to keep up the form of their periodical meetings at Aegium, just as the Amphictyons were permitted to meet at Thermopylae and Delphi. (Paus. vii. 24. § 4.) The meetings were held in a grove near the sea, called Homagyrium or Homarium, sacred to Zeus Homagyrius or Homarius (Houagnion, Hhouarion; in Strab. pp. 385, 387, Hhouarion should be read instead of Arnharion and Ainharion). Close to this grove was a temple of Demeter Panchaea. The words Homagyrium, assembly, and Homarium, union, 1 have reference to those meetings, though in later times they were explained as indicating the spot where Agamemnon assembled the Grecian chieftains before the Trojan War. There were several other temples and public buildings at Aegium, of which an account is given by Pausanias. (Hom. Il. ii. 574; Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41, v. 93; Strab. pp. 337, 385, seq.; Paus. vii. 23, 24; Liv. xxxviii. 30; Plin. iv. 6.) Vostitza, which occupies the site of the ancient Aegium, is a place of some importance. It derives its name from the gardens by which it is surrounded (from bhosta, bosthani, garden). It stands on a hill, terminating towards the sea in a cliff about 50 feet high. There is a remarkable opening in the cliff, originally perhaps artificial, which leads from the town to the ordinary place of embarkation. A great part of the town was destroyed by an earthquake in 1819, of which an account is given under Helice. The principal remains of the ancient town have been lately discovered on a hill to the E. of Vostitza. There are also several fragments of architecture and sculpture, inserted in the walls of the houses at Vostitza.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGIRA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Aigeira

  Aigeira: Eth. Aigeirhates, fem. Aigeiratis. A town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, situated between Aegae and Pellene, is described by Polybius as opposite Mount Parnassus, situated upon hills strong and difficult of approach, seven stadia from the sea, and near a river. This river was probably the Crius, which flowed into the sea, a little to the W. of the town. According to Pausanias the upper city was 12 stadia from its port, and 72 stadia from the oracle of Heracles Buraicus. (Herod. i. 146; Strab. viii. p. 386; Pol. ii. 41, iv. 57; Paus. vii. 26. § 1; Plin. iv. 6.) Pausanias (l. c.) relates that Aegeira occupied the site of the Homeric Hyperesis (Hpspereshie, Il. ii. 573, xv. 254; Strab. p. 383: Eth. Hupereslens), and that it changed its name during the occupation of the country by the Ionians. He adds that the ancient name still continued in use. Hence we find that Icarus of Hyperesia was proclaimed victor in the 23rd Olympiad. (Paus. iv. 15. § 1.) On the decay of the neighbouring town of Aegae its inhabitants were transferred to Aegeira. (Strab. p. 386.) In the first year of the Social war (B.C. 220) Aegeira was surprised by a party of Aetolians, who had set sail from the opposite town of Oeantheia in Locris, but were driven out by the Aegiratans after they had obtained possession of the place. (Pol. iv. 57, 58.) The most important of the public buildings of Aegeira was a temple of Zeus. It also contained a very ancient temple of Apollo, and temples of Artemis, of Aphrodite Urania, who was worshipped in the town above all other divinities, and of the Syrian goddess. (Pans. vii. 26.) The port of Aegeira Leake places at Mavra Litharia, i. e., the Black Rocks, to the left of which, on the summit of a hill, are some vestiges of an ancient city, which must have been Aegeira. At the distance of 40 stadia from Aegeira, through the mountains, there was a fortress called Phelloe (Ellhoe, near Zakhuli), abounding in springs of water. (Paus. vii. 26. § 10)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ELIKI (Ancient city) EGIALIA

Helice

  Helike: Eth. Helikonios (Steph. B. s. v.); Helikeus (Strab.viii.). A town in Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated on the coast between the rivers Selinus and Cerynites, and 40 stadia E. of Aegium. It seems to have been the most ancient of all the cities in Achaia. Its foundation is ascribed to Ion, who is said to have made it his residence, and--to have called it after his wife Helice, the daughter of Selinus. It possessed a celebrated temple of Poseidon, who was hence called Heliconins; and here the Ionians were accustomed to hold those periodical meetings which were continued in Asia Minor under the name of Panionia. After the conquest of the country by the Achaeans, the latter likewise made Helice the place of meeting of their League, and it continued to be their capital till the destruction of the city by an earthquake in B.C. 373, two years before the battle of Leuctra. This earthquake happened in the night. The city and a space of 12 stadia below it sank into the earth, and were covered over by the sea. All the inhabitants perished, and not a vestige of Helice remained, except a few fragments projecting from the sea. Its territory was taken possession of by Aegium. The neighbouring city of Bura was destroyed by the same earthquake. The catastrophe was attributed to the vengeance of Poseidon, whose wrath was excited because the inhabitants of Helice had refused to give their statue of Poseidon to the Ionian colonists in Asia, or even to supply them with a model. According to some authorities, the inhabitants of Helice and Bura had even murdered the Ionian deputies.
  On the 23rd of August, 1817, the same spot was again the scene of a similar disaster. The earthquake was preceded by a sudden explosion, which was compared to that of a battery of cannon. The shock which immediately succeeded was said to have lasted a minute and a:.half, during which the sea rose at the mouth of the Selinus, and extended so far as to inundate all the level immediately below Vostitza (the ancient Aegium). After its retreat not a trace was left of some magazines which had stood on the shore, and the sand which had covered the beach was all carried away. In Vostitza 65 persons lost their lives, and two thirds of the buildings were entirely ruined. Five villages in the plain were destroyed.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ERYMANTHOS (Mountain) ACHAIA

Erymanthus

  Erymanthus (Erumanthos), a lofty range of mountains on the frontiers of Arcadia, Achaia, and Elis. It formed the western point of the northern barrier of Arcadia; and Mt. Lampeia, which extends southwards, is a portion of the range. The two principal heights are now called O/lonos and Kalefoni, the former being 7.297 feet above the level of the sea, and the latter 6.227 feet. From Erymanthus four rivers rise, - the Eleian Peneius, the Arcadian Erymanthus, and the Peirus and Selinus of Achaia. The river Erymanthus, which is a tributary of the Achelous, is spoken of under the latter name. Mount Erymanthus is celebrated in mythology as the haunt of the fierce boar destroyed by Hercules. (Strab. viii. pp. 343, 357; Pans. v. 7. § 1, viii. 24. § 4, seq.; Hom. Od. vi. 104; Apollod. ii. 5; Leake, Morea. vol. ii. p. 253, Peloponneaiaca, pp. 203, 204, 224; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. pp. 118, 124; Curtius, Peloposnesos, vol. i. pp. 17, 384.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FARES (Ancient city) PATRA

