EL
Greek Travel Pages

Location information

Listed 100 (total found 453) sub titles with search on: Information about the place for destination: "WEST GREECE Region GREECE".


Information about the place (453)

Miscellaneous

LECHENA (Small town) ILIA

Beazley Archive Dictionary

BASSAE (Ancient sanctuary) ILIA

Columbia Encyclopedia

Commercial WebPages

AGIOS NIKOLAOS (Settlement) KATOUNA

ANCIENT OLYMPIA (Small town) ILIA

CHELMOS (Mountain) ACHAIA

KALAVRYTA (Small town) ACHAIA

PYLINI (Municipality) NAFPAKTOS

PYRGOS (Town) ILIA

THERMO (Small town) ETOLOAKARNANIA

VONITSA (Small town) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Commercial WebSites - Notable

PERISTA (Village) NAFPAKTOS

Commercial WebSites

AMALIADA (Municipality) ILIA

ASTAKOS (Small town) ETOLOAKARNANIA

DAFNI (Small town) KALAVRYTA

EGHIO (Municipality) ACHAIA

EGHIO (Town) ACHAIA

ETOLOAKARNANIA (Prefecture) GREECE

KALAVRYTA (Province) ACHAIA

PATRA (Town) ACHAIA

Educational institutions WebPages

ASTAKOS (Small town) ETOLOAKARNANIA

The city of Astakos

  Modern Astakos is hidden in the cove of a picturesque bay on the coast of Western Greece, surrounded by the shores and small islands of Ehinades, where the famous naval battle took place known as the battle of Lapante(1571A.D.) The city has a unique neo-classical grandeur and a very particular liveliness. During all historical periods Classical, Hellenistic-Byzantine Astakos is present. Especially during the classical and Hellenistic period it presents its greatest peak and the fact that it had its own currency is characteristic of its prosperity. The ruins of the ancient city, with the temple of Karaou Zeus as its most characteristic monument, as well as the elements of later historical periods are situated at the place of Kastra Gravas, north-west of the modern city of Astakos, near the historical monastery of Ai-Lia. This is also the place where Georgios Karaiskakis encamped.
  Its economic prosperity since the middle of the last century - during which the foundation of modern Astakos took place by city plan of Bavarian architects in 1862 - was due to the sea and the commerce of acorn. In fact, in the inner part of the city there is one of the greatest Oak-tree forests in the Balkans. Remains of this economic prosperity are the old mansions which characterise the appearance of the city and along with the port were the reason to declare the city of Astakos a HISTORICAL SITE and these buildings along with others to be Landmarks. The residents' activities in agriculture, stock-raising and fishery, the presence of commerce and social services that serve the area as well as the activity at the port give the whole city a special kind of vivacity. Astakos promises its visitors a pleasant stay.


FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

KYLLINI (Village) ILIA

Kyllini

(Following URL information in Greek only)


General

GLARENTZA (Medieval settlement) ILIA

Glarentza

Under Godefroi I de Villehardouin, Glarentza was the seaport of Andravida, the capital of the Frankish princedom of Achaia.


KRATHIS (River) ACHAIA

Crathis

Its sources are on the homonymous mountain, which Pausanias calls it Crathis like the river (Paus. 8,15,9) and constitutes the eastern part of the Mt. Aroania. The river is near the ancient city of Aigae and, according to the tradition, it received the waters of the mythical Styx.


OLYMPIA (Ancient sanctuary) ILIA

Olympia

  In the western Peloponnese, in a peaceful, idyllic valley, between Kronos Hill and the confluence of the rivers Alpheios and Kladeos, there flourished in ancient times one of the most important pan-Hellenic sanctuaries: the Sanctuary of Olympia. At this Sanctuary, apart from rituals performed for healing, games called Olympic were also established from a very early period and, with the passage of time, attracted the attention of all the Greeks. With the Olympic Games, the ideal of noble rivalry found its complete expression and for many centuries forged the unity and peace of the Greek world. Hence the Sanctuary where they took place was recognized as one of the greatest pan Hellenic centers.
History-The legend
  It has not yet been established when people first began worshipping at Olympia. However, archaeological finds show that the area was at least settled from the 3rd millennium B.C. It is also known that the first Sanctuary was the Gainon, which was found at the foot of Kronos hill and was dedicated to Gaia (Earth), the wife of Ouranos (Heaven). That was also, as it is said, the most ancient oracle of Olympia (Pausanias V, 14, 10).
  Later, Kronos - the youngest son of Gaia and Ouranos - having deposed his father, was worshipped at Olympia with his wife, Rhea. According to Pausanias (V, 7 ,6) the people of that time, who were also called the people of the Golden Age, built a shrine to Kronos at Olympia. Besides, on the summit of Kronos Hill, which took this name from Kronos, there was an altar to the god, where the so-called "Basilai" every year made sacrifices in his honour (Pausanias VI, 20, 1).
  In the course of the centuries came new gods. According to myth, Kronos swallowed his male children fearing that they might depose him, as he had deposed Ouranos. He has devoured two children, Poseidon and Hades, when Zeus was born. Then Rhea, having given Kronos a stone bound in swaddling clothes to swallow, handed the new-born child to five Cretan brothers, the Daktyloi of Isa or Kouretes, to conceal him and bring him up in Crete.
  When Zeus came of age, he asked Metis for help to overthrow Kronos. Metis gave Kronos some medicine to drink and so made him vomit the two children whom he had devoured. Then Zeus, helped by his two brothers and three sisters, Hera, Hestia and Demeter, deposed Kronos after a terrible conflict lasting ten years, which is known as the Titanomachia (Battle between the Gods and the Titans).
  Since the Olympian gods prevailed, from then on the Sanctuary of Olympia became the Sanctuary of Zeus. So in a series of local myths, Zeus was associated with Olympia and the Games. One of these local myths says that the five Cretan brothers, the Kouretes, to whom Rhea had entrusted his guardianship, came from Crete to Olympia, where Zeus was weaned on the milk of Amalthea by the nymphs. At Olympia, the eldest of the five brothers, Hercules - not Hercules the son of Amphitrion and Alkmene - arranged foot races among his brothers and honored the winner with a crown of wild olive, which grew abundantly in the valley. Even Hercules called these games "Olympic" and appointed that they should take place every fifth year, since he and his brothers numbered five (Pausanias V,7, 6-9). Other local myths also say that Zeus fought with Kronos at Olympia usurping the leadership and that he himself established the games because he overcame Kronos. It is also said that other gods competed at Olympia and that Apollo beat Ares at Boxing and outran Hermes (Pausanias V, 7, 10).
  According to tradition, Aethlios, the first king of Elis was also an organiser of the games. Aethlios was succeeded by his son Endymion, who in turn organised races at Olympia among his sons Paeon, Aetolus and Epeios, in order to leave his kingdom to the winner.
  Pelops too, after he beat King Oinomaos of Pisa in a chariot race and married the King's daughter Hippodameia, once again arranged at Olympia games in honor of Zeus, which it was said were the most memorable of all those which had been celebrated up till then. When Aueias reigned over Elis, Hercules - son of Amhitrion and Alkmene - came to clean his stables. After the contest, however, Augeias refused to give Hercules the cattle, which he had promised. Then Hercules marched against Augeias, and after conquering Elis, he arranged games at Olympia in honour of Zeus. At these games, it is said that he himself was distinguished in wrestling and in the pankration. Finally, games at Olympia were also arranged by Oxylos, the King of Elis. After the reign of Oxylos however, the games were forgotten until the time of Iphitos, the great King of Elis (Pausanisas V, 8, 1-5).

This text is cited December 2004 from the West Greece Region General Secretariat URL below, which contains image.


Government WebPages

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

ACHAIA (Ancient country) GREECE

Achaia


Achelous

  Achelous (Acheloos, Epic Acheloios). (Aspropotamo), the largest and most celebrated river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus, and after flowing through the mountainous country of the Dolopians and Agraeans, entered the plain of Acarnania and Aetolia near Stratus, and discharged itself into the Ionian sea, near the Acarnanian town of Oeniadae. It subsequently formed the boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia, but in the time of Thucydides the territory of Oeniadae extended east of the river. It is usually called a river of Acarnania, but it is sometimes assigned to Aetolia. Its general direction is from north to south. Its waters are of a whitish yellow or cream colour, whence it derives its modern name of Aspropotamo or the White river, and to which Dionysius (432) probably alludes in the epithet argurodines. It is said to have been called more anciently Thoas, Axenus and Thestius (Thuc. ii. 102; Strab. pp. 449, 450, 458; Plut. de Fluv. 22; Steph. B. s. v.) We learn from Leake that the reputed sources of the Achelous are at a village called Khaliki, which is probably a corruption of Chalcis, at which place Dionysius Periegetes (496) places the sources of the river. Its waters are swelled by numerous torrents, which it receives in its passage through the mountains, and when it emerges into the plain near Stratus its bed is not less than three-quarters of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed is often filled, but in the middle of summer the river is divided into five or six rapid streams, of which only two are of a considerable size. After leaving Stratus the river becomes narrower; and, in the lower part of its course, the plain through which it flows was called in antiquity Paracheloitis after the river. This plain was celebrated for its fertility, though covered in great part with marshes, several of which were formed by the overflowings of the Achelous. In this part of its course the river presents the most extraordinary series of wanderings; and these deflexions, observes a recent traveller, are not only so sudden, but so extensive, as to render it difficult to trace the exact line of its bed, -and sometimes, for several miles, having its direct course towards the sea, it appears to flow back into the mountains in which it rises. The Achelous brings down from the mountains an immense quantity of earthy particles, which have formed a number of small islands at its mouth, which belong to the group anciently called Echinades; and part of the mainland near its mouth is only alluvial deposition. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 136, seq., vol. iii. p. 513, vol. iv. p. 211; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 102.) The chief tributaries of the Achelous were:- on its left, the Campylus (Kampulos, Diod. xix. 67: Medghova), a river of considerable size, flowing from Dolopia through the territory of the Dryopes and Eurytanes, and the Cyathus (Kuathos, Pol. ap. Ath. p. 424, c.) flowing out of the lake Hyrie into the main stream just above Conope:- on its right the Petitarus (Liv. xliii. 22) in Aperantia, and the Anapus (Anapos), which fell into the main stream in Acarnania 80 stadia S. of Stratus. (Thuc. ii. 82.)
  The Achelous was regarded as the ruler and representative of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence he is called by Homer (Il. xx. 194) Kreion Acheloios, and was worshipped as a mighty god throughout Greece. He is celebrated in mythology on account of his combat with Heracles for the possession of Deianeira. The river-god first attacked Heracles in the form of a serpent, and on being worsted assumed that of a bull. The hero wrenched off one of his horns, which forthwith became a cornucopia, or horn of plenty. (Soph. Trach. 9; Ov. Met. ix. 8, seq.; Apollod. ii. 7. § 5.) This legend alludes apparently to some efforts made at an early period to check the ravages, which the inundations of the river caused in this district; and if the river was confined within its bed by embankments, the region would be converted in modern times into a land of plenty. For further details respecting the mythological character of the Achelous, see Diet. of Biogr. and Myth. s. v.
  In the Roman poets we find Acheloides, i. e. the Sirenes, the daughters of Achelous (Ov. Met. v. 552): Acheloia Callirhoe, because Callirhoe was the daughter of Achelous (Ov. Met. ix. 413): pocula Acheloia, i. e. water in general (Virg. Geory. i. 9): Acheloius heros, that is, Tydeus, son of Oeneus, king of Calydon, Acheloius here being equivalent to Aetolian. (Stat. Theb. ii. 142.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


AGRINION (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Agrinium

Agrinium (Agrinion), a town of Aetolia, situated towards the NE. of Aetolia, near the Achelous. Its position is quite uncertain. From its name we might conjecture that it was a town of the Agraci; but the narrative in Polybius (v. 7) would imply that it was not so far north. In B.C. 314 we find Agrinium in alliance with the Acarnanians, when Cassander marched to the assistance of the latter against the Aetolians. As soon as Cassander returned to Macedonia, Agrinium was besieged by the Aetolians,and capitulated; but the Aetolians treacherously put to death the greater part of the inhabitants. (Died. xix. 67, 68; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 156.)


AKARNANIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Acarnania

  Acarnania (Akarnania: Akarnan, -anos, Acarnan,-anis), the most westerly province of Greece, was bounded on the N. by the Ambracian gulf, on the NE. by Amphilochia, on the W. and SW. by the Ionian sea, and on the E. by Aetolia. It contained about 1571 square miles. Under the Romans, or probably a little earlier, the river Achelous formed the boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia; but in the time of the Peloponnesian war, the territory of Oeniadae, which was one of the Acarnanian towns, extended E. of this river. The interior of Acarnania is covered with forests and mountains of no great elevation, to which some modern writers erroneously give the name of Crania. Between these mountains there are several lakes, and many fertile vallies. The chief river of the country is the Achelous, which in the lower part of its course flows through a vast plain of great natural fertility, called after itself the Paracheloitis. This plain is at present covered with marshes, and the greater part of it appears to have been formed by the alluvial depositions of the Achelous. Owing to this circumstance, and to the river having frequently altered its channel, the southern part of the coast of Acarnania has undergone numerous changes. The chief affluent of the Achelous in Acarnania is the Anapus (Anapos), which flowed into the main stream 80 stadia S. of Stratus. There are several promontories on the coast, but of these only two are especially named, the promontory of Actium and that of Crithote (Krithote), on the W. coast, forming one side of the small bay, on which the town. of Astacus stood. Of the inland lakes, the only one mentioned by name is that of Melite (Melige: Trikardho), 30 stadia long and 20 broad, N. of the mouth of the Achelous, in the territory of the Oeniadae. There was a lagoon, or salt lake, between Leucas and the Ambracian gulf, to which Strabo (p. 459) gives the name of Myrtuntium (Murtountion). Although the soil of Acarnania was fertile, it was not much cultivated by the inhabitants. The products of the country are rarely mentioned by the ancient writers. Pliny speaks of iron mines (xxxvi. 19. s. 30), and also of a pearl-fishery off Actium (ix. 56). A modern traveller states that the rocks in Acarnania indicate, in many places, the presence of copper, and he was also informed, on good authority, that the mountains produce coal and sulphur in abundance. (Journal of the Geographical Society, vol. iii. p. 79.) The chief wealth of the inhabitants consisted in their herds and flocks, which pastured in the rich meadows in the lower part of the Achelous. There were numerous islands off the western coast of Acarnania. Of these the most important were the Echiinades, extending from the mouth of the Achelous along the shore to the N.; the Taphiae Insulae, lying between Leucas and Acarnania, and Leucas itself, which originally formed part of the mainland of Acarnania, but was afterwards separated from--the latter by a canal. (Respecting Acarnania in general see Strab. p. 459, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 488, seq.; Fiedler, Reise durch Griechenland, vol. i. p. 158, seq.)
  Amphilochia, which is sometimes reckoned a part of Acarnania, is spoken of in a separate article.
  The name of Acarnania appears to have been unknown in the earliest times. Homer only calls the country opposite Ithaca and Cephallenia, under the general name of Epeirus (epeiros), or the mainland (Strab. p. 451, sub fin.), although he frequently mentions the Aetolians.1
  The country is said to have been originally inhabited by the Taphii, or Teleboae, the Leleges, and the Curetes. The Taphii, or Teleboae were chiefly found in the islands off the western coast of Acarnania, where they maintained themselves by piracy. The Leleges were more widely disseminated, and were also in possession at one period of Aetolia, Locris, and other parts of Greece. The Curetes are said to have come from Aetolia, and to have settled in Acarnania, after they had been expelled from the former country by Aetolus and his followers (Strab. p. 465). The name of Acarnania is derived from Acarnan, the son of Alcmaeon, who is said to have settled at the mouth of the Achelous. (Thuc. ii. 102.) If this tradition is of any value, it would intimate that an Argive colony settled on the coast of Acarnania at an early period. In the middle of the 7th century B.C., the Corinthians founded Leucas, Anactorium, Sollium, and other towns on the coast. (Strab. p. 452.) The original inhabitants of the country were driven more into the interior; they never made much progress in the arts of civilised life; and even at the time of the Peloponnesian war, they were a rude and barbarous people, engaged in continual wars with their neighbours, and living by robbery and piracy. (Thuc. i. 5.) The Acarnanians, however, were Greeks, and as such were allowed to contend in the great Pan-Hellenic games, although they were closely connected with their neighbours, the Agraeans and Amphilochians on the gulf of Ambracia, who were barbarian or non-Hellenic nations. Like other rude mountaineers, the Acarnanians are praised for their fidelity and courage. They formed good light-armed troops, and were excellent slingers. They lived, for the most part dispersed in villages, retiring, when attacked, to the mountains. They were united, however, in a political League, of which Aristotle wrote an account in a work now lost. (Akarnanon Politeia, Strab. p. 321.) Thucydides mentions a hill, named Olpae, near the Amphilochian Argos, which the Acarnanians had fortified as a place of judicial meeting for the settlement of disputes. (Thuc. iii. 105.) The meetings of the League were usually held at Stratus, which was the chief town in Acarnania (Xen. Hell. iv. 6. 4; comp. Thuc. ii. 80); but, in the time of the Romans, the meetings took place either at Thyrium, or at Leucas, the latter of which places became, at that time, the chief city in Acarnania (Liv. xxxiii. 16, 17; Polyb. xxviii. 5.) At an early period, when part of Amphilochia belonged to the Acarnanians, they used to hold a public judicial congress at Olpae, a fortified hill about 3 miles from Argos Amphilochicum. Of the constitution of their League we have scarcely any particulars. We learn from an inscription found at Punta, the site of ancient Actium, that there was a Council and a general assembly of the people, by which decrees were passed. (Edoxe tai boulai kai toi koinoi ton Hakarnanon). At the head of the League there was a Strategus (Stragegos) or General; and the Council had a Secretary (grammateus), who appears to have been a person of importance, as in the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues. The chief priest (hierapolos) of the temple of Apollo at Actium seems to have been a person of high rank; and either his name or that of the Strategus was employed for official dates, like that of the first Archon at Athens. (Bockh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.)
  The history of the Acarnanians begins in the time of the Peloponnesian war. Their hatred against the Corinthian settlers, who had deprived them of all their best ports, naturally led them to side with the Athenians; but the immediate cause of their alliance with the latter arose from the expulsion of the Amphilochians from the town of Argos Amphilochicum by the Corinthian settlers from Ambracia, about B.C. 432. The Acarnanians espoused the cause of the expelled Amphilochians, and in order to obtain the restoration of the latter, they applied for assistance to Athens. The Athenians accordingly sent an expedition under Phormio, who took Argos, expelled the Ambraciots, and restored the town to the Amphilochians and Acarnanians. An alliance was now formally concluded between the Acarnamians and Athenians. The only towns of Acarnania which did not join it were Oeniadae and Astacus. The Acarnanians were of great service in maintaining the supremacy of Athens in the western part of Greece, and they distinguished themselves particularly in B.C. 426, when they gained a signal victory under the command of Demosthenes over the Peloponnesians and Ambraciots at Olpae. (Thuc. iii. 105, seq.) At the conclusion of this campaign they concluded a peace with the Ambraciots, although they still continued allies of Athens (Thuc. iii. 114.) In B.C. 391 we find the Acarnanians engaged in war with the Achaeans, who had taken possession of Calydon in Aetolia; and as the latter were hard pressed by the Acarnanians, they applied for aid to the Lacedaemonians, who sent an army into Acarnania, commanded by Agesilaus. The latter ravaged the country, but his expedition was not attended with any lasting consequences (Xen. Hell. iv. 6). After the time of Alexander the Great the Aetolians conquered most of the towns in the west of Acarnania; and the Acarnanians in consequence united themselves closely to the Macedonian kings, to whom. they remained faithful in their various vicissitudes of fortune. They refused to desert the cause of Philip in his war with the Romans, and it was not till after the capture of Leucas, their principal town, and the defeat of Philip at Cynoscephalae that they submitted to the Romans. (Liv. xxxiii. 16-17.) When Antiochus III. king of Syria, invaded Greece, B.C. 191, the Acarnanians were persuaded by their countryman Mnasilochus to espouse his cause; but on the expulsion of Antiochus from Greece, they came again under the supremacy of Rome. (Liv. xxxvi. 11-12.) In the settlement of the affairs of Greece by Aemilius Paulus and the Roman commissioners after the defeat of Perseus (B.C. 168), Leucas was separated from Acarnania, but no other change was made in the country. (Liv. xlv. 31.) When Greece was reduced to the form of a Roman province, it is doubtful whether Acarnania was annexed to the province of Achaia or of Epeirus, but it is mentioned at a later time as part of Epeirus. The inhabitants of several of its towns were removed by Augustus to Nicopolis, which he founded after the battle of Actium; and in the time of this emperor the country is described by Strabo as utterly worn out and exhausted. (Strab. p. 460.)
  The following is a list of the towns of Acarnania. On the Ambracian gulf, from E. to W.: Limnaea Echinus (Echinos, Steph. B. s. v.; Plin. iv. 2; Ai Vasili), Heracleia (Plin. iv. 2; Vonitza), Anactorium, Actium. On or near the west of the Ionian sea, from N. to S.: Thyrium, Palaeibus, Alyzia, Sollium, Astacus, Oeniadae. In the interior from S. to N.: Old Oenia, Coronta, Metropolis, Stratus, Rhynchus (Hpunchos), near Stratus, of uncertain site (Pol. ap. Ath. iii. p. 95, d.); Phytia or Phoeteiae, Medeon. The Roman Itineraries mention only one road in Acarnania, which led from Actium along the coast to Calydon in Aetolia.
1 In the year B.C. 239, the Acarnanians, in the embassy which they sent to Rome to solicit assistance, pleaded that they had taken no part in the expedition against Troy, the ancestor of Rome, being the first; time probably, as Thirlwall remarks, that they had ever boasted of the omission of their name from the Homeric catalogue. (Justin, xxviii. 1; Strab. p. 462; Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. viii. pp. 119, 120.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Acrae

Acrae (Akrai), a town in Aetolia of uncertain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. Stephanus erroneously calls it an Acarnanian town. (Pol. v. 13; Steph. B. s. v. Akra.)


AKTION (Ancient port) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Actium

  Actium (Aktion: Eth. Aktios, Actius: Adj. Aktiakos, Actiacus, also Aktios, Actius), a promontory in Acarnania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf (Gulf of Arta) off which Augustus gained his celebrated victory over Antony and Cleopatra, on September 2nd, B.C. 31. There was a temple of Apollo on this promontory, which Thutydides mentions (i. 29) as situated in the territory of Anactorium. This temple was of great antiquity, and Apollo derived from it the surname of Actius and Actiacus. There was also an ancient festival named Actia, celebrated here in honour of the god. Augustus after his victory enlarged the temple, and revived the ancient festival, which was henceforth celebrated once in four years (pentaeteris, ludi quinquennales), with musical and gymnastic contests, and horse races. (Dion Cass. li. 1; Suet. Aug. 18.) We learn from a Greek inscription found on the site of Actium, and which is probably prior to the time of Augustus, that the chief priest of the temple was called Hierapolos, and that his name was employed in official documents, like that of the first Archon at Athens, to mark the date. (Bockh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.) Strabo says (p. 325) that the temple was situated on an eminence, and that below was a plain with a grove of trees, and a dock-yard; and in another passage (p. 451) he describes the harbour as situated outside of the gulf. On the opposite coast of Epirus, Augustus founded the city of Nicopolis in honour of his victory. Actium was properly not a town, though it is sometimes described as such; but after the foundation of Nicopolis, a few buildings sprang up around the temple, and it served as a kind of suburb to Nicopolis.
  The site of Actium has been a subject of dispute. The accompanying plan of the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, taken from the map published by Lieut. Wolfe (Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. iii.) will give the reader a clear idea of the locality.
  The entrance of the Ambraciot gulf lies between the low point off Acarnania, on which stands Fort La Punta, and the promontory of Epirus, on which stands the modern town of Prevesa, near the site of the ancient Nicopolis. The narrowest part of this entrance is only 700 yards, but the average distance between the two shores is half a mile. After passing through this strait, the coast turns abruptly round a small point to the SE., forming a bay about 4 miles in width, called the Bay of Prevesa. A second entrance is then formed to the larger basin of the gulf by the two high capes of La Scara in Epeirus, and of Madonna in Acarnania, the width of this second entrance being about one mile and a half. Now some modern writers, among others D'Anville, suppose Actium to have been situated on Cape Madonna, and Anactorium, which Strabo (p. 451) describes as 40 stadia from Actium, on La Punta. Two reasons have led them to adopt this conclusion: first, because the ruins on C. Madonna are sometimes called Azio, which name is apparently a corruption of the ancient Actium; and, secondly, because the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo to have stood on a height, which description answers to the rocky eminence on C. Madonna, and not to the low peninsula of La Punta. But these reasons are not conclusive, and there can be no doubt that the site of Actium corresponds to La Punta. For it should be observed, first, that the name Azio is unknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been introduced by the Venetians, who conjectured that the ruins on C. Madonna were those of Actium, and therefore invented the word; and, secondly, that though Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a height, he does not say that this height was on the sea, but on the contrary, that it was at some little distance from the sea. In other respects Strabo's evidence is decisive in favour of the identification of Actium with La Punta. He says that Actium is one point which forms the entrance of the bay; and it is clear that he considered the entrance of the bay to be between Prevesa and La Punta, because he makes the breadth of the strait a little more than four stadia, or half a mile, which is true when applied to the first narrow entrance, but not to the second. That the strait between Prevesa and La Punta was regarded as the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, is clear, not only from the distance assigned to it by Strabo, but from the statements of Polybius (iv. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Scylax (v. Kassopii), who makes it 4 stadia, and of Pliny (iv. 1) who makes it 500 paces. Anactorium is described by Strabo as situated within the bay, while Actium makes the mouth of the bay. (Strab. pp. 325, 451.) Anactorium, therefore, must be placed on the promontory of C. Madonna. The testimony of Strabo is confirmed by that of Dion Cassius. The latter writer says (l. 12) that Actium is a temple of Apollo, and is situated before the mouth of the strait of the Ambraciot gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis. Cicero tells us (ad Fam. xvi. 6, 9) that in coasting from Patrae to Corcyra he touched at Actium, which he could hardly have done, if it were so far out of his way as the inner strait between C. La Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the conclusion that the promontory of Actium was the modern La Punta, and that the temple of Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the strait, probably near the Fort La Punta.
  A few remarks are necessary respecting the site of the battle, which has conferred its chief celebrity upon Actium. The fleet of Antony was stationed in the Bay of Prevesa. His troops had built towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and they occupied the channel itself with their ships. Their camp was near the temple of Apollo, on a level spacious ground. Augustus was encamped on the opposite coast of Epirus, on the spot where Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the harbour of Mitika, to the N. of Nicopolis, in the Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival of Augustus, he proceeded to Actium, and after a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But having experienced some misfortunes, he subsequently re-crossed the strait and joined the main body of his army at Actium. By the advice of Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt. He accordingly sailed out of the strait, but was compelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fight. After the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, who was followed by Antony, sailed through the middle of the contending fleets, and took to flight. They succeeded in making their escape, but most of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La Punta and Prevesa (exo ton stenon, Dion Cass. 1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated by some writers. (Dion Cass. 1. 12, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 28, seq.; Wolfe, l. c.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ALFIOS (River) ILIA