Pharae

  Pharai. Sometimes Phara, Pherae, Pharees, the name of the people: Eth. Pharieus, Pharaieus. The territory (he Pharaike, Strab. viii. p. 388, Polyb. iv. 59). A town of Achaia, and one of the twelve Achaean cities, was situated on the river Pierus or Peirus, 70 stadia from the sea, and 150 stadia from Patrae. It was one of the four cities which took the lead in restoring the Achaean League in B.C. 280. In the Social War (B.C. 220, seq.) it suffered from the attacks of the Aetolians and Eleans. Its territory was annexed by Augustus to Patrae, when the latter city was made a Roman colony after the battle of Actium. Pharae contained a large agora, with a curious statue of Hermes. The remains of the city have been found on the left bank of the Kamenitza, near Prevezo.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KERYNIA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Ceryneia

  Keruneia, also Kerunia, Keraunia, Kerauneia, &c.: Eth. Keruneus. A town of Achaia, was not originally one of the 12 Achaean cities, though it afterwards became so, succeeding to the place of Aegae. Its population was increased by a large body of Mycenaeans, when the latter abandoned their city to the Argives in 468. Ceryneia is mentioned as a member of the League on its revival in B.C. 280; and one of its citizens, Marcus, was chosen in 255 as the first sole General of the League. In the time. of Strabo, Ceryneia was dependent upon Aegium. It was situated inland upon a lofty height, W. of the river Cerynites (Bokhusia), and a little S. of Helice. Its ruins have been discovered on the height, which rises above the left bank of the Cerynites, just where it issues from the mountains into the plain. (Pol. ii. 41, 43; Paus. vii. 6. § 1, vii. 25. § 5; Strabo.) Theophrastus stated that the wine of Ceryneia produced abortion. (Theophr. Hist. Plant. ix. 20)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KLITOR (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Cleitor

  Kleitor; Clitorium,; Eth. Kleitorios. A town in Arcadia, the name of which is derived by Muller, from its being situated in an enclosed plain (from kleio), while others connect it with Clivia and Clusium. It possessed. a small territory called Cleitoria (Kleitoria, Polyb. iv. 10. § 6), bounded on the E. by the territory of Pheneus, on the W. by that of Psophis, on the N. by that of Cynaetha and Achaia, and on the S. by the territories of Caphyae, Tripolis, and Thelpusa. The lofty Aroanian mountains formed the NE. boundary of the territory of Cleitor, separating it from that of Pheneus. In these mountains the river Aroanius (Katzana) rises, which flowed through the territory of Cleitor from N. to S., and falls into the Ladon near the sources of the latter. The valley of this river opens out into two plains. In the upper plain, now called the plain of Sudhena, was situated Lusi, at. one.time an independent town, but at a later period a dependency of Cleitor. In the lower plain, now called the plain of Katzana, or Katzanes, was the town of Cleitor itself.
  Besides the valley of the Aroanius, the upper valley of the Ladon also formed part of the territory of Cleitor. The Ladon rose in this district, and flowed through the southern part of it in a south-westerly direction. The road from Caphyae to Psophis passed through the Cleitoria, and was traversed by Pausanias. (viii. 23. § § 8, 9). At the distance of seven stadia from Caphyae was Nasi, in the territory of the latter city; and 50 stadia beyond, the road crossed the Ladon, but Pausanias does not mention where the territory of Cleitor began. The road then entered a forest of oaks called Soron, and passed through Argeathae, Lycuntes, and Scotane, till it arrived at the ruins of Paus, situated at the end of the forest, and not far from Seirae, which was distant 30 stadia from Psophis, and was the boundary between the Cleitorii and Psophidii. There are still some remains of this forest, which, in the time of Pausanias, contained bears and wild boars. The position of these places is uncertain; though Leake attempts to identify some of them. Paus is also mentioned by Herodotus (Paion, or Pagou polis, vi. 127), who speaks of it as a town of Azania.
  Cleitor was situated in the midst of the plain of Katzana, upon a hill. of moderate height between two rivulets. The more important of these streams, running. S. of the town, was also called Cleitor, now Klitora. The other stream, now called the river of Karnesi, rises in the district of Lusi, and falls into the Klitora just beyond the remains of the ancient city., The Cleitor, after flowing rapidly through the plain, falls into the Aroanius, at the distance of seven stadia from the city of Cleitor, according to Pausanias; but the real distance is at least double. (Paus. viii. 21. § 1; rapidus Clitor, Stat. Theb. iv.289; Athen.v. iii. p.331, d.; kleitoen hudor potamos Arkadias, Hesych.) A little north of the junction of the river Cleitor with the Aroanius is the Kalyvia of Mazi upon. a gentle elevation, in the neighbourhood of which Dodwell discovered the remains of a small Doric temple.
  Cleitor is said to have been founded by a hero of the same name, the son of the Arcadian king Azan. (Paus. viii. 4. § 5, viii. 21. § 3.) The Cleitoria formed an important part of the Azanian district. The Cleitorian fountain, of which we shall speak presently, was regarded as one of the curiosities of Azania; and the Aroanian mountains, on the summits of which the daughters of Proetus wandered in their madness, are called the Azanian mountains. (Eudoxus, ap. Steph. s. v. Azania.) The Cleitorians were renowned among the Peloponnesians for their love of liberty. (to Kleitorion phileleutheron kai gennaion), of which an instance is cited even from the mythical times, in the brave resistance they offered to Sous, king of Sparta. (Plut. Lyc. 2, Apophth. p. 234.) Their power was increased by the conquest of Lusi, Paus, and other towns in their neighbourhood. In commemoration of these, conquests they dedicated at Olympia a brazen statue of Zeus, 18 feet in height, which was extant in the time of Pausanias, who has preserved the inscription upon it. (Paus. v. 23. § 7.) Cleitor seems to have occupied an important position among the Arcadian cities. In the Theban war it carried on hostilities against Orchomenus. (Xen. Hell. v. 4. 36) In the Social War it belonged to the Achaean League, and bravely repelled the assaults of the Aetolians, who attempted to scale the walls. (Polyb. iv. 18, 19, ix. 38.) It was sometimes used as the place of meeting of the Achaean League. (Polyb. xxiii. 5.; Liv. xxxix. 5.) Strabo mentions Cleitor among the Arcadian towns destroyed in his time, or of which scarcely any traces existed; but this is not correct, since it was not only in existence in the time of Pausanias, but it continued to coin money as late as the reign of Septimius Severus.
  Pausanias gives only a brief description of Cleitor. He says that its three principal temples were those of Demeter, Asclepius, and Eileithyia; that at the distance of four stadia from the city the Cleitorians possessed a temple of the Dioscuri, whom they called the great gods; and that further on the summit of a mountain, at the distance of 30 stadia from the city, there was a temple of Athena Coria. (Paus. viii. 21. § 3.) The ruins of Cleitor are now called Paleopoli, distant about three miles from a village which still bears the name of the ancient town. It would seem, as Leake remarks, that the river, having preserved its name after the city had ceased to exist, at length gave that name to a village built at its sources. The walls of the ancient city may still be traced in nearly their full extent. They inclose an irregular oblong space, not more than a mile in circumference; they were about 15 feet in thickness, and were fortified with towers. But the space inclosed by these walls seems to have been properly the acropolis of the ancient city, since the whole plain between the river of Klitora and the river of Karnesi is covered with stones and pottery, mixed with quadrangular blocks and remains of columns. There are remains of a theatre towards the western end of the hill.
  In the territory of Cleitor was a celebrated fountain, of which those who drank lost for ever their taste for wine:
Clitorio quicunque sitim de fonte levarit,
Vina fugit: gaudetque meris abstemius undis.
(Ov. Met. xv. 322)
  A spring of water, gushing forth from the hill on which the ruins stand, is usually supposed to be this miraculous fountain; but Curtius places it in the territory of Lusi, because it is said to have been situated upon the confines of the Cleitoria, and is mentioned in connection with the purification of the daughters of Proetus by Melampus, which is said to have taken place at Lusi. (Eitiskai pege para tois Kleitoriois, Hesych.; situated an eschatias Kleitoros, Vitruv. l. c.; en Kleitori in Phylarch. ap. Athen. l. c., is to be understood of the territory.)
  Another marvel in the territory of Cleitor was the singing fish of the river Aroanius. These fish, which were called poikiliai, were said to sing like thrushes. Pausanias relates (viii. 21. § 2) that he had seen these fish caught; but that he had never heard them sing, although he had remained for that purpose on the banks of the river till sunset, when they were supposed to be most vocal. These singing fish are also mentioned by Athenaeus and Pliny. The former writer cites three authorities in proof of their existence, of whom Philostephanos placed them on the Ladon, Mnaseas in the Cleitor, and the Peripatetic Clearchus in the Pheneatic Aroanius. (Athen. viii. pp. 331, 332.) Pliny improperly identifies them with the exocoetus or adonis, which was a sea-fish. (Plin. ix. 19.) The poikilia was probably trout, and was so called from its spotted and many-coloured scales. The trout of the Aroanius are described by Dodwell as of a fine bright colour, and beautifully variegated.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KYNETHA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Cynaetha

  he Kunaitha: Eth. Kunaitheus, Kunaithaieus, Polyb.; Kunaithaeus, Paus.: Kalavryta), a town in the north of Arcadia, situated upon the northern slope of the Aroanian mountains, which divided its territory from those of Cleitor and Pheneus. The inhabitants of Cynaetha were the only Arcadians who lived beyond the natural boundaries of Arcadia. Their valley sloped down towards the Corinthian gulf; and the river which flowed through it, fell into the Corinthian gulf a little to the east of Bura: this river was called in ancient times Erasinus or Buraicus, now river of Kalavryta. (Strab. viii; Paus. vii. 24. § 5.) The climate and situation of Cynaetha are described by Polybius as the most disagreeable in all Arcadia. The same author observes that the character of the Cynaethians presented a striking contrast to that of the other Arcadians, being a wicked and cruel race, and so much disliked by the rest of their countrymen, that the latter would scarcely hold any intercourse with them. He attributes their depravity to their neglect of music, which had tended to humanize the other Arcadians, and to counteract the natural rudeness engendered by their climate. Accordingly, he regarded the terrible misfortune which overtook the Cynaethians in the Social war, when their city was destroyed by the Aetolians, as a righteous punishment for their wickedness. (Polyb. iv. 18--21.) Although Strabo (viii.) mentions Cynaetha as one of the Arcadian towns no longer existing in his time, it must have been restored at some period after its destruction by the Aetolians, as it was visited by Pausanias, who noticed in the agora altars of the. gods and a statue of the emperor Hadrian. At the distance of two stadia from the town was a fountain of cold water, called Alyssus, because it was said to cure hydrophobia. (Paus. viii. 19.) There can be no doubt that the modern village of Kalavryta occupies the site of Cynaetha, although it contains scarcely any traces of the ancient city.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LEONTION (Ancient city) PATRA

Leontium

  Leontion: Eth. Leontesios. A town of Achaia, was originally not one of the 12 Achaean cities, though it afterwards became so, succeeding to the place of Rhypes. It is only mentioned by Polybius, and its position is uncertain. It must, however, have been an inland town, and was probably between Pharae and the territory of Aegium, since we find that the Eleians under the Aetolian general Euripidas, after marching through the territory of Pharae as far as that of Aegium, retreated to Leontium. Leake places it in the valley of the Selinus, between the territory of Tritaea and that of Aegium, at a place now called Ai Andhrea, from a ruined church of that saint near the village of Guzumistra. Callicrates, the partizan of the Romans daring the later days of the Achaean League, was a native of Leontium.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LOUSSES (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Lusi