Alpheius

  Alpheius (Alpheios: Rufea, Rufia or Rofia, and River of Karitena), the chief river of Peloponnesus, rises in the SE. of Arcadia on the frontiers of Laconia, flows in a westerly direction through Arcadia and Elis, and after passing Olympia falls into the Ionian Sea. The Alpheius, like several other rivers and lakes in Arcadia, disappears more than once in the limestone mountains of the country, and then emerges again, after flowing some distance underground. Pausanias (viii. 54. § 1, seq., 44. § 4) relates that the source of the Alpheius is at Phylae, on the frontiers of Arcadia and Laconia; and that, after receiving a stream rising from many small fountains, at a place called Symbola, it flows into the territory of Tegea, where it sinks underground. It rises again at the distance of 5 stadia from Asea, close to the fountain of the Eurotas. The two rivers then mix their waters, and after flowing in a common channel for the distance of nearly 20 stadia, they again sink underground, and reappear,- the Eurotas in Laconia, the Alpheius at Pegae, the Fountains, in the territory of Megalopolis in Arcadia. Strabo (p. 343) also states that the Alpheius and Eurotas rise from two fountains near Asea, and that, after flowing several stadia underground, the Eurotas reappears in the Bleminatis in Laconia, and the Alpheius in Arcadia. In another passage (p. 275) Strabo relates, that it was a common belief that if two chaplets dedicated to the Alpheius and the Eurotas were thrown into the stream near Asea, each would reappear at the sources of the river to which it was destined. This story accords with the statement of Pausanias as to the union of the waters from the two fountains, and their course in a common channel. The account of Pausanias is confirmed in many particulars by the observations of Colonel Leake and others. The river, in the first part of its course, is now called the Saranda, which rises at Krya Vrysi, the ancient Phylace, and which receives, a little below Krya Vrysi, a stream formed of several small mountain torrents, by which the ancient Symbola is recognised. On entering the Tegeatic plain, the Saranda now flows to the NE.; but there are strong reasons for believing that it anciently flowed to the NW., and disappeared in the Katavothra of the marsh of Taki. (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 112, seq.) The two reputed sources of the Alpheius and Eurotas are found near the remains of Asea, at the copious source of water called Franyovrysi; but whether the source of the Alpheius be really the vent of the lake of Taki, cannot be decided with certainty. These two fountains unite their waters, as Pausanias describes, and again sink into the earth. After passing under a mountain called Tzimbanu, the Alpheius reappears at Marmara, probably Pegae. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 37, seq.)
  Below Pegae, the Alpheius receives the Helisson (Elisson: River of Davia), on which Megalopolis was situated, 30 stadia from the confluence. Below this, and near the town of Brenthe (Karitena), the Alpheius flows through a defile in the mountains, called the pass of Lavdha. This pass is the only opening in the mountains, by which the waters of central Arcadia find their way to the western sea. It divides the upper plain of the Alpheius, of which Megalopolis was the chief place, from the lower plain, in which Heraea was situated. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 19, seq.) Below Heraea, the Alpheius receives the Ladon (Ladon), which rises near Cleitor, and is celebrated in mythology as the father of Daphne. The Ladon is now called Rufea, Reufia or Rofia, by which name the Alpheius is called below its junction with the Ladon. In the upper part of its course the Alpheius is usually called the River of Karitena. Below the Ladon, at the distance of 20 stadia, the Alpheius receives the Erymanthus (Erumanthos), rising in the mountain of the same name, and forming the boundary between Elis and the territories of Heraea in Arcadia. After entering Elis, it flows past Olympia, forming the boundary between Pisatis and Triphylia, and falls into the Cyparissian gulf in the Ionian sea. At the mouth of the river was a temple and grove of Artemis Alpheionia. From the pass of Lavdha to the sea, the Alpheius is wide and shallow: in summer it is divided into several torrents, flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide gravelly bed, while in winter it is full, rapid, and turbid. Its banks produce a great number of large plane-trees. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 67, Peloponnesiaca, p. 8.)
  Alpheius appears as a celebrated river-god in mythology; and it was apparently the subterranean passage of the river in the upper part of its course which gave rise to the fable that the Alpheius flowed beneath the sea, and attempted to mingle its waters with the fountain of Arethusa in the island of Ortygia in Syracuse. (Dict. of Biogr. art. Alpheius.) Hence Ovid calls the nymph Arethusa, Alpheias. (Met. v. 487.) Virgil (Aen. x. 179) gives the epithet of Alpheae to the Etruscan city of Pisae because the latter was said to have been founded by colonists from Pisa in Elis, near which the Alpheius flowed.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

Aliphera

Aliphera, Paus.; Aliphera, Liv.; Alipheipa, Polyb.: Eth. Alipheraios, on coins Adipheipeon, Aliphiraeus, (Plin. iv. 6. s. 10. § 22). A town of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, said to have been built by Alipherus, a son of Lycaon, was situated upon a steep and lofty hill, 40 stadia S. of the Alpheius and near the frontiers of Elis. A large number of its inhabitants removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in B.C. 371; but it still continued to be a place of some importance. It was ceded to the Eleans by Lydiades, when tyrant of Megalopolis; but it was taken from them by Philip in the Social War, B.C. 219, and restored to Megalopolis. It contained temples of Asclepius and Athena, and a celebrated bronze statue by Hypatodorus of the latter goddess, who was said to have been born here. There are still considerable remains of this town on the hill of Nerovitza, which has a tabular summit about 300 yards long in the direction of E. and W., 100 yards broad, and surrounded by remains of Hellenic walls. At the south-eastern angle, a part rather higher than the rest formed an acropolis: it was about 70 yards long and half as much broad. The walls are built of polygonal and regular masonry intermixed.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Halicyrna

Halikurna: Eth. Hadikurnaios. A village of Aetolia, described by Strabo as situated 30 stadia below Calydon towards the sea Pliny places it near Pleuron. Leake discovered some ruins, midway between Kurt-aga (the site of Calydon) and the eastern termination of the lagoon of Mesolonghi, which he supposes to be the remains of Halicyrna.


ALISSION (Ancient city) ILIA

Alesiaeum

Alesiaeum (Alesiaion), called Aleisium (Aleision)) by Homer. A town of Pisatis, situated upon the road leading across the mountains from Elis to Olympia. Its site is uncertain.


ALYZIA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Alyzia

Aluzia (Thuc.vii.31, et alii), Aluzeia (Steph. B.s.v.:), Eth. Aluzeus, Aluzaios, Aluzeios (ap. Bockh. Corpus Inscript. No. 1793: Kandili). A town on the west coast of Acarnania. According to Strabo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on which it possessed a harbour and a sanctuary, both dedicated to Heracles. In this sanctuary were some works of art by Lysippus, representing the labours of Hercules, which a Roman general caused to be removed to Rome on account of the deserted state of the place. The remains of Alyzia are still visible in the valley of Kandili. The distance of the bay of Kandili from the ruins of Leucas corresponds with the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the distance between Alyzia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. 450, 459; Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 2; Plin. iv. 2; Ptolem. iii. 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name from Alyzeus, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452; Steph. Byz. s. v.) It is first mentioned by Thucydides. In B.C. 374, a naval battle was fought in the neighbourhood of Alyzia between the Athenians under Timotheus and the Lacedaemonians under Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected their trophy at Alyzia, and the Lacedaemonians in the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that the island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Carnus, the modern Kalamo. (Thuc. vii. 31; Xen. Hell. v. 4. 65, 66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 14, seq.) (ap. Bockh. Corpus Inscript. No. 1793: Kandili). A town on the west coast of Acarnania. According to Strabo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on which it possessed a harbour and a sanctuary, both dedicated to Heracles. In this sanctuary were some works of art by Lysippus, representing the labours of Hercules, which a Roman general caused to be removed to Rome on account of the deserted state of the place. The remains of Alyzia are still visible in the valley of Kandili. The distance of the bay of Kandili from the ruins of Leucas corresponds with the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the distance between Alyzia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. 450, 459; Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 2; Plin. iv. 2; Ptolem. iii. 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name from Alyzeus, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452; Steph. Byz. s. v.) It is first mentioned by Thucydides. In B.C. 374, a naval battle was fought in the neighbourhood of Alyzia between the Athenians under Timotheus and the Lacedaemonians under Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected their trophy at Alyzia, and the Lacedaemonians in the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that the island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Carnus, the modern Kalamo. (Thuc. vii. 31; Xen. Hell. v. 4. 65, 66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 14, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


AMFIDOLIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Amphidoli

  Amphidoli (Amphidoloi), a town in Pisatis in Elis, which gave its name to the small district of Amphidolis or Amphidolia (Amphidolis, Amphidolia). The town of Marganeae or Margalae was situated in this district. The site of Amphidoli is uncertain, but their territory probably lay to the west of Acroreia. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 30; Strab. pp. 341, 349; Leake, Pelponnesiaca, p. 219.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


AMFILOCHIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Amphilochia

  Amphilochia (Amphilochia: Amphilochos), a small district at the eastern end of the Ambraciot gulf, bounded on the N. by Ambracia and on the S. by the territory of the Agraei. It did not extend far inland. It is a mountainous district, and the rocks along the coast rise in some parts to 450 or 500 feet high. The Amphilochi were a non-Hellenic tribe, although they were supposed to have derived their name from the Argive Amphilochus, the son of Amphiaraus. Strabo (p. 326) describes them as an Epirot people, but their country is more usually described as a part of Acarnania. (Steph. B. s.v.; Scyl. p 12.) Their lineage, as Grote remarks, was probably something intermediate between the Acarnanians and Epirots. At the time of the Peloponnesian war the Amphilochi were in close alliance with the Acarnanians. After the death of Alexander the Great the Amphilochi were conquered by the Aetolians; and they were at a later time included in the Roman province of Epirus. The only town in their country was Argos, surnamed Amphilochicum, under which the history of the people is more fully given. There were also a few villages or fortresses, which owe their importance simply to their connection with the history of Argos, and which are therefore described in that article.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ANAKTORION (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Anactorium

Anaktorion: Anaktorios. A town in Acarnania, situated on the Ambraciot gulf, and on the promontory, which now bears the name of C. Madonna. On entering the Ambraciot gulf from the Ionian sea it was the first town in Acarnania after Actium, from which it was distant 40 stadia, and which was in the territory of Anactorium. This town was for some time one of the most important places in this part of Greece. It was colonized jointly by the Corinthians and Corcyraeans; but in the war between these peoples, in B.C. 432, the Corinthians obtained sole possession of the place by fraud. It remained in the hands of the Corinthians till B.C. 425, when it was taken by the Acarnanians with the assistance of the Athenians, and the Corinthian settlers were expelled. Augustus removed its inhabitants to the town of Nicopolis, which he founded on the opposite coast of Epirus, and Strabo describes it as an emporium of the latter city. The site of Anactorium has been disputed, and depends upon the position assigned to Actium. It has however been shown that Actium must be placed at the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf on La Punta, and Anactorium on C. Madonna. At the western extremity of the latter promontory are the ruins of a Greek town, about two miles in circumference, which Leake supposes to have been Anactorium. They are situated near a small church of St. Peter, which is the name now given to the place. Other writers place Anactorium at Vonitza, on the E. extremity of the promontory, but with less probability.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aracynthus

Aracynthus (Arakunthos: Zygos), a range of mountains in Aetolia running in a south-easterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. pp. 450, 460; Dionys. Perieg. 431; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 121.) Pliny (iv. 2. § 3) and Solinus (7. § 22) erroneously call Aracynthus a mountain of Acarnania. If we can trust the authority of later writers and of the Roman poets, there was a mountain of the name of Aracynthus both in Boeotia and in Attica, or perhaps on the frontiers of the two countries. Thus Stephanus B. (s. v.) and Servius (ad Virg. Eel. ii. 24) speak of a Boeotian Aracynthus; and Sextus Empiricus (adv. Gramm. c. 12, p. 270), Lutatius (ad Stat. Theb. ii. 239), and Vibius Sequester (de Month. p. 27) mention an Attic Aracynthus. The mountain is connected with the Boeotian hero Amphion both by Propertius (iii. 13. 42) and by Virgil (Ecl. ii. 24); and the line of Virgil - Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeo Aracyntho - would seem to place the mountain on the frontiers of Boeotia and Attica. (Comp. Brandstater, Die Gesch. des Aetol. Landes, p. 108.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Argos Amphilochicum