  Lusi, Lousoi, Lousoi, Loussoi, ta Loussa. Eth. Lousios, Louseus, Lousiates, Lousieus. A town in the north of Arcadia, originally independent of, but afterwards subject to, Cleitor. Lusi was situated in the upper valley of the Aroanius, and probably on the site of Sudhena, which stands in the NE. corner of the valley at the foot of Mt. Khelmos (the ancient Aroanian mountains), and on the road from Tripolitza to Kalavryta. The upper valley of the Aroanius, now called the plain of Sudhena, consists of two plains, of which the more easterly is the one through which the Aroanius flows, the waters of which force their way through a gorge in the mountains into the plain of Cleitor, now Katzana, to the south. The more westerly plain of Sudhena is entirely shut in by a range of hills; and the waters of three streams which flow into this plain are carried off by a katavothra, after forming an inundation, apparently the Lacus Clitorius mentioned by Pliny (xxxi. 2. s. 13). The air is damp and cold; and in this locality the best hemlock was grown (Theophr. ix. 15. § 8).
  Lusi was still independent in the 58th Olympiad; since one of its citizens is recorded to have gained the victory in the 11th Pythiad. (Paus. viii. 18. § 8.) Its territory was ravaged by the Aetolians in the Social War (Polyb. iv. 18); but in the time of Pausanias there were no longer even any ruins of the town. Its name, however, was preserved in consequence of its temple of Artemis Lusia or Hemerasia (the Soother ). The goddess was so called, because it was here that the daughters of Proetus were purified from their madness. They had concealed themselves in a large cavern, from which they were taken by Melampus, who cured them by sacred expiations. Thereupon their father Proetus founded this temple of Artemis Hemerasia, which was regarded with great reverence throughout the whole Peloponnesus as an inviolable asylum. It was plundered by the Aetolians in the Social War. It was situated near Lusi, at the distance of 40 stadia from Cynaetha. (Paus.; Polyb. ll. cc.; Callim. Dian. 233.) The interior of the temple, with the purification of the daughters of Proetus, is represented on an ancient vase. The ruins, which Dodwell discovered above Lusi towards the end of the plain, and on the road to Cynaetha, are probably those of the temple of Artemis Leake discovered some ancient foundations at the middle fountain of the three in the more westerly of the two plains of Sudhena, which he supposes to be the remains of the temple. One of the officers of the French Commission observed a large cave on the western side of the Aroanian mountains, in which the inhabitants of Sudhena were accustomed to take refuge during war, and which is probably the one intended in the legend of the daughters of Proetus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LYKOYRIA (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Lycuria

Lukouria. A village in Arcadia, which still retains its ancient name, marked the boundaries of the Pheneatae and Cleitorii.


OLENOS (Ancient city) PATRA

Olenus

  Olenus. A town of Achaia, and originally one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated on the coast, and on the left bank of the river Peirus, 40 stadia from Dyme, and 80 stadia from Patrae. On the revival of the Achaean League in B.C. 280, it appears that Olenus was still in existence, as Strabo says that it did not join the league; but the inhabitants subsequently abandoned the town, and retired to the neighbouring villages of Peirae (Peirai), and Euryteiae (Euruteiai), and to Dyme. In the time of Polybius, however, Olenus was no longer inhabited; and in the time of Strabo it was in ruins, and its territory belonged to Dyme. There are some remains of the ancient city at Kato or Palea-Akhaia.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PATRAI (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Patrae

  Patrai, Patrees, properly the name of the inhabitants: Eth. Patreus, Patraieus, Patrensis: Patrasso, Patras, Patra. A town of Achaia, and one of the twelve Achaean cities, was situated on the coast, W. of the promontory Rhium, near the opening of the Corinthian gulf. (Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Strab. viii. p. 386.) It stood on one of the outlying spurs of Mount Panachaicus (Voidhia), which rises immediately behind it to the height of 6322 feet. It is said to have been formed by an union of three small places, named Aroe (Aroe), Antheia (Antheia), and Mesatis (Mesatis), which had been founded by the Ionians, when they were in the occupation of the country. After the expulsion of the Ionians, the Achaean hero Patreus withdrew the inhabitants from Antheia and Mesatis to Aroe, which he enlarged and called Patrae after himself. The acropolis of the city probably continued to bear the name of Aroe, which was often used as synonymous with Patrac. Strabo says that Patrae was formed by a coalescence of seven demi; but this statement perhaps refers to the restoration of the town mentioned below. (Paus. vii. 18. § 2, seq.; Strab. viii. p. 337.) In the Peloponnesian War Patrae was the only one of the Achaean cities which espoused the Athenian cause; and in B.C. 419, the inhabitants were persuaded by Alcibiades to connect their city by means of long walls with its port. (Thuc. v. 52; Plut. Alc. 15.) After the death of Alexander the city fell into the hands of Cassander, but his troops were driven out of it by Aristodemus, the general of Antigonus, B.C. 314. (Diod. xix. 66.) In B.C. 280 Patrae and Dyme were the first two Achaean cities which expelled the Macedonians, and their example being shortly afterwards followed by Tritaea and Pharae, the Achaean League was renewed by these four towns. In the following year (B.C. 279) Patrae was the only one of the Achaean cities which sent assistance to the Aetolians, when their country was invaded by the Gauls. In the Social War Patrae is frequently mentioned as the port at which Philip landed in his expedition into Peloponnesus. In the war between the Achaeans and the Romans Patrae suffered so severely, that the greater part of the inhabitants abandoned the city and took up their abodes in the surrounding villages of Mesatis, Antheia, [p. 558] Bolina, Argyra, and Arba. (Pol. v. 2, 3, 28, &c.; Paus. vii. 18. § 6.; Pol. xl. 3.) Of these places we know only the position of Bolina and Argyra. Bolina was a little S. of the promontory Drepanumn, and gave its name to the river Bolinaeus. (Pans. vii. 24. § 4.) Argyra was a little S. of the promontory Rhium. (Paus. vii. 23. § 1.) Patrae continued an insignificant town down to the time of Augustus, although it is frequently mentioned as the place at which persons landed going from Italy to Greece. (Cic. ad Fam. vii. 2. 8, xvi. 1, 5, 6, ad Att. v. 9, vii. 2.) After the battle of Pharsalia (B.C. 48) Patrae was taken possession of by Cato, but shortly afterwards surrendered to Calenus, Caesar's lieutenant. It was here also that Antony passed the winter (32--31) when preparing for the war against Augustus; and it was taken by Agrippa shortly before the battle of Actium. (Dion Cass. xlii. 13, 14, 1. 9, 13.) It owed its restoration to Augustus, who resolved after the battle of Actium to establish two Roman colonies on the western coast of Greece, and for this purpose made choice of Nicopolis and Patrae. Augustus colonised at Patrae a considerable body of his soldiers, again collected its inhabitants from the surrounding villages, and added to them those of Rhypes. (Paus. vii. 18. § 7; Plin. iv. 5.) He not only gave Patrae dominion over the neighbouring towns, such as Pharae (Paus. vii. 22. § 1), Dyme (Paus. vii. 17. § 5), Tritaea (Paus. vii. 23. § 6), but even over Locris. (Paus. x. 38. § 9.) On coins it appears as a Roman colony with the name of Colonia Augusta Aroe Patrensis. Strabo describes it in his time as a populous place with a good anchorage, and Pausanias has devoted four chapters to an account of its public buildings. (Strab. viii. p. 387; Paus. vii. 18 - 21.) Of these the most important appear to have been a temple of Artemis Laphria, on the acropolis, with an ancient statue of this goddess, removed from Calydon to Patrae by order of Augustus, and in whose honour an annual festival was celebrated; the Odeum, which was the most magnificent building of the kind in Greece, after the Odeum of Herodes at Athens; the theatre; and on the seaside a temple of Demeter, which was remarkable on account of a well in front of it, which was supposed to foretell the fate of sick persons; a mirror was suspended on the water, and on this mirror there were certain appearances indicating whether the person would live or die. In the time of Pausanias Patrae was noted for its manufacture of byssus or flax, which was grown in Elis, and was woven at Patrae into head-dresses (kekrnphaloi) and garments. Women were employed in this manufacture, and so large was their number that the female population was double that of the male; and as a natural consequence there was great immorality in the town. (Paus. vii. 21. § 14.)
  Patrae has continued down to the present day to be one of the most important towns in the Morea, being admirably situated for communicating with Italy and the Adriatic, and with eastern Greece by means of the gulf of Corinth. It is frequently mentioned in the Byzantine writers. In A.D. 347 there was an archbishop of Patrae at the council of Sardica. In the sixth century it was destroyed by an earthquake. (Procop. Goth. iv. 25.) It is subsequently mentioned as a dukedom of the Byzantine empire; it was sold to the Venetians in 1408; was taken by the Turks in 1446; was recovered by the Venetians in 1533; but was shortly afterwards taken again by the Turks, and remained in their hands till the Greek revolution.
  The country around Patras is a fine and fertile plain, and produces at present a large quantity of currants, which form an article of export. The modern town occupies the same site as the ancient city. It stands upon a ridge about a mile long, the summit of which formed the acropolis, and is now occupied by the ruins of the Turkish citadel. From the town there is a beautiful sea-view. The outline of the land on the opposite side of the gulf, extends from the snowy tops of Parnassus in the east, to the more distant mountains of Acarnania in the same direction, while full in front, in the centre of the prospect, are the colossal pyramids of Kakiscala (the ancient Taphiassus) and Varasova (the ancient Chalcis), rising in huge perpendicular masses from the brink of the water. (Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 300.) There are very few remains of antiquity at Patras. The modern citadel contains some pieces of the walls of the ancient acropolis, and there are ruins of the Roman aqueduct of brick. The well mentioned by Pausanias is still to be seen about three quarters of a mile from the town under a vault belonging to the remains of a church of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Patras. Before the Greek revolution, in which Patras suffered greatly, its population was about 10.000; but its present population is probably somewhat less. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 123, seq.)