  Argos Amphilochicum (Argos to Amphilochikon: Eth. Argeios: Neokhori), the chief town of Amphilochia, situated at the eastern extremity of the Ambraciot gulf, on the river Inachus. Its territory was called Argeia (Argeia). Its inhabitants laid claim to their city having been colonized from the celebrated Argos in Peloponnesus, though the legends of its foundation somewhat different. According to one tradition, Amphilochus, son of Amphiaraus, being dissatisfied with the state of things in Argos on his return from Troy, emigrated from his native place, and founded a city of the same name on the Ambraciot gulf. According to another tradition, it was founded by Alcmaeon, who called it after his brother Amphilochus. (Thuc. ii. 68; Strab. p. 326; comp. Apollod. iii. 7. § 7.) But whether the city owed its origin to an Argive colony or not, we know that the Amphilochi were regarded as barbarians, or a-non-Hellenic race, at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, and that shortly before that time the inhabitants of Argos were the only portion of the Amphilochi, who had become Hellenized. This they owed to some colonists from Ambracia, whom they admitted into the city to reside along with them. The Ambraciots, however, soon expelled the original inhabitants, and kept the town, with its territory, exclusively for themselves. The expelled inhabitants placed themselves under the protection of the Acarnanians, and both people applied to Athens for assistance. The Athenians accordingly sent a force under Phormio, who took Argos, sold the Ambraciots as slaves, and restored the town to the Amphilochians and Acarnanians, both of whom now concluded an alliance with Athens. This event probably happened in the year before the Peloponnesian war, B.C. 432. Two years afterwards (430) the Ambraciots, anxious to recover the lost town, marched against Argos, but were unable to take it, and retired, after laying waste its territory. (Thuc. ii. 68.) In B.C. 426 they made a still more vigorous effort to recover Argos; and as the history of this campaign illustrates the position of the places in the neighbourhood of Argos, it requires to be related a little in detail. The Ambraciots having received the promise of assistance from Eurylochus, the Spartan commander, who was then in Aetolia, marched with 3000 hoplites into the territory of Argos, and captured the fortified hill of Olpae (Olpai), close upon the Ambracian gulf, 25 stadia (about 3 miles) from Argos itself. Thereupon the Acarnanians marched to the protection of Argos, and took up their position at a spot called Crenae (Krenai), or the Wells, at no great distance from Argos. Meantime Eurylochus, with the Peloponnesian forces, had marched through Acarnania, and had succeeded in joining the Ambraciots at Olpae, passing unperceived between Argos itself and the Acarnanian force at Crenae. He then took post at Metropolis (Metropolis), a place probably NE. of Olpae. Shortly afterwards Demosthenes, who had been invited by the Acarnanians to take the command of their troops, arrived in the Ambraciot gulf with 20 Athenian ships, and anchored near Olpae. Having disembarked his men, and taken the command, he encamped near Olpae. The two armies were separated only by a deep ravine: and as the ground was favourable for ambuscade, Demosthenes hid some men in a bushy dell, so that they might attack the rear of the enemy. The stratagem was successful, Demosthenes gained a decisive victory, and Eurylochus was slain in the battle. This victory was followed by another still more striking. The Ambraciots at Olpae had some days before sent to Ambracia, to beg for reinforcements; and a large Ambraciot force had entered the territory of Amphilochia about the time when the battle of Olpae was fought. Demosthenes being informed of their march on the day after the battle, formed a plan to sur prise them in a narrow pass above Olpae. At this pass there were two conspicuous peaks, called respectively the greater and the lesser Idomene (Idomene). The lesser Idomene seems to have been at the northern entrance of the pass, and the greater Idomene at the southern entrance. As it was known that the Ambraciots would rest for the night at the lower of the two peaks, ready to march through the pass the next morning, Demosthenes sent forward a detachment to secure the higher peak, and then marched through the pass in the night. The Ambraciots had obtained no intelligence of the defeat of their comrades at Olpae, or of the approach of Demosthenes; they were surprised in their sleep, and put to the sword without any possibility of resist. ance. Thucydides considers the loss of the Ambraciots to have been the greatest that befell any Grecian city during the whole war prior to the peace of Nicias; and he says, that if Demosthenes and the Acarnanians had marched against Ambracia at once, the city must have surrendered without a blow. The Acarnanians, however, refused to undertake the enterprise, fearing that the Athenians might be more troublesome neighbours to them than the Ambraciots. On the contrary, they and the Amphilochians now concluded a peace with the Ambraciots [p. 208] for 100 years. (Thuc. iii. 105--114; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. vi. p. 408, &c.) We know little more of the history of Argos. Some time after the death of Alexander the Great, it fell into the hands of the Aetolians, together with the rest of Ambracia: and it was here that the Roman general, M. Fulvius, took up his quarters, when he concluded the treaty between Rome and the Aetolians. (Liv. xxxviii. 10; Pol. xxii. 13.) Upon the foundation of Nicopolis by Augustus, after the battle of Actium, the inhabitants of Argos were removed to the former city, and Argos was henceforth deserted. (Anth. Graec. ix. 553.)
  It is, however, mentioned by later writers. (Plin. iv. 1; Mel. ii. 3; Ptol. iii. 14.) The site of Argos has been a subject of dispute. Thucydides says (iii. 105), that it was situated on the sea. Polybius (xxii. 13) describes it as distant 180 stadia, and Livy (xxxviii. 10) 22 miles from Ambracia. Leake places it in the plain of Vlikha, at the modern village of Neolhori, where are the ruins of an ancient city, the walls of which were about a mile in circumference. The chief objection to Neokhori as the site of Argos is, that Neokhori is situated at a short distance from the coast; whereas Thucydides, as we have already seen, describes Argos as a maritime city. But it is very probable that the marsh or lagoon, which now separates Neokhori from the inlet of Armyro, may have been rendered shallower than it was formerly by alluvial depositions, and that it may once have afforded a commodious harbour to Argos. The distance of Neokchori from the ruins of Ambracia corresponds to the distance assigned by Polybius and Livy between Argos and Ambracia. Near Neokhori also is the river of Ariadha, corresponding to the Inachus, on whichArgos is said to have been situated. The only other ruins in the neighbourhood, which could be regarded as the remains of Argos, are those further south, at the head of the bay of Kervasara, which Lieutenant Wolfe, who visited the country in 1830, supposes to have been the site of Argos: but there are strong reasons for believing that this is the site of Limnaea. Fixing the site of Argos at Neokhori, we are able to identify the other places mentioned in the history of the campaign of B.C. 426. Crenae probably corresponds to Armyro on the coast, SW. of Argos; and Olpae to Arapi, also on the coast, NW. of Argos, at both of which places there are Hellenic remains. At Arapi at present there is a considerable lagoon, which was probably not so large in ancient times. The ravine, which separated the army of Demosthenes from that of Eurylochus, seems to have been the torrent which enters the lagoon from the north, and Metropolis to have been a place on its right bank, at the southern extremity of the mountains called Makrinoro. Thucydides expressly mentions Olpae and Metropolis as two different places; and there is no reason to suppose them only different names of one place, as some modern commentators have done. The pass, where Demosthenes gained his second victory over the Ambraciots, is the pass of Makrinoro, which is one of the most important in this part of Greece. The southern extremity of the mountain corresponds to the greater Idomene, which Demosthenes occupied; while the northern extremity, where the Am. braciots were attacked, was the lesser Idomene. On the latter are remains of ancient fortifications,which bear the name of Paleopyryo.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ARINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Arene

  A town mentioned by Homer as belonging to the dominions of Nestor. and situated near the spot where the Minyeius flows into the sea. (Hom. Il. ii. 591, xi. 723.) It also occurs in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (423), in conjunction with other towns on the western coast of Peloponnesus. According to Pausanias (iv. 2. § 4, 3. § 7), it was built by Aphareus, who called it after Arene, both his wife and his sister by the same mother. It was commonly supposed in later times that Arene occupied the site of Samos or Samia in Triphylia, near the mouth of the Anigrus, which was believed to be the same as the Minyeius. (Strab. viii. p. 346; Paus. v. 6. § 2.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


AROI (Ancient city) PATRA

Aroe

(Patra) It is said to have been formed by an union of three small places, named Aroe (Aroe), Antheia (Antheia), and Mesatis (Mesatis), which had been founded by the Ionians, when they were in the occupation of the country. After the expulsion of the Ionians, the Achaean hero Patreus withdrew the inhabitants from Antheia and Mesatis to Aroe, which he enlarged and called Patrae after himself. The acropolis of the city probably continued to bear the name of Aroe, which was often used as synonymous with Patrac.

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ARPINA (Ancient city) ANCIENT OLYMPIA

Harpina

  Harpinna: Eth. Harpinaios. A town of Pisatis (Elis) situated on the right bank of the Alpheius, on the road to Heraea, at the distance of 20 stadia from the hippodrome of Olympia. (Lucian, de Mort. Peregr. 35.) Harpina is said to have been founded by Oenomaus, who gave it the name of his mother. The ruins of the town were seen by Pausanias. According to Strabo, Harpina stood upon the stream Parthenius; according to Pausanias, upon one called Harpinates. The ruins of the town stand upon a ridge a little northward of the village of Miraka: there are two small rivulets on either side of the ridge, of which the eastern one appears to be the Parthenius, and the western the Harpinates. (Strab. viii. pp. 356, 3571 ; Paus. vi. 20. § 8; Steph. B. s. v.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ASTAKOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Astacus

  Astakos: Eth. Anstakenis, Astakios. a town on the W. coast of Acarnania, on the bay now called Dragamesti, one side of which is formed by the promontory anciently named Crithote. The ruins of Astacus are probably those described by Leake as below a monastery of St. Elias, and which he supposes to be those of Crithote. There was, however, no town Crithote, but only a promontory of this name; and Leake has misunderstood the passage of Strabo, in which Crithote is mentioned. Astacus is said to have been a colony of Cephallenia. At the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, it was governed by a tyrant, named Evarchus, who was deposed by the Athenians (B.C. 431), but was shortly afterwards restored by the Corinthians. It is mentioned as one of the towns of Acarnania in a Greek inscription, the date of which is subsequent to B.C. 219.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


CHALKIS (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS

Chalcis

Chalcis. Also called Chalceia, and Hypohalcis (Chalkeia, Pol. v. 94; Hupochalkis, Strab. p. 451; Steph. B. s. v.) A town of Aetolia, situated upon the coast, at a short distance E. of the mouth of the Evenus, and at the foot of a mountain of the same name, whence it was called Hypochalcis. Chalcis is one of the 5 Aetolian towns spoken of by Homer,who gives it the epithet of anchialos, and it continued to be mentioned in the historical period. (Hom. Il. ii. 640; Thuc. ii. 83; Pol. v. 94; Strab. pp. 451,459 460.) There are two great mountains situated between the river Fidhari (the Evenus) and the castle of Rumili (Antirrhium), of which the western mountain, called Varassova, corresponds to Chalcis, and the eastern, called Kaki-skala, to Taphiassus. The town of Chalcis appears to have stood in the valley between the two mountains, probably at Ovrio-castro, where there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. There was some confusion in the ancient writers respecting the position of mount Chalcis, and Artemidorus, who called it Chalcia, placed it between the Achelous and Pleuron (Strab. p. 460); but this is clearly an error.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DYMI (Ancient city) PATRA

Dyme

  (Dume, Dymae, Liv. xxvii. 31: Eth. Dumaios, also Dumios, Steph. B. s. v., Dymaeus, Cic. ad Att. xvi. 1; The territory he Dumaia, Pol. v. 17: nr. Karavostasi).
  A town of Achaia, and the most westerly of the 12 Achaean cities, from which circumstance it is said to have derived its name. (Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Strab. viii. p. 387.) It was situated near the coast, according to Strabo 60 stadia from the promontory Araxus, and according to Pausanias 30 stadia from the river Larisus, which separated its territory from Elis. It is further said by Strabo (viii.) to have been formed out of an union of 8 villages, one of which was called Teuthea; and it is probable, that some of the different names, by which the city is said to have been called, were originally the names of the separate villages. Thus, its more ancient name is stated by Pausanias to have been Paleia (Paleia), and by Strabo to have been Stratus (Stratos). The poet Antimachus gave it the epithet Cauconis, which was derived by some from the iron Caucon in the neighbourhood, and by others from the Caucones, who were supposed to have originally inhabited this district. (Strab., Paus. vii. 17. § 5, seq.) After the death of Alexander the Great, Dyme fell into the hands of Cassander, but his troops were driven out of the city by Aristodemus, the general of Antigonus, B.C. 314. (Diod. xix. 66.) This city had the honour, along with Patrae, of reviving the Achaean League in 280; and about this time or shortly afterwards its population received an accession from some of the inhabitants of Olenus, who abandoned their town. (Pol. ii. 41.) In the Social War (B.C. 220, seq.), the territory of Dyme, from its proximity to Elis, was frequently laid waste by the Eleans. (Pol. iv. 59, 60, v. 17.) It is mentioned by Livy in the history of the war between Philip and the Romans, and Pausanias says that, in consequence of its being the only one of the Achaean cities which espoused the cause of the Macedonian king, it was plundered by the Romans (Paus. l. c.). From this blow it never recovered; and it is said to have been without inhabitants when Pompey settled here a large number of Cilician pirates. In the civil wars which followed, some of these new inhabitants were expelled from their lands, and resumed in consequence their old occupation. (Strab. pp. 387, 665; Appian Mithr. 96; Plut. Pomp. 28; Cic. ad Att. xvi. 1, Dymaeos agro pulses mare infestum habere, nil miruim.) Both Strabo and Pliny (iv. 6) call Dyme a colony; but this statement appears to be a mistake, since we know that Dyme was one of the towns placed under the authority of Patrae, when it was made a Roman colony by Augustus (Paus. l. c.); and we are expressly told that no other Achaean town except Patrae was allowed the privilege of self-government. The remains of Dyme are to be seen near the modern village of Karavostasi.
  In the territory of Dyme, near the promontory Araxus, there was a fortress, called Teichos, which was said to have been built by Hercules, when he made war upon the Eleans. It was only a stadium and a half in circumference, but its walls were 30 cubits high. It was taken by the Eleans under Euripides in the Social War, B.C. 220, but it was recovered by Philip and restored to the Dymaeans in the following year. Its site is perhaps occupied by the castle of Kallogria. (Pol. iv. 59, 88) There were also two other places in the territory of Dyme, between the city and the frontiers of Elis, named Hecatombeon (Ekatombaion) and Langon (Langon, the latter of which, however, appears properly to have belonged to the Eleans. Near Hecatombaeon Aratus and the Achaeans were defeated by Cleomenes, who followed up his victory by gaining possession of Langon, B.C. 224. (Pol. ii. 51; Plut. Cleom. 14.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DYSPONTION (Ancient city) PYRGOS

Dyspontium

Duspontion: Eth. Duspontieus. An ancient town, in the territory of Pisa, said to have been founded by a son of Oenomaus, is described by Strabo as situated in the plain on the road from Elis to Olympia. It lay north of the Alpheius, not far from the sea, and probably near the modern Skaphidi. Being destroyed by the Eleians in their war with the Pisatae, its inhabitants removed to Apollonia and Epidamnus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ECHINOS (Ancient city) AKTIO - VONITSA

Echinus

  Echinos: Eth. Echinaieus. A town in Acarnania, also said to have been founded by Echion. It was mentioned by the poet Rhianus, and occurs in the list of Acarnanian towns preserved by Pliny, where it is placed between Heraclia and Actium. Leake places it at Ai Vasili, remarking that, from Stephanus and the poet Rhianus, it is evident that Echinus was an Acarnanian town of some importance: the story attached to it shows that it was one of the early colonies of this coast; the ruins at Ai Vasili indicate a remote antiquity, and their safe position on a mountain removed from the sea, is in conformity with that which is generally found in the early foundations of the Greeks.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EFYRA ILIAKI (Ancient city) ILIA