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PSOFIS (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Psophis

Psophis: Eth. Psophidios, a city in the NW. extremity of Arcadia, bounded on the N. by Arcadia, and on the W. by Elis. It was a very ancient place. It is said to have been originally called Erymanthus, and its territory to have been ravaged by the Erymanthian boar. (Paus. viii. 24. § 2; Hecat. ap. Steph. B. s. v. Psophis; Apollod. ii. 5. § 4.) It afterwards received the name of Phegia or Phegeia (Phegia, Phegeia), apparently from the oaks (phegoi), which are still found upon the site of the town; though the ancients, as usual, derived the name from an eponymous founder, Phegeus. (Steph. B. s. vv. Phegeia, Psophis; Paus. l. c.) It was called Psophis by Echephron and Promachus, sons of Hercules, who are said to have come from Sicily and given to the town this name after their mother Psophis. (Paus. l. c.) Psophis, while still called Phegia, was celebrated as the residence of Alcmaeon, who fled thither from Argos, after slaying his mother, and married Alphesiboea, the daughter of Phegeus. (Paus. viii. 24. § 8; Dict. of Biogr. s. v. Alcmaeon.) In consequence of their connection with Alcmaeon, the Psophidii took part in the second expedition against Thebes, and refused to join the other Greeks in the Trojan War. (Pans. viii. 24. § 10.)
  Psophis is rarely mentioned in history. In B.C. 219 it was in possession of the Eleians, and was taken by Philip, king of Macedonia, who was then in alliance with the Achaeans. In narrating this event Polybius gives an accurate description of the town. Psophis, he says, is confessedly an ancient foundation of the Arcadians in the district Azanis. It is situated in the central parts of Peloponnesus, but in the western corner of Arcadia, and adjoining the Achaeans dwelling furthest towards the west. It also overhangs conveniently the country of the Eleians, with whom the city was then in close alliance. Philip marched thither in three days from Caphyae, and encamped upon the hills opposite to the city, where he could safely have a view of the whole city and the surrounding places. When the king observed the strength of the place, he was at a [p. 676] loss what to do. On the western side of the town there is a rapid torrent, impassable during the greater part of the winter, and which, rushing down from the mountains, makes the city exceedingly strong and inaccessible, in consequence of the size of the ravine which it has gradually formed. On the eastern side flows the Erymanthus, a large and impetuous river, concerning which there are so many stories. As the western torrent joins the Erymanthus on the southern side of the city, its three sides are surrounded by rivers, and rendered secure in the manner described. On the remaining side towards the north a strong hill hangs over, surrounded by a wall, and serving the purpose of a well-placed citadel. The town itself also is provided with walls, remarkable for their size and construction. (Polyb. iv. 70.) From this description it is evident that the Erymanthus on the eastern side of the city is the river of Sopoto; and that the western torrent, which we learn from Pausanias (viii. 24. § 3) bore the name of Aroanius, is the river of Ghermotzana. About 300 feet below the junction of these rivers the united stream is joined by a third, smaller than the other two, called the river of Lopesi or Skupi, which rises on the frontiers of Cleitor, near Seirae. From these three rivers the place is now called Tripotamo. The banks of the Erymanthus and the Aroanius are precipitous, but not very high; and between them and the steep summit of the hill upon which the town stood there is a small space of level or gentlyrising ground. The summit is a sharp ridge, sending forth two roots, one of which descends nearly to the single of junction of the two streams, the other almost to the bank of the Erymanthus at the eastern extremity of the city. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 242.)
  Philip, in his attack upon Psophis, crossed the bridge over the Erymanthus, which was probably in the same position as the modern bridge, and then drew up his men in the narrow space between the river and the walls. While the Macedonians were attempting to scale the walls in three separate parties, the Eleians made a sally from a gate in the upper part of the town. They were, however, driven back by the Cretans in Philip's army, who followed the fugitives into the town. Euripidas and the garrison then retreated into the citadel, and shortly afterwards surrendered to Philip. (Polyb. iv. 71, 72.)
  Pausanias saw at Psophis a ruined temple of Aphrodite Erycina, heroa of Promachus and Echephron, the tomb of Alcmaeon, and near the Erymanthus a temple sacred to that stream. (Paus. viii. 24. § 7.) Leake also noticed a part of a theatre, not mentioned by Pausanias, on the side of the hill towards the Aroanius. Nine hundred feet above the junction of the two rivers, and near the walls on the bank of the Erymanthus, Leake also found some remains of a public building, 96 feet in length, below which there is a source of water in the bank. He conjectures that they may be the remains of the temple of Erymanthus.
  Psophis was about 2 miles in circumference. The town-walls followed the crest of the ridge to the northward and the bank above the two rivers on the opposite side; and they are traceable nearly throughout the entire circuit of the place. On the northeastern side of the town, which is the only part not protected by the two rivers or by the precipices at the back of the hill, there was a double inclosure. Leake could not trace the inclosure of the citadel.
  At the distance of 30 stadia from Psophis was Seirae (Seirai), which Pausanias describes as the boundary of the Psophidii and Cleitorii (viii. 23. § 9, 24. § 3). On the road from Psophis to Thelpusa lay Tropaea, upon the left bank of the Ladon, near which was the grove Aphrodisium, after which caine a column with an ancient inscription upon it, marking the boundaries of Psophis and Thelpusa. (Leake, More, vol. ii. p. 240, seq.; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. p. 158; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 384, seq.)

This is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


RYPES (Ancient city) EGIALIA

Rhypes

  Hpupai, : Eth. Rhups, Hpupos. A city of Achaia, 30 stadia W. of Aegium, was originally one of the twelve Achaean cities. It had ceased to be a member of the League in the time of Polybius, who mentions Leontium in its place. Rhypes, however, continued to exist down to the time of Augustus; but this emperor transferred its inhabitants to Patrae, and its territory (Rhupis, or he Hpupike) was divided between Aegium and Pharae. Its ruins were seen by Pausanias at a short distance from the main road from Aegium to Patrae. We learn from Strabo that this town was mentioned by Aeschylus as keraunias Hpupas, or Rhypes stricken by the thunderbolt. It was the birthplace of Myscellus, the founder of Croton. (Herod. i. 145; Paus. vii. 6. § 1, vii. 18. § 7, vii. 23. § 4; Strab. viii. pp. 386, 387.) In the territory of Rhypes there was a demus called Leuctrum (Leuktron, Strab. p. 387), and also a seaport named Erineum (Erineon, or Erineos limen) which is mentioned by Thucydides, and which is described by Pausanias as 60 stadia from Aegium. (Thuc. vii. 34; Paus. vii. 22. § 10; Plin. iv. 6.) The geographers of the French Commission place Rhypes at some ruins on the right bank of the river Tholo, where it issues into the plain; and the distance of the position on the Tholo from Vostitza (Aegium) is that which Pausanias assigns as the interval between Aegium and Rhypes. But Leake, thinking it highly improbable that two of the chief cities of Achaia should have been only 30 stadia from each other, suspects the accuracy of Pausanias or his text, as to the distance between Rhypes and Aegium. He accordingly places Rhypes further W. on the banks of the river of Salmeniko, and supposes Erineum to have been its port and to have been situated immediately above it at the harbour of Lambiri. The position of Lambiri answers very well to that of Erineum; but the reason given by Leake does not appear sufficient for rejecting the express statement of Pausanias as to the distance between Aegium and Rhypes. (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 408)

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STYX (Waterfall) EGIALIA

Styx

Styx (Stux), a waterfall descending from a lofty rock in the Aroanian mountains, above Nonacris, a town in the NE. of Arcadia, in the district of Pheneus. The water descends perpendicularly in two slender cascades, which, after winding among a labyrinth of rocks, unite to form a torrent that falls into the Crathis. It is by far the highest waterfall in Greece; the scenery is one of wild desolation; and it is almost impossible to climb over the rocks to the foot of the cascade. The wildness of the scenery, the inaccessibility of the spot, and the singularity of the waterfall made at an early period a deep impression upon the Greeks, and invested the Styx with superstitious reverence. It is correctly described by both Homer and Hesiod. The former poet speaks of the down-flowing water of the Styx (to kateibomenon Stugos hudor, Il. xv. 37), and of the lofty torrents of the Styx (Stugos hudatos aipa rheethra, Il. viii. 369). Hesiod describes it as a cold stream, which descends from a precipitous lofty rock (hudor psuchron ho t ek petres kataleibetai elibatoio hupseles, Theog. 785), and as the perennial most ancient water of the Styx, which flows through a very rugged place (Stugos aphthiton hudor ogugion, to d lesi katastuphelou dia chorou, Theog. 805). The account of Herodotus, who does not appear to have visited the Styx, is not so accurate. He says that the Styx is a fountain in the town Nonacris; that only a little water is apparent; and that it dropt from the rock into a cavity surrounded by a wall (vi. 74). In the same passage Herodotus relates that Cleomenes endeavoured to persuade the chief men of Arcadia to swear by the waters of the Styx to support him in his enterprise. Among the later descriptions of this celebrated stream that of Pausanias (viii. 17. § 6) is the most full and exact. Not far from the ruins of Nonacris, he says, is a lofty precipice higher than I ever remember to have seen, over which descends water, which the Greeks call the Styx. He adds that when Homer represents Hera swearing by the Styx, it is just as if the poet had the water of the stream dropping before his eyes. The Styx was transferred by the Greek and Roman poets to the invisible world [see Dict. of Gr. and Rom. Biogr. and Myth. art. Styx]; but the waterfall of Nonacris continued to be regarded with superstitious terrors; its water was supposed to be poisonous; and it was believed that it destroyed all kinds of vessels, in which it was put, with the exception of those made of the hoof of a horse or an ass. There was a report that Alexander the Great had been poisoned by the water of the Styx. (Arrian, Anab. vii. 27; Plut. Alex. 77, de Prim. Frig. 20. p. 954; Paus. viii. 18. § 4; Strab. viii. p. 389; Aelian, H. An. x. 40; Antig. Hist. Mirab. 158 or 174; Stob. Ecl. Phys. i. 52. § 48; Plin. ii. 103. s. 106, xxx. 16. s. 53, xxxi. 2. s. 19; Vitruv. viii. 3; Senec. Q. N. iii. 25.) The belief in the deleterious nature of the water continues down to the present day, and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages relate that no vessel will hold the water. It is now called ta Mauraneria, or the Black Waters, and sometimes ta Drako-neria or the Terrible Waters. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 160, seq.; Fiedler, Reise durch Griechenland, vol. i. p. 400, who gives a drawing of the Styx; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 195.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TRITEA (Ancient city) PATRA