Ephyra

Ephyra, Ephure. A town of Elis, situated upon the river Selleeis, and the ancient capital of Augeias, whom Hercules. conquered. (Hom. Il. ii. 659, xv. 531) Strabo describes Ephyra as distant 120 stadia, from Elis, on the road to Lasion, and says that on its site or near it was built the town of Oenoe or Boeonoa. (Strab. viii. p. 338, where, for the corrupt keimene te epithalassiona, we ought to read, with Meineke, keimene te epi Lasiona...) Stephanus also speaks of an Ephyra between Pylos and Elis, Pylos being the town at the junction of the Ladon and the Peneius. (Steph. B. s. v. Ephura.) From these two accounts there can be little doubt that the Ladon, the chief tributary of the Peneius, is the Selleeis, which Strabo describes as rising in Mount Pholoe. Curtius places Ephyra near the modern village of Klisura which lies on the Ladon, about 120 stadia from Elis, by way of Pylos. Leake supposes, with much less probability, that the Selleeis is the Peneius, and that Ephyra was the more ancient name of Elis.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGES (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Aegae

  Aipsai: Eth. Aigaios, Aigeates, Aigaieus. Or Aega (Aiga), a town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated upon the river Crathis and upon the coast, between Aegeira and Bura. It is mentioned by Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times for its worship of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted by its inhabitants, who removed to the neighbouring town of Aegeira; and it had already ceased to be one of the 12 Achaean cities on the renewal of the League in B.C. 280, its place being occupied by Ceryneia. Its name does not occur in Polybius. All traces of Aegae have disappeared, but it probably occupied the site of the Khan of Akrata, which is situated upon a commanding height rising from the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Pausanias mention on which bank of the Crathis it stood, but it probably stood on the left bank, since the right is low and often inundated.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGHION (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Aegium

Aegium, Aigion, Ageion: Eth. Aigiens, Aegiensis: Vostitza. A town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated upon the coast W. of the river Selinus, 30 stadia from Rhypae, and 40 stadia from Helice. It stood between two promontories in the corner of a bay, which formed the best harbour in Achaia next to that of Patrae. It is said to have been formed out of an union of 7 or 8 villages. It is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue; and, after the destruction of the neighbouring city of Helice by an earthquake, in B.C. 373, it obtained the territory of the latter, and thus became the chief city of Achaia. From this time Aegium was chosen as the place of meeting for the League, and it retained this distinction, on the revival of the League, till Philopoemen carried a law that the meeting might be held in any of the towns of the confederacy. Even under the Roman empire the Achaeans were allowed to keep up the form of their periodical meetings at Aegium, just as the Amphictyons were permitted to meet at Thermopylae and Delphi. (Paus. vii. 24. § 4.) The meetings were held in a grove near the sea, called Homagyrium or Homarium, sacred to Zeus Homagyrius or Homarius (Houagnion, Hhouarion; in Strab. pp. 385, 387, Hhouarion should be read instead of Arnharion and Ainharion). Close to this grove was a temple of Demeter Panchaea. The words Homagyrium, assembly, and Homarium, union, 1 have reference to those meetings, though in later times they were explained as indicating the spot where Agamemnon assembled the Grecian chieftains before the Trojan War. There were several other temples and public buildings at Aegium, of which an account is given by Pausanias. (Hom. Il. ii. 574; Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41, v. 93; Strab. pp. 337, 385, seq.; Paus. vii. 23, 24; Liv. xxxviii. 30; Plin. iv. 6.) Vostitza, which occupies the site of the ancient Aegium, is a place of some importance. It derives its name from the gardens by which it is surrounded (from bhosta, bosthani, garden). It stands on a hill, terminating towards the sea in a cliff about 50 feet high. There is a remarkable opening in the cliff, originally perhaps artificial, which leads from the town to the ordinary place of embarkation. A great part of the town was destroyed by an earthquake in 1819, of which an account is given under Helice. The principal remains of the ancient town have been lately discovered on a hill to the E. of Vostitza. There are also several fragments of architecture and sculpture, inserted in the walls of the houses at Vostitza.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EGIRA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Aigeira

  Aigeira: Eth. Aigeirhates, fem. Aigeiratis. A town of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, situated between Aegae and Pellene, is described by Polybius as opposite Mount Parnassus, situated upon hills strong and difficult of approach, seven stadia from the sea, and near a river. This river was probably the Crius, which flowed into the sea, a little to the W. of the town. According to Pausanias the upper city was 12 stadia from its port, and 72 stadia from the oracle of Heracles Buraicus. (Herod. i. 146; Strab. viii. p. 386; Pol. ii. 41, iv. 57; Paus. vii. 26. § 1; Plin. iv. 6.) Pausanias (l. c.) relates that Aegeira occupied the site of the Homeric Hyperesis (Hpspereshie, Il. ii. 573, xv. 254; Strab. p. 383: Eth. Hupereslens), and that it changed its name during the occupation of the country by the Ionians. He adds that the ancient name still continued in use. Hence we find that Icarus of Hyperesia was proclaimed victor in the 23rd Olympiad. (Paus. iv. 15. § 1.) On the decay of the neighbouring town of Aegae its inhabitants were transferred to Aegeira. (Strab. p. 386.) In the first year of the Social war (B.C. 220) Aegeira was surprised by a party of Aetolians, who had set sail from the opposite town of Oeantheia in Locris, but were driven out by the Aegiratans after they had obtained possession of the place. (Pol. iv. 57, 58.) The most important of the public buildings of Aegeira was a temple of Zeus. It also contained a very ancient temple of Apollo, and temples of Artemis, of Aphrodite Urania, who was worshipped in the town above all other divinities, and of the Syrian goddess. (Pans. vii. 26.) The port of Aegeira Leake places at Mavra Litharia, i. e., the Black Rocks, to the left of which, on the summit of a hill, are some vestiges of an ancient city, which must have been Aegeira. At the distance of 40 stadia from Aegeira, through the mountains, there was a fortress called Phelloe (Ellhoe, near Zakhuli), abounding in springs of water. (Paus. vii. 26. § 10)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ELEOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Elaeus

Elaios. A town of Aetolia, belonging to Calydon, was strongly fortified, having received all the necessary munitions from king Attalus. It was taken by Philip V., king of Macedonia, B.C. 219. Its name indicates that it was situated in a marshy district; and it must have been on the coast to have received supplies from Attalus. We may therefore place it near Mesolonghi.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ELIKI (Ancient city) EGIALIA

Helice

  Helike: Eth. Helikonios (Steph. B. s. v.); Helikeus (Strab.viii.). A town in Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was situated on the coast between the rivers Selinus and Cerynites, and 40 stadia E. of Aegium. It seems to have been the most ancient of all the cities in Achaia. Its foundation is ascribed to Ion, who is said to have made it his residence, and--to have called it after his wife Helice, the daughter of Selinus. It possessed a celebrated temple of Poseidon, who was hence called Heliconins; and here the Ionians were accustomed to hold those periodical meetings which were continued in Asia Minor under the name of Panionia. After the conquest of the country by the Achaeans, the latter likewise made Helice the place of meeting of their League, and it continued to be their capital till the destruction of the city by an earthquake in B.C. 373, two years before the battle of Leuctra. This earthquake happened in the night. The city and a space of 12 stadia below it sank into the earth, and were covered over by the sea. All the inhabitants perished, and not a vestige of Helice remained, except a few fragments projecting from the sea. Its territory was taken possession of by Aegium. The neighbouring city of Bura was destroyed by the same earthquake. The catastrophe was attributed to the vengeance of Poseidon, whose wrath was excited because the inhabitants of Helice had refused to give their statue of Poseidon to the Ionian colonists in Asia, or even to supply them with a model. According to some authorities, the inhabitants of Helice and Bura had even murdered the Ionian deputies.
  On the 23rd of August, 1817, the same spot was again the scene of a similar disaster. The earthquake was preceded by a sudden explosion, which was compared to that of a battery of cannon. The shock which immediately succeeded was said to have lasted a minute and a:.half, during which the sea rose at the mouth of the Selinus, and extended so far as to inundate all the level immediately below Vostitza (the ancient Aegium). After its retreat not a trace was left of some magazines which had stood on the shore, and the sand which had covered the beach was all carried away. In Vostitza 65 persons lost their lives, and two thirds of the buildings were entirely ruined. Five villages in the plain were destroyed.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EPITALION (Ancient city) ILIA

Epitalium

  Epitalion: Eth. Epitalieus. A town of Triphylia in Elis, near the coast and a little south of the river Alpheius. It was identified with the Homeric Thryon (Thruon) or Thryoessa (Thruoessa), a town in the dominions of Nestor, which the poet describes as a place upon a lofty hill near the ford of the river Alpheius (Hom. Il. ii. 592, xi. 710, Hymn. in Apoll. 423; Strab. viii.). Epitalium was an important military post, because it commanded the ford of the Alpheius and the road leading along the coast. Like the other dependent townships of Triphylia, it revolted from Elis when Agis, the Spartan king, invaded the country in B.C. 401; and when Agis returned home, after ravaging Elis, he left a garrison in Epitalium. (Xen. Hell. iii. § § 25, 29.) The town was taken by Philip in the Social War, B.C. 218. (Polyb. iv. 80; Steph. B. s. v. Epitalion.) It appears to have occupied the height of Agulenitza.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EPY (Ancient city) ILIA

Aepy

(Aipn: Eth. Aiphutes). A town in Elis, so called from its lofty situation, is mentioned by Homer, and is probably the same as the Triphylian town Epeium (Epeion, Epion, Aiphion), which stood between Macistus and Heraea. Leake places it on the high peaked mountain which lies between the villages of Vrina and Smerna, about 6 miles in direct distance from Olympia. Boblaye supposes it to occupy the site of Hellenista, the name of some ruins on a hill between Platiana and Barakou.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ERYMANTHOS (Mountain) ACHAIA

Erymanthus

  Erymanthus (Erumanthos), a lofty range of mountains on the frontiers of Arcadia, Achaia, and Elis. It formed the western point of the northern barrier of Arcadia; and Mt. Lampeia, which extends southwards, is a portion of the range. The two principal heights are now called O/lonos and Kalefoni, the former being 7.297 feet above the level of the sea, and the latter 6.227 feet. From Erymanthus four rivers rise, - the Eleian Peneius, the Arcadian Erymanthus, and the Peirus and Selinus of Achaia. The river Erymanthus, which is a tributary of the Achelous, is spoken of under the latter name. Mount Erymanthus is celebrated in mythology as the haunt of the fierce boar destroyed by Hercules. (Strab. viii. pp. 343, 357; Pans. v. 7. § 1, viii. 24. § 4, seq.; Hom. Od. vi. 104; Apollod. ii. 5; Leake, Morea. vol. ii. p. 253, Peloponneaiaca, pp. 203, 204, 224; Boblaye, Recherches, &c. pp. 118, 124; Curtius, Peloposnesos, vol. i. pp. 17, 384.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ETOLIA (Ancient area) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Aetolia

Aetolia (Aitolia: Eth. Aitolos, Aetolus), a district of Greece, the boundaries of which varied at different periods. In the time of Strabo it was bounded on the W. by Acarnania, from which it was separated by the river Achelous, on the N. by the mountainous country inhabited by the Athamanes, Dolopes, and Dryopes, on the NE. by Doris and Malis, on the SE. by Locris, and on the S. by the entrance to the Corinthian gulf. It contained about 1165 square miles. It was divided into two districts, called Old Aetolia (he archaia Aitolia), and Aetolia Epictetus (he epiktetos), or the Acquired. The former extended along the coast from the Achelous to the Evenus, and inland as far as Thermum, opposite the Acarnanian town of Stratus: the latter included the northern and more mountainous part of the province, and also the country on the coast between the Evenus and Locris. When this division was introduced is unknown; but it cannot have been founded upon conquest, for the inland Aetolians were never subdued. The country between the Achelous and the Evenus appears in tradition as the original abode of the Aetolians; and the term Epictetus probably only indicates the subsequent extension of their name to the remainder of the country. Strabo makes the promontory Antirrhium the boundary between Aetolia and Locris, but some of the towns between this promontory and the Evenus belonged originally to the Ozolian Locrians. (Strab. pp. 336, 450, 459.)
  The country on the coast between the Achelous and the Evenus is a fertile plain, called Paracheloitis (Paracheloitis), after the former river. This plain is bounded on the north by a range of hills called Aracynthus, north of which and of the lakes Hyria and Trichonis there again opens out another extensive plain opposite the town of Stratus. These are the only two plains in Aetolia of any extent. The remainder of the country is traversed in every direction by rugged mountains, covered with forests, and full of dangerous ravines. These mountains are a south-westerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, and have never been crossed by any road, either in ancient or modern times. The following mountains are mentioned by special names by the ancient writers:
1.Tymphrestus (Tumphrestos), on the northern frontier, was a southerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, and more properly belongs to Dryopis.
2. Bomi (Bomoi), on the north-eastern frontier, was the most westerly part of Mt. Oeta, inhabited by the Bomienses. In it were the sources of the Evenus. (Strab. x. p. 451; Thuc. iii. 96; Steph. B. s. v. Bomoi.)
3. Coraxa (Korax), also on the north-eastern frontier, was a south-westerly continuation of Oeta, and is described by Strabo as the greatest mountain in Aetolia. There was a pass through it leading to Thermopylae, which the consul Acilius Glabrio crossed with great difficulty and the loss of many beasts of burthen in his passage, when he marched from Thermopylae to Naupactus in B.C. 191. Leake remarks that the route of Glabrio was probably by the vale of the Vistritza into that of the Kokkcino, over the ridges which connect Velukhi with Vardhusi, but very near the latter mountain, which is thus identified with Corax. Corax is described on that occasion by Livy as a very high mountain, lying between Callipolis and Naupactus. (Strab. x. p. 450; Liv. xxxvi. 30; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 624.)
4. Taphiassus (Taphiassos: Kaki--scala), a southerly continuation of Corax, extended down to the Corinthian gulf, where it terminated in a lofty mountain near the town of Macynia. In this mountain Nessus and the other Centaurs were said to have been buried, and from their corpses arose the stinking waters which flowed into the sea, and from which the western Locrians are said to have derived the name of Ozolae, or the Stinking. Modern travellers have found at the base of Mt. Taphiassus a number of springs of fetid water. Taphiassus derives its modern name of Kaki--skala, or Bad-ladder, from the dangerous road, which runs along the face of a precipitous cliff overhanging the sea, half way up the mountain. (Strab. pp. 427, 451, 460; Antig. Caryst. 129; Plin. iv. 2; Leake, vol. i. p. 111; Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 135; Gell, Itiner. p. 292.)
5. Chalcis or Chalceia (Chalkis e Chalkia: Varassova), an offshoot of Taphiassus, running down to the Corinthian gulf, between the mouth of the Evenus and Taphiassus. At its foot was a town of the same name. Taphiassus and Chalcis are the ancient names of the two great mountains running close down to the sea-coast, a little west of the promontory Antirrhium, and separated from each other by some low ground. Each of these mountains rises from the sea in one dark gloomy mass. (Strab. pp. 451, 460; Horn. Il. ii. 640; Leake, l. c.; Mure, vol. i. p. 171.)
6. Aracyntus (Arakunthos: Zygos), a range of mountains running in a south-easterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. x. p. 450.)
7. Panaetolium (Viena), a mountain NE. of Thermum, in which city the Aetolians held the meetings of their league. (Plin. iv. 2; Pol. v. 8; Leake, vol. i. p. 131.)
8. Myenus (to oros Muenon, Plut. de Fluviis, p. 44), between the rivers Evenus and Hylaethus.
9. Macynium mentioned only by Pliny (l. c.), must, from its name, have been near the town of Macynia on the coast, and consequently a part of Mt. Taphiassus.
10. Curium (Kourion), a mountain between Pleuron and lake Trichonis, from which the Curetes were said to have derived their name. It is a branch of Aracynthus. (Strab. x. p. 451.)
  The two chief rivers of Aetolia were the Achelous and the Evenus, which flowed in the lower part of their course nearly parallel to one another. There were no other rivers in the country worthy of mention, with the exception of the Campylus and Cyathus, both of which were tributaries of the Achelous.
  There were several lakes in the two great plains of Aetolia. The upper plain, N. of Mt. Aracynthus, contained two large lakes, which communicated with each other. The eastern and the larger of the two was called Trichonis (Trichonis, Pol. v. 7, xi. 4: Lake of Apokuro), the western was named Hyria (Lake of Zygos); and from the latter issued the river Cyathus, which flowed into the Achelous near the town of Conope, afterwards Arsinoe (Ath. x. p. 424). This lake, named Hyrie by Ovid (Met. vii. 371, seq.) is called Hydra (gdra) in the common text of Strabo, from whom we learn that it was afterwards called Lysimachia (Ausimachia) from a town of that name upon its southern shore. (Strab. p. 460.) Its proper name appears to have been Hyria, which might easily be changed into Hydra. (Muller, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 481.) This lake is also named Conope by Antoninus Liberalis (Met. 12). The mountain Aracynthus runs down towards the shores of both lakes, and near the lake Hyrie there is a ravine, which Ovid (l. c.) calls the Cycneia Tempe, because Cycnus was said to have been here changed into a swan by Apollo. The principal sources which form both the lakes are at the foot of the steep mountain overhanging the eastern, or lake Trichonis; a current flows from E. to W. through the two lakes; and the river of Cyathus is nothing more than a continuation of the same stream (Leake, vol. i. p. 154).
  In the lower plain of Aetolia there were several smaller lakes or lagoons. Of these Strabo (pp. 459, 460) mentions three.
1. Cynia (Kunia), which was 60 stadia long and 20 broad, and communicated with the sea.
2. Uria (Ouria), which was much smaller than the preceding and half a stadium from the sea.
3. A large lake near Calydon, belonging to the Romans of Patrae: this lake, according to Strabo, abounded in fish (euopsos), and the gastronomic poet Archestratus said that it was celebrated for the labrax (labrax, a ravenous kind of fish. (Ath. vii. p. 311, a.)
  There is some difficulty in identifying these lakes, as the coast has undergone numerous changes; but Leake supposes that the lagoon of Anatoliko was Cynia, that of Mesolonghi Uria, and that of Bokhori the lake of Calydon. The last of these lakes is perhaps the same as the lake Onthis (Onthis), which Nicander (ap. Schol. ad Nicand. Ther. 214) speaks of in connection with Naupactus. (Leake, vol. iii. p. 573, &c.)
  In the two great plains of Aetolia excellent corn was grown, and the slopes of the mountains produced good wine and oil. These plains also afforded abundance of pasture for horses; and the Aetolian horses were reckoned only second to those of Thessaly. In the mountains there were many wild beasts, among which we find mention of boars and even of lions, for Herodotus gives the Thracian Nestus and the Achelous as the limits within which lions were found in Europe. (Herod. v. 126.)
  The original inhabitants of Aetolia are said to have been Curetes, who according to some accounts had come from Euboea. (Strab. x. p. 465.) They inhabited the plains between the Achelous and the Evenus, and the country received in consequence the name of Curetis. Besides them we also find mention of the Leleges and the Hyantes, the latter of whom had been driven out of Boeotia. (Strab. pp. 322, 464.) These three peoples probably belonged to the great Pelasgic race, and were at all events not Hellenes. The first great Hellenic settlement in the country is said to have been that of the Epeans, led by Aetolus, the son of Endymion, who crossed over from Elis in Peloponnesus, subdued the Curetes, and gave his name to the country and the people, six generations before the Trojan war. Aetolus founded the town of Calydon, which he called after his son, and which became the capital of his dominions. The Curetes continued to reside at their ancient capital Pleuron at the foot of Mt. Curium, and for a long time carried on war with the inhabitants of Calydon. Subsequently the Curetes were driven out of Pleuron, and are said to have crossed over into Acarnania. At the time of the Trojan war Pleuron as well as Calydon were governed by the Aetolian chief Thoas. (Paus. v. 1. § 8; Hom. Il. ix. 529, seq.; Strab. p. 463.) Since Pleuron appears in the later period of the heroic age as an Aetolian city, it is represented as such from the beginning in some legends. Hence Pleuron, like Calydon, is said to have derived its name from a son of Aetolus (Apollod. i. 7. § 7); and at the very time that some legends represent it as the capital of the Curetes, and engaged in war with Oeneus, king of Calydon, others relate that it was governed by his own brother Thestius.
  Aetolia was celebrated in the heroic age of Greece on account of the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and the exploits of Tydeus, Meleager and the other heroes of Calydon and Pleuron. The Aetolians also took part in the Trojan war under the command of Thoas; they came in 40 ships from Pleuron, Calydon, Olenus, Pylene and Chalcis (Hom. Il. ii. 638). Sixty years after the Trojan war some Aeolians, who had been driven out of Thessaly along with the Boeotians, migrated into Aetolia, and settled in the country around Pleuron and Calydon, which was hence called Aeolis after them. (Strab. p. 464; Thuc. iii. 102.) Ephorus (ap. Strab. p. 465) however places this migration of the Aeolians much earlier, for he relates that the Aeolians once invaded the district of Pleuron, which was inhabited by the Curetes and called Curetis, and expelled this people. Twenty years afterwards occurred the great Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus under the command of the descendants of Heracles. The Aetolian chief Oxylus took part in this invasion, and conducted the Dorians across the Corinthian gulf. In return for his services he received Elis upon the conquest of Peloponnesus.
  From this time till the commencement of the Peloponnesian war we know nothing of the history of the Aetolians. Notwithstanding their fame in the heroic age, they appear at the time of the Peloponnesian war as one of the most uncivilized of the Grecian tribes; and Thucydides (i. 5) mentions them, together with their neighbours the Ozolian Locrians and Acarnanians, as retaining all the habits of a rude and barbarous age. At this period there were three main divisions of the Aetolians, the Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes. The last, who were the most numerous of the three, spoke a language which was unintelligible, and were in the habit of eating raw meat. (Thuc. iii. 102.) Thucydides, however, does not call them Barbaroi; and notwithstanding their low culture and uncivilized habits, the Aetolians ranked as Hellenes, partly, it appears, on account of their legendary renown, and partly on account of their acknowledged connection with the Eleans in Peloponnesus. Each of these three divisions was subdivided into several village tribes. Their villages were unfortified, and most of the inhabitants lived by plunder. Their tribes appear to have been independent of each other, and it was only in circumstances of common danger that they acted in concert. The inhabitants of the inland mountains were brave, active, and invincible. They were unrivalled in the use of the javelin, for which they are celebrated by Euripides. (Phoeniss. 139, 140; comp. Thuc. iii. 97.)
  The Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes, inhabited only the central districts of Aetolia, and did not occupy any part of the plain between the Evenus and the Achelous, which was the abode of the more civilized part of the nation, who bore no other name than that of Aetolians. The Apodoti (Apodotoi, Thuc. iii. 94; Apodotoi, Pol. xvii. 5) inhabited the mountains above Naupactus, on the borders of Locris. They are said by Polybius not to have been Hellenes. (Comp. Liv. xxxii. 34.) North of these dwelt the Ophionenses or Ophienses (Ophioneis, Thuc. l. c.; Ophieis, Strab. pp. 451,465), and to them belonged the smaller tribes of the Bomienses (Bomies, Thuc. iii. 96; Strab. p. 451; Steph. Byz. s. v. Bomoi) and Callienses (Kallies, Thuc.), both of which inhabited the ridge of Oeta running down towards the Malic gulf: the former are placed by Strabo at the sources of the Evenus, and the position of the latter is fixed by that of their capital town Callium. The Eurytanes (Eurutanes, Thuc. iii. 94, et alii) dwelt north of the Ophionenses, as far, apparently, as Mt. Tymphrestus, at the foot of which was the town Oechalia, which Strabo describes as a place belonging to this people. They are said to have possessed an oracle of Odysseus. (Strab. pp, 448, 451, 465; Schol. ad Lycophr. 799.)
  The Agraei, who inhabited the north-west corner of Aetolia, bordering upon Ambracia, were not a division of the Aetolian nation, but a separate people, governed at the time of the Peloponnesian war by a king of their own, and only united to Aetolia at a later period. The Aperanti, who lived in the same district, appear to have been a subdivision of the Agraei. Pliny (iv. 3) mentions various other peoples as belonging to Aetolia, such as the Athamanes, Tymphaei, Dolopes, &c.; but this statement is only true of the later period of the Aetolian League, when the Aetolians had extended their dominion over most of the neighbouring tribes of Epirus and Thessaly.
  At the commencement of the Peloponnesian war the Aetolians had formed no alliance either with Sparta or Athens, and consequently are not mentioned by Thucydides in his enumeration of the allied forces of the two nations. It was the unprovoked invasion of their country by the Athenians in the sixth year of the war (B.C. 455), which led. them to espouse the Lacedaemonian side. In this year the Messenians, who had been settled at Naupactus by the Athenians, and who had suffered greatly from the inroads of the Aetolians, persuaded the Athenian general, Demosthenes, to march into the interior of Aetolia, with the hope of conquering the three great tribes of the Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes, since if they were subdued the Athenians would become masters of the whole country between the Ambracian gulf and Parnassus. Having collected a considerable force, Demosthenes set out from Naupactus; but the expedition proved a complete failure. After advancing a few miles into the interior, he was attacked at Aegitium by the whole force of the Aetolians, who had occupied the adjacent hills. The rugged nature of the ground prevented the Athenian hoplites from coming to close quarters with their active foe; Demosthenes had with him only a small number of light-armed troops; and in the end the Athenians were completely defeated, and fled in disorder to the coast. Shortly afterwards the Aetolians joined the Peloponnesians under Eurylochus in making an attack upon Naupactus, which Demosthenes caved with difficulty, by the help of the Acarnanians. (Thuc. iii. 94, &c.) The Aetolians took no further part in the Peloponnesian war; for those of the nation who fought under the Athenians in Sicily were only mercenaries. (Thuc. vii. 57.) From this time till that of the Macedonian supremacy, we find scarcely any mention of the Aetolians. They appear to have been frequently engaged in hostilities. with their neighbours and ancient enemies, the Acarnanians.
  After the death of Alexander the Great (B.C. 323) the Aetolians joined the confederate Greeks in what is usually called the Lamian war. This war was brought to a close by the defeat of the confederates at Crannon (B.C. 322); whereupon Antipater and Craterus, having first made peace with Athens, invaded Aetolia with a large army. The Aetolians, however, instead of yielding to the invaders, abandoned their villages in the plains and retired to their impregnable mountains, where they remained in safety, till the Macedonian generals were obliged to evacuate their territory in order to march against Perdiecas. (Diod. xviii. 24, 25.) In the wars which followed between the different usurpers of the Macedonian throne, the alliance of the Aetolians was eagerly courted by the contending armies; and their brave and warlike population enabled them to exercise great influence upon the politics of Greece. The prominent part they took in the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece (B.C. 279). still further increased their reputation. In the army which the Greeks assembled at Thermopylae to oppose the Gauls, the contingent of the Aetolians was by far the largest, and they here distinguished themselves by their bravery in repulsing the attacks of the enemy; but they earned their chief glory by destroying the greater part of a body of 40,000 Gauls, who had invaded their country, and had taken the town of Callium, and committed the most horrible atrocities on the inhabitants. The Aetolians also assisted in the defence of Delphi when it was attacked by the Gauls, and in the pursuit of the enemy in their retreat. (Paus. x. 20--23.) To commemorate the vengeance they had inflicted upon the Gauls for the destruction of Callium, the Aetolians dedicated at Delphi a trophy and a statue of an armed heroine, representing Aetolia. They also dedicated in the same temple the statues of the generals under whom they had fought in this war. (Paus. x. 18. § 7, x. 15. § 2.)
  From this time the Aetolians appear as one of the three great powers in Greece, the other two being the Macedonians and Achaeans. Like the Achaeans, the Aetolians were united in a confederacy or league. At what time this league was first formed is uncertain. It is inferred that the Aetolians must have been united into some form of confederacy at least as early as the time of Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, from an inscription on the statue of Aetolus at Thermum, quoted by Ephorus (Strab. p. 463: Aitolon tond anepheikan Aitoloi spheteras mnem aretes esorain), and from the cession of Naupactus, which was made to them by Philip. (Strab. p. 427: esti de nun Aitolon, philippou proskrinantos, quoted by Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. viii. p. 207.) But it was not till after the death of Alexander the Great that the league appears to have come into full activity; and it was probably the invasion of their country by Antipater and Craterus, and the consequent necessity of concerting measures for their common defence, that brought the Aetolians into a closer political association. The constitution of the league was democratical, like that of the Aetolian towns and tribes. The great council of the nation, called the Panaetolicon (Liv. xxxi. 9), in which it is probable that every freeman above the age of thirty had the right of voting, met every autumn at Thermum, for the election of magistrates, general legislation, and the decision of all questions respecting peace and war with foreign nations. There was also another deliberative body, called Apocleti (Apokletoi), which appears to have been a kind of permanent committee. (Pol. xx. 1; Liv. xxxvi. 28.) The chief magistrate bore the title of Strategus Hstrategos), He was elected annually, presided in the assemblies, and had the command of the troops in war. The officers next in rank were the Hipparchus (Hipparchos), or commander of the cavalry, and the chief Secretary Grammateus), both of whom were elected annually.
  After the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece, the Aetolians began to extend their dominions over the neighbouring nations. They still retained the rude and barbarous habits which had characterised them in the time of Thucydides, and were still accustomed to live to a great extent by robbery and piracy. Their love of rapine was their great incentive to war, and in their marauding expeditions they spared neither friends nor foes, neither things sacred nor profane. Such is the character given to them by Polybius (e.g. ii. 45, 46, iv. 67, ix. 38), and his account is confirmed in the leading outlines by the testimony of other writers; though justice requires us to adds that the enmity of the Aetolians to the Achaeans has probably led the historian to exaggerate rather than underrate the vices of the Aetolian people. At the time of their greatest power, they were masters of the whole of western Acarnania, of the south of Epirus and Thessaly, and of Locris, Phocis, and Boeotia. They likewise assumed the entire control of the Delphic oracle and of the Amphictyonic assembly. (Plut. Demetr. 40; Pol. iv. 25; Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 210.) Their league also embraced several towns in the heart of Peloponnesus, the island of Cephallenia, and even cities in Thrace and Asia Minor, such as Lysimachia on the Hellespont, and Cios on the Propontis. The relation of these distant places to the league is a matter of uncertainty. They could not have taken any part in the management of the business of the confederacy; and the towns in Asia Minor and Thrace probably joined it in order to protect themselves against the attacks of the Aetolian privateers.
  The Aetolians were at the height of their power in B.C. 220, when their unprovoked invasion of Messenia engaged them in a war with the Achaeans, usually called the Social War. The Achaeans were supported by the youthful monarch of Macedonia, Philip V., who inflicted a severe blow upon the Aetolians in B.C. 218 by an unexpected march into the interior of their country, where he surprised the capital city of Thermum, in which all the wealth and treasures of the Aetolian leaders were deposited. The whole of these fell into the hands of the king, and were either carried off or destroyed; and before quitting the place, Philip set fire to the sacred buildings, to retaliate for the destruction of Dium and Dodona by the Aetolians. (Pol. v.2--9, 13, 14; for the details of Philip's march, see Thermun) The Social war was brought to a close by a treaty of peace concluded in B.C. 217. Six years afterwards (B.C. 211) the Aetolians again declared war against Philip, in consequence of having formed an offensive and defensive alliance with the Romans, who were then engaged in hostilities with Philip. The attention of the Romans was too much occupied by the war against Hannibal in Italy to enable them to afford much assistance to the Aetolians, upon whom, therefore, the burden of the war chiefly fell. In the course of this war Philip again took Thermum (Pol. xi. 4), and the Aetolians became so disheartened that they concluded peace with him in B.C. 205. This peace, was followed almost immediately by one between Philip and the Romans.
  On the renewal of the war between Philip and the Romans in B.C. 200, the Aetolians at first resolved to remain neutral; but the success of the consul Galba induced them to change their determination, and before the end of the first campaign they declared war against Philip. They fought at the battle of Cynoscephalae in B.C. 197, when their cavalry contributed materially to the success of the day. (Liv. xxxiii. 7.) The settlement of the affairs of Greece by Flamininus after this victory caused great disappointment to the Aetolians; and as soon as Flamininus returned to Italy, they invited Antiochus to invade Greece, and shortly afterwards declared war against the Romans. (B.C. 192.) The defeat of Antiochus at Thermopylae (B.C. 191) drove the monarch back to Asia, and left the Aetolians exposed to the full vengeance of the Romans. They obtained a short respite by a truce which they solicited from the Romans; but having subsequently resumed hostilities on rumours of some success of Antiochlis in Asia, the Roman consul M. Fulvius Nobilior crossed over into Greece, and commenced operations by laying siege to Ambracia (B.C. 189), which was then one of the strongest towns belonging to the league. Meantime news had arrived of the total defeat of Antiochus at the battle of Magnesia, and the Aetolians resolved to purchase peace at any price. It was granted to them by the Romans, but on terms which destroyed for ever their independence, and rendered them only the vassals of Rome. (Pol. xxii. 15; Liv. xxxviii. 11.) After the conquest of Perseus (B.C. 167), the Roman party in Aetolia, assisted by a body of Roman soldiers, massacred 550 of the leading patriots. All the survivors, who were suspected of opposition to the Roman policy, were carried off as prisoners to Italy. It was at this time that the league was formally dissolved. (Liv. xlv. 28, 31; Justin, xxxiii. Prol. and 2.) Aetolia subsequently formed part of the province of Achaia; though it is doubtful whether it formed part of this province as it was at first constituted. The inhabitants of several of its towns were removed by Augustus to people the city of Nicopolis, which he founded to commemorate his victory at Actium, B.C. 31; and in his time the country is described by Strabo as utterly worn out and exhausted. (Strab.) Under the Romans the Aetolians appear to have remained in the same rude condition in which they had always been. The interior of Aetolia was probably rarely visited by the Romans, for they had no road in the inland part of the country; and their only road was one leading from the coast of Acarnania across the Achelous, by Pleuron and Calydon to Chalcis and Molycreia on the Aetolian coast. (Comp. Brandstaten, Die Geschichten des Aetolischen Landes, Volkes und Bundes, Berlin, 1844.)
  The towns in Aetolia were: In Old Aetolia. In the lower plain, between the sea and Mount Aracynthus, Calydon, Pleuron, Olenus, Pylene, Chalcis (these 5 are the Aetolian towns mentioned by Homer), Halicyrna, Elaeus, Paeanium or Phana, Proschium, Ithoria, Conope (afterwards Arsinoe), Lysimachia. In the upper plain N. of Mount Aracynthus, Acraee, Metapa, Pamphia, Phyteum, Trichonium, Thestienses, Thermon. In Aetolia Epictetus, on the sea-coast, Macynia, Molycreium or Molycreia: a little in the interior, on the borders of Locris, Potidania, Crocyleium, Teichium, Aagitium: further in the interior, Callium Oechalia, Aerantia, Agrinium, Ephyra, the last of which was a town of the Agraei. The site of the following towns is quite unknown: -Ellopium (Ellopion, Pol. ap. Steph. B. s. v.); Thorax (Thorax, s. v.); Pherae (pherai, Steph. B. s. v.)