Tritaea


VOURA (Ancient city) DIAKOPTO

Bura

  Boura: Eth. Bouraios, Bourios. A town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, situated on a height 40 stadia from the sea, and SE. of Helice. It is said to have derived its name from Bura, a daughter of Ion and Helice. Its name occurs in a line of Aeschylus, preserved by Strabo. It was swallowed up by the earthquake, which destroyed Helice, B.C. 373, and all its inhabitants perished except those who were absent from the town at the time. On their return they rebuilt the city, which was visited by Pausanias, who mentions its temples of Demeter, Aphrodite, Eileithyia and Isis. Strabo relates that there was a fountain at Bura called Sybaris, from which the river in Italy derived its name. On the revival of the Achaean League in B.C. 280, Bura was governed by a tyrant, whom the inhabitants slew in 275, and then joined the confederacy. A little to the E. of Bura was the river Buraicus; and on the banks of this river, between Bura and the sea, was an oracular cavern of Heracles surnamed Buraicus. (Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Strab. pp. 386, 387, and 59; Diod. xv. 48; Paus. vii. 25. § 8, seq.) The ruins of Bura have been discovered nearly midway between the rivers of Bokhusia (Cerynites), and of Kalavryta (Buraicus) near Trupia. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 399, Peloponnesiaca, p. 387.) Ovid says that the ruins of Bira, like those of Helice, were still to be seen at the bottom of the sea; and Pltny makes the same assertion. (Ov. Met. xv. 293; Plin. ii. 94.) Hence it has been supposed that the ancient Bura stood upon the coast, and after its destruction was rebuilt inland; but neither Pausanias nor Strabo states that the ancient city was on the coast, and their words render it improbable.

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Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

ACHAIA (Ancient country) GREECE

Achaea

The northern coast of the Peloponnesus, originally called Aegialea or Aegialus, i. e. the coast-land, was bounded on the north by the Corinthian Gulf and the Ionian Sea, on the south by Elis and Arcadia, on the west by the Ionian Sea, and on the east by Sicyonia.


DYMI (Ancient city) PATRA

Dyme

(Dume) or Dymae (Dumai). A town in the west of Achaia, near the coast; one of the twelve Achaean towns.


EGES (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Aegae

A town in Achaea, with a celebrated temple of Poseidon, originally one of the twelve Achaean towns; but its inhabitants subsequently removed to Aegira.


ELIKI (Ancient city) EGIALIA

Helice

   One of the chief cities of Achaia, situated on the shore of the Sinus Corinthiacus, near Bura. It was celebrated for the temple and worship of Poseidon, thence called Heliconius. Here, also, the general meeting of the Ionians was convened, while yet in the possession of Aegialus, and the festival which then took place is supposed to have resembled that of the Panionia, which they instituted afterwards in Asia Minor. A tremendous influx of the sea, caused by a violent earthquake, overwhelmed and completely destroyed Helice two years before the battle of Leuctra, B.C. 373. The details of this catastrophe will be found in Pausanias and Aelian. Eratosthenes, as Strabo reports, beheld the site of this ancient city, and he was assured by sailors that the bronze statue of Poseidon was still visible beneath the waters, holding an hippocampus, or sea-horse, in his hand, and that it formed a dangerous shoal for their vessels. Two thousand workmen were afterwards sent by the Achaeans to recover the dead bodies, but without success.

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ERYMANTHOS (Mountain) ACHAIA

Erymanthus, (Erumanthos)

A mountainchain in the northwest angle of Arcadia, celebrated in fable as the haunt of the savage boar destroyed by Heracles. Apollonius places the Erymanthian monster in the wilds of Mount Lampea; but this mountain was that part of the chain where the river Erymanthus took its rise.


Erymanthus, (Erumanthos)

A river of Arcadia, descending from the mountain of the same name, and flowing near the town of Psophis. After receiving another small stream, called the Aroanius, it joins the Alpheus on the borders of Elis. The modern name of the Erymanthus is the Dogana.


FARES (Ancient city) PATRA

Pharae

One of the twelve Achaean cities in the western part of Achaea.


KLITOR (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Clitor

or Clitorium. A town in the north of Arcadia on a river of the same name, a tributary of the Aroanius. There was a fountain in the neighbourhood, the waters of which are said to have given to persons who drank of them a dislike for wine.


KYNETHA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Cynaetha

nbsp;  A town of Arcadia, on the river Crathis, near the northern borders, and some distance to the northwest of Cyllene. It had been united to the Achaean League, but was betrayed to the Aetolians in the Social War. This was effected by some exiles, who, on their return to their native city, formed a plot for admitting the enemy within its walls. The Aetolians, accordingly, having crossed into Achaia with a considerable force, advanced to Cynaetha and easily scaled the walls; they then sacked the town and destroyed many of the inhabitants, not sparing even those to whose treachery they were indebted for their success. Polybius observes that the calamity which thus overwhelmed the Cynaethians was considered by many as a just punishment for their unusually depraved and immoral life.