Evenus

  Evenus (Euenos, less frequently, Euenos: Fidhari or Fidharo), originally called Lycormas (Lukormas). An important river of Aetolia, rising in the highest summit of Mt. Oeta in the territory of the Bomienses, a subdivision of the Aetolian tribe of the Ophienses. (Strab. p. 451.) Dicaearchus was mistaken in saying that the Evenus rises in Pindus: Ptolemy (iii. 16. § 6) more correctly places its source in Callidromus, which is a part of Oeta. Strabo relates that the Evenus does not flow at first through the territory of the Curetes, which is the same as Pleuronia, but more to the E. by Chalcis and Calydon, that it afterwards turns to the W. towards the plains in which Old Pleuron was situated, and that it finally flows in a southerly direction into the sea, at the distance of 120 stadia from the promontory of Antirrhium. (Strab. pp. 451, 460; comp. Thuc. ii. 83; Mel. ii. 3; Plin. iv. 3.) Its real direction however is first westerly, and afterwards south-west. It receives numerous torrents from the mountains through which it flows, and in winter it becomes a considerable river, flowing with great rapidity, and difficult to cross on account of the great stones which are carried down by its stream. (Eveni rapidae undae, Ov. Met. ix. 104; Potamon polloi kumainonta kai huper tas ochthas airomenon, Philostr. Jun. Imag. 16.) The Evenus is celebrated in mythology on account of the death of the centaur Nessus, who was slain by Hercules because he offered violence to Deinaeira, as he carried her across this river. (Soph. Track. 557.) This tale is, perhaps, only a figure of the impetuosity of the river, and of the danger to which unwarytravellers are exposed in crossing its channel from the rise of the waters when swollen by sudden showers. (Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 170.) The river is said to have derived its name from Evenus, the son of Ares, and the father of Marpessa. When his daughter was carried off by Idas, the son of Aphareus, he pursued the ravisher; but being unable to overtake him he threw himself into the Lycormas, which was henceforward called after him. (Apollod. i. 7. § 8; Ov, Ibis, 515; Prop. i. 2. 18.) Its modern name of Fidharo or Fidhari is derived from Phidi, the Romaic form of Ophis, and is therefore supposed by Leake to be a vestige of Ophieis, the ancient people in whose territory the river rose. (Leake, Norsthern Greece, vol. ii. p. 625; comp. p. 599.) From Evenus is formed the adjective Eveninus. (Matres Calydonides Eveninae, Ov. Met. viii. 527.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FARES (Ancient city) PATRA

Pharae

  Pharai. Sometimes Phara, Pherae, Pharees, the name of the people: Eth. Pharieus, Pharaieus. The territory (he Pharaike, Strab. viii. p. 388, Polyb. iv. 59). A town of Achaia, and one of the twelve Achaean cities, was situated on the river Pierus or Peirus, 70 stadia from the sea, and 150 stadia from Patrae. It was one of the four cities which took the lead in restoring the Achaean League in B.C. 280. In the Social War (B.C. 220, seq.) it suffered from the attacks of the Aetolians and Eleans. Its territory was annexed by Augustus to Patrae, when the latter city was made a Roman colony after the battle of Actium. Pharae contained a large agora, with a curious statue of Hermes. The remains of the city have been found on the left bank of the Kamenitza, near Prevezo.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FIAS (Ancient city) ILIA

Pheia

  Phea (hai Pheiai, Hornm. Il. vii. 135, Od. xv. 297; Pheia, Thuc. Strab; Phea, Steph. B. s. v.: Eth. Pheates, Steph. B.). A city of Elis in the Pisatis, situated upon the isthmus connecting the promontory Ichthys (C. of Katakolo) with the mainland. Strabo erroneously speaks of two promontories upon this part of the coast; one called Pheia, from the name of the neighbouring town, and another more to the south, of which he has not given the name. (Strab. viii. 343.) Pheia is mentioned by Homer, who places it near the Iardanus, which is apparently the mountain torrent north of Ichthys, and which flows into the sea on the northern side of the lofty mountain Skaphidi. (Hom. l. c.) Upon a very conspicuous peaked height upon the isthmus of Ichthys are the ruins of a castle of the middle ages, called Pontikokastro, built upon the remains of the Hellenic walls of Pheia. On either side of Ichthys are two harbours; the northern one, which is a small creek, was the port of Pheia; the southern one is the broad bay of Katakolo, which is now much frequented, but was too open and exposed for ancient navigation. The position of these harbours explains the narrative of Thucydides, who relates that in the first year of the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 431), the Athenian fleet, having sailed from Methone in Messenia, landed at Pheia (that is, in the bay of Katakolo), and laid waste the country; but a storm having arisen, they sailed round the promontory Ichthys into the harbour of Pheia. In front of the harbour was a small island, which Polybius calls Pheias (Strab. l. c.; Polyb. iv. 9). About a mile north of the small creek at Pontikokastro, there is a harbour called Khortus, which Leake is disposed to identify with the port mentioned by Thucydides, on the ground that the historian describes it not as the port of Pheia, but as a harbour in the district Pheia (ton en te Phgeiai limena but we think it more probable that the historian intended the creek at the foot of Pontikokastro. In any case Pheia stood on the isthmus of Ichthys, and neither at Khortus nor at the mouth of the torrent of Skaphidi, at one or other of which spots Pheia is placed by Boblaye, though at neither are there any ancient remains.think it more probable that the historian intended the creek at the foot of Pontikokastro. In any case Pheia stood on the isthmus of Ichthys, and neither at Khortus nor at the mouth of the torrent of Skaphidi, at one or other of which spots Pheia is placed by Boblaye, though at neither are there any ancient remains.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Phigalia