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LEONTION (Ancient city) PATRA

Leontium

A town in Achaia, between Pharae and Aegium.


NONAKRIS (Ancient city) EGIALIA

Nonacris

A town in the north of Arcadia, surrounded by lofty mountains, in which the river Styx took its origin. From this town Evander is called Nonacrius, Atalanta Nonacria, Callisto Nonacrina virgo, and Hermes Nonacriates, in the general sense of Arcadian.


Panachaicus Mons

(to Panachai:kon oros). A mountain in Achaia, 6300 feet high, immediately behind Patrae.


PANORMOS (Ancient port) RIO

Panormus

A harbour in Achaia.


PATRAI (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Patrae

(Patrai). Now Patras. One of the twelve cities of Achaea, and situated west of Rhium, near the opening of the Corinthian Gulf. It was the only Achaean city that sided with Athens in the Peloponnesian War ( Thuc.v. 52). Augustus made it the chief city of Achaia.


RION (Ancient city) RIO

Rhium, Rhion

Now Castello di Morea. A promontory in Achaia, opposite to the promontory of Antirrhium (Castello di Romelia), on the borders of Aetolia and Locris, with which it formed the narrow entrance to the Corinthian Gulf, which strait is now called the Little Dardanelles.


RYPES (Ancient city) EGIALIA

Rhypes

One of the twelve cities of Achaia, situated between Aegium and Patrae. It was destroyed by Augustus, and its inhabitants removed to Patrae.


STYX (Waterfall) EGIALIA

Styx (Stux). A name connected with the verb stugeo, to hate or abhor, and applied to the principal river in the nether world, around which it flows seven times. Styx is described as a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. As a nymph she dwelt at the entrance of Hades, in a lofty grotto which was supported by silver columns. As a river, Styx is described as a branch of Oceanus, flowing from its tenth source; and the river Cocytus again is a branch of the Styx. By Pallas, Styx became the mother of Zelus, Nike, Bia, and Cratos. She was the first of all the immortals who took her children to Zeus, to assist him against the Titans; and, in return for this, her children were allowed forever to live with Zeus, and Styx herself became the divinity by whom the most solemn oaths were sworn. When one of the gods had to take an oath by Styx, Iris brought a cup full of water from the Styx, and the god, while taking the oath, poured out the water.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TRITEA (Ancient city) PATRA

Tritaea

One of the twelve cities of Achaia, 120 stadia east of Pharae and near the frontiers of Arcadia.


VOURA (Ancient city) DIAKOPTO

Bura

One of the twelve original cities of Achaea, formerly situated near the sea; but having been destroyed by an earthquake, it was rebuilt by the survivors about forty stadia from the shore, on the river Buraicus.


Links

ACHAIA (Ancient country) GREECE

Achaia, Achaea

  Region of northern Peloponnese along the southern coast of the gulfs of Corinth and Calydon. Achaia (or Achaea) owes its name to the mythological hero Achaeus, brother of Ion (the eponym of the Ionians) and son of Xouthus, a son of Hellen and grandson of Deucalion. Achaeus' mother was Creusa, a daughter of Erechtheus, king of Athens. “Achaeans” was the name given to the offspring of Achaeus, one of the Hellenic tribes that populated Greece; it is also one of the names that Homer uses most often to designate the Greeks as a whole.
  In his Histories, I, 145-146, Herodotus tells us that the Achaeans settled in what later became known as Achaia by driving the Ionians that had settled there earlier out (after they had themselves been expelled from Argolis and Laconia by the Dorians).

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


ELIKI (Ancient city) EGIALIA

Mountains Barbas & Klokos & Selinountas River

(Following URL information in Greek only)


Local government Web-Sites

ACHAIA (Prefecture) GREECE

Predecture of Achaia


AKRATA (Municipality) EGIALIA

Municipality of Akrata


AROANIA (Municipality) ACHAIA

Municipality of Aroania


DIAKOPTO (Municipality) EGIALIA

Municipality of Diakopton


DYMI (Municipality) PATRA

Municipality of Dymi


EGIRA (Municipality) ACHAIA

Municipality of Egira


ERINEOS (Municipality) PATRA


FARES (Municipality) PATRA

Municipality of Farres


KALAVRYTA (Municipality) ACHAIA

Municipality of Kalavryta


LARISSO (Municipality) PATRA

Municipality of Larissos


MOVRI (Municipality) PATRA

Municipality of Movri


PAII (Municipality) KALAVRYTA

Municipality of Paos


PATRA (Municipality) ACHAIA

Municipality of Patra


RIO (Municipality) PATRA

Municipality of Rio


SYMBOLITIA (Municipality) ACHAIA

Municipality of Symbolitia


TRITEA (Municipality) PATRA

Municipality of Tritea


Local government WebPages

AGRAMBELA (Village) AROANIA

AGRIDI (Village) KALAVRYTA

ARLA (Village) PATRA

Arla

(Following URL information in Greek only)


AROANIA (Village) ACHAIA

Aroania Community

(Following URL information in Greek only)


BARBAS (Mountain) ACHAIA

Barbas Mountain

(Following URL information in Greek only)


CHELMOS (Mountain) ACHAIA

DESSINO (Village) KALAVRYTA

ERYMANTHOS (Mountain) ACHAIA

Erymanthos Mount (Olonos)


(Following URL information in Greek only)


EXOCHI (Village) EGIALIA

(Following URL information in Greek only)


FOSTENA (Village) PATRA

Fostena

(Following URL information in Greek only)


KALAVRYTA (Municipality) ACHAIA

Kalavryta

(Following URL information in Greek only)


KLOKOS (Mountain) EGIALIA

Klokos Mount

(Following URL information in Greek only)


MOVRI (Mountain) PATRA

Movri Mount

(Following URL information in Greek only)


OASIS (Village) EGIRA

Photo Album in URL, information in Greek only.


PAOS (Village) KALAVRYTA

PATRA (Town) ACHAIA

PLAKA (Village) KALAVRYTA

SINEVRO (Village) EGIRA

Photo Album in URL, information in Greek only.


SIRES (Village) KALAVRYTA

VELA (Village) EGIRA

Photo Album in URL, information in Greek only.


Maps

ACHAIA (Prefecture) GREECE

DIAKOPTO (Municipality) EGIALIA


EGIRA (Municipality) ACHAIA

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Ferry Departures
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