  Phigalia (Pans.); Phigalea (Polyb. iv. 3); Phigaleia (Paus.; Rhianus, ap. Steph. B. s. v.;), Phialia (Paus.); Phialeia (Polyb.); Eth. Phigaleus, Phialeus, Phigaleites.
  An ancient is town of Arcadia, situated in the south-western corner of the country, close to the frontiers of Messenia, and upon the right bank of the Neda, about halfway between the sources and the mouth of this river. The name Phigalia was more ancient than that of Phialia, but the original name had again come into use in the time of Pausanias (viii. 39. § 2). The at city was said to have derived its more ancient name to from Phigalus, a son of Lycaon, its original founder, and its later name from Phialus, a son of Lycaon, its second founder. (Paus. l. c.; Steph. B.) In B.C. 659 the inhabitants of Phigalia were obliged to surrender their city to the Lacedaemonians, but they in recovered possession of it again by the help of a chosen body of Oresthasians, who, according to an oracle, perished fighting against the Lacedaemonians, (Paus. viii. 39. § § 4, 5.) In B.C. 375 Phigalia was rent asunder by hostile factions; and the supporters of the Lacedaemonian party, being expelled from the city, took possession of a fortress in the neighbourhood named Heraea, from which they made excursions against Phigalia. (Diod. xv. 40.) In the wars between the Aetolians and Achaeans, Phigalia became for some time the head-quarters of the Aetolian troops, who from thence plundered Messenia, till they were at length driven out by Philip of Macedon. (Polyb. iv. 3, seq., 79, seq.) The Phigaleans possessed several peculiar customs, respecting which Harmodius of Lepreum wrote a special work. This author relates that they were given to excess both in eating and drinking, to which their cold and ungenial climate may perhaps have contributed. (Athen. iv. p. 149, x. p. 442.)
  Phigalia was still a place of importance when visited by Pausanias. He describes it as situated upon a lofty and precipitous hill, the greater part of the walls being built upon the rocks. There are still considerable remains of the ancient walls above the modern village of Pavlitza. The city was upwards of two miles in circumference. The rock, upon which it stood, slopes down towards the Neda; on the western side it is bounded by a ravine and on the eastern by the torrent Lymax, which flows into the Neda. The walls are of the usual thickness, faced with masonry of the second order, and filled in the middle with rubble. On the summit of the acropolis within the walls are the remains of a detached citadel, 80 yards in length, containing a round tower at the extremity, measuring 18 feet in the interior diameter. In ancient times a temple of Artemis Soteira stood on the summit of the acropolis. On the slope of the mountain lay the gymnasium and the temple of Dionysus Acratophorus; and on the ground below, where the village of upper Pavlitza stands, was the agora, adorned with a statue of the pancratiast Arrachion, who lost his life in the Olympic games, and with the sepulchre of the Oresthasians, who perished to restore the Phigaleans to their native city. (Paus. viii. 39. § § 5, 6, 40. § 1.) Upon a rock, difficult of access, near the union of the Lymax and the Neda, was a temple of Eurynome, supposed to be a surname of Artemis, which was opened only once a year. In the same neighbourhood, and at the distance of 12 stadia from the city, were some warm baths, traces of which, according to the French Commission, are visible at the village of Tragoi, but the waters have long ceased to flow. (Paus. viii. 41. § 4, seq.)
  Phigalia was surrounded by mountains, of which Pausanias mentions two by name, Coilium (to Kotilion) and Elaeum (to Elaiom), the former to the left of the city, at the distance of 30 stadia, and the latter to the right at the distance of 30 stadia. As Cotilium lies to the NE. of Phigalia, and Pausanias in this description seems to have looked towards the east, Mt. Elaeum should probably be placed on the opposite side of Phigalia, and consequently to the south of the Neda, in which case it would correspond to the lofty mountain of Kuvela. Mt. Elaeum contained a cavern sacred to Demeter the Black, situated in a grove of oaks. Of the position of Mt. Cotilium there is no doubt. On it was situated the temple of Apollo Epicurius, which was built in the Peloponnesian War by Ictinus, the architect of the Parthenon at Athens. It was erected by the Phigaleans in consequence of the relief afforded by Apollo during the plague in the Peloponnesian War, whence he received the surname of Epicurius. The temple stood in a place called Bassae, and according to Pausanias excelled all the temples of Peloponnesus, except that of Athena Alea at Tegea, in the beauty of the stone and the accuracy of its masonry. He particularly mentions that the roof was of stone as well as the rest of the building. (Paus. viii. 41. § § 7, 8.) This temple still remains almost entire, and is next to the Theseium at Athens the best preserved of the temples of Greece. It stands in a glen (whence the name Bassai, Dor. for Besse, Bessai) near the summit of Mt. Cotilium, in the midst of a wilderness of rocks, studded with old knotty oaks. An eye-witness remarks that there is certainly no remnant of the architectural splendour of Greece more calculated to fascinate the imagination than this temple; whether by its own size and beauty, by the contrast it offers to the wild desolation of the surrounding scenery, or the extent and variety of the prospect from its site. (Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 270.) A spring rises about 10 minutes SW. of the temple, and soon afterwards loses itself in the ground, as Pausanias has described. North of the temple was the highest summit of the mountain, which one reaches in 10 minutes' time by a broad road constructed by the Greeks. This summit was called Cotilum Kotilon), whence the whole mountain derived the name of Cotilian; here was a sanctuary of Aphrodite, of which there are still some traces. The grandeur of the ruins of the temple have given to the whole of the surrounding district the name of the Columns (stous stulous or kolonnais). The temple is at least two hours and a half from the ruins of the city, and consequently more than the 40 stadia, which Pausanias mentions as the distance from Phigalia to Cotilium; but this distance perhaps applies to the nearest part of the mountain from the city.
  In modern times the temple remained long unknown, except to the shepherds of the country. Chandler, in 1765, was the first who gave any account of it; it was subsequently visited and described by Gell, Dodwell, and others; and in 1812 the whole temple was very carefully examined by a body of artists and scholars, who cleared away the ruins of the cella, and thus became acquainted with the exact form of the interior of the building. The results of these labours are given by Stackelberg, Der Apollotempel zu Bassa in Arkadien, Rom. 1826. The temple was a peripteral building of the Doric order. The stone of which it is built is a hard yellowish-brown limestone, susceptible of a high polish. It faces nearly north and south, was originally about 125 feet in length and 48 in breadth, and had 15 columns on either side, and 6 on either front. There were also 2 columns in the pronaos and 2 in the posticum; so that the total number in the peristyle was 42, of which 36 are standing. The cella was too narrow to allow of interior rows of columns as in the Parthenon; but on either side of the cella five fluted Ionic semi-columns projected from the walls, which supported the timbers of the hypaethron. The frieze of the cella, representing contests between the Centaurs and the Lapithae, and between Amazons and Greeks, is now in the British Museum.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FRIXA (Village) ILIA

Phrixa

  Phrixa (Phrixa, Paus. et alii; Phrixai, Herod. iv. 148: Eth. Phrixaios), a town of Triphylia in Elis, situated upon the left bank of the Alpheius, at the distance of 30 stadia from Olympia. (Strab. viii. p. 343; Steph. B. s. v.) It was founded by the Minyae (Herod. l. c.), and its name was derived from Phaestus. (Steph. B. s. v. Makistos.) Phrixa is rarely mentioned in history; but it shared the fate of the other Triphylian cities. (Comp. Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 30; Polyb. iv. 77, 80.) Its position is determined by Pausanias, who says that it was situated upon a pointed hill, opposite the Leucanias, a tributary of the Alpheius, and at a ford of the latter river. (Paus. vi. 21. § 6.) This pointed hill is now called Paleofanaro, and is a conspicuous object from both sides of the river, whence the city received the name of Phaestus in later times. (Steph. B. s. v Phaistos.) The city was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions there a temple of Athena Cydonia. Upon the summit of the hill there are still remains of Hellenic walls. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 210; Boblaye, Recherches &c. p. 136; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, p. 108; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 90.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FRIZA (Ancient city) SKILOUNTA

Phrixa

  Phrixa (Paus. et alii); Phrixai (Herod. iv. 148): Eth. Phrixaios. A town of Triphylia in Elis, situated upon the left bank of the Alpheius, at the distance of 30 stadia from Olympia. (Strab. viii. p. 343; Steph. B. s. v.) It was founded by the Minyae (Herod. l. c.), and its name was derived from Phaestus. (Steph. B. s. v. Makistos.) Phrixa is rarely mentioned in history; but it shared the fate of the other Triphylian cities. (Comp. Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 30; Polyb. iv. 77, 80.) Its position is determined by Pausanias, who says that it was situated upon a pointed hill, opposite the Leucanias, a tributary of the Alpheius, and at a ford of the latter river. (Paus. vi. 21. § 6.) This pointed hill is now called Paleofanaro, and is a conspicuous object from both sides of the river, whence the city received the name of Phaestus in later times. (Steph. B. s. v Phaistos.) The city was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions there a temple of Athena Cydonia. Upon the summit of the hill there are still remains of Hellenic walls.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


HERAKLIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Heracleia

An ancient place of Pisatis in Elis, but a village in the time of Pausanias, was distant 40 or 50 stadia from Olympia. It contained medicinal waters issuing from a fountain sacred to the Ionic nymphs, and flowing into the neighbouring stream called Cytherus or Cytherius, which is the brook near the modern village of Bruma.


ICHALIA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Oechalia

  Oichalia: Eth. Oichalieus. In Aetolia. (Strab. x. p. 448.) Each of these cities was considered by the respective inhabitants as the residence of the celebrated Eurytus, who was conquered by Hercules, and the capture of whose city was the subject of an epic poem called Oichalias halosis, which was ascribed to Homer or Cresphylus. Hence among the early poets there was a difference of statement upon the subject. The Messenian Oechalia was called the city of Eurytus in the Iliad (ii. 596) and the Odyssey (xxi. 13), and this statement was followed by Pherecydes (ap.Schol. ad Soph. Trach. 354) and Pausanias (iv. 2. §3). The Euboean city was selected by the writer of the poem on the Capture of Oechalia (Schol. ap. Soph. l. c.), by Hecataeus (ap. Paus. l. c.), and by Strabo (x. p. 448). The Thessalian city is mentioned as the residence of Eurytus in another passage of the Iliad (ii. 730); and K. 0. Muller supposes that this was the city of the original fable. (Dorians, vol. i. p. 426, seq., transl.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ILIA (Ancient country) GREECE

Elis

  Elis (he Elis, Dor. Alis, whence Alis in Plant. Capt. Prol. 9, 26; acc. Elida of the country, Eiln of the town generally, in Lat. Elin and Elidem. The word was originally written with the digamma Phalis, perhaps connected with vallis, and signifying originally, a hollow. The country was also called he Eleia, Thuc. ii. 25, Polyb. v. 102; he Eleion chora, Polyb. iv. 77; Eliorum ager, Plin. iv. 5. s. 6. Eth. and Adj. Eleios, Aleios, Phaleion on coins, Elius, Eleus, Alius, Plaut. Capt. Prol. 24.; Eliades, Steph. B. s. v.; Eleiakos, Eliakos).
  Elis, in its widest signification, was the country on the western coast of Peloponnesus between Achaia and Messenia, extending from the promontory Araxus and the river Larissus on the north to the river Neda on the south, and bounded on the east by the Arcadian mountains and on the west by the Ionian sea. (Strab. viii. p. 336.) It included three distinct districts, Elis Prroper or Hollow Elis, the northern portion, extending from the river Araxus to the promontory Ichthys; Pisatis the middle portion, from the promontory Ichthys to the river Alpheius; and Triphylia the southern portion, from the Alpheius to the Neda. Elis Proper was divided into two parts, the plain of the Peneius, and the mountainous country in the interior, called Acroreia: the name of Hollow Elis (he koile Elis Thuc. ii. 25) appears to have been originally given to the plain of the Peneius to distinguish it from the mountainous district of the Acroreia; but since Hollow Elis was the larger and more fertile part, this name came to be given to the whole of the northern territory, to distinguish it from the dependent districts of Pisatis and Triphylia.
  Those of the ancient geographers, who represented Peloponnesus as consisting of only five divisions, made Elis and Arcadia only one district. (Paus. v. 1. § 1.) In fact Elis may be looked upon as a kind of offshoot of Arcadia, since it embraces the lower slopes of the mountains of Erymanthus, Pholoe and Lycaeus, which sink down gradually towards the Ionian sea. Elis has no mountain system of its own, but only hills and plains. It contains more fertile land than any other country of Peloponnesus; the rich meadows of the plain of the Peneius were celebrated from the earliest times; and even the sandy hills, which separate the plains, are covered with vegetation, since they are exposed to the moist westerly winds. Thus the land with its green hills and fertile plains forms a striking contrast to the bare and precipitous rocks on the eastern coast. Hence Oxylus is said to have conducted the invading Dorians by the more difficult way through Arcadia, lest they should see the fertile territory of Elis, which he had designed for himself. (Paus. v. 4. § 1; Polyb. iv. 73.)
  The coast of Elis is a long and almost unbroken sandy level, and would have been entirely destitute of natural harbours, if a few neighbouring rocks had not become united by alluvial deposits with the mainland. In this way three promontories have been formed,--Araxus, Chelonatas, Ichthys,--which interrupt the uniformity of the coast, and afford some protection for vessels. Of these the central and the largest is Chelonatas, running a considerable way into the sea, and forming on either side one end of a gulf. The northern gulf bears the name of Cyllene, and is bounded at its northern extremity by the promontory Araxus. The southern gulf is called the Chelonatic, and is bounded at its southern extremity by the promontory Ichthys, which also forms the commencement of the great Cyparissian gulf.
  The sandy nature of the coast interrupts the natural outlet of the numerous smaller rivers, and absorbs them before they reach the sea. The sea also frequently breaks over the coast; and thus there is formed along the coast a series of lagoons, which are separated from the sea only by narrow sand-banks. Along the Cyllenian bay there are two such lagoons; and the whole Elean coast upon the Cyparissian bay is occupied by three almost continuous lagoons. This collection of stagnant water renders the coast very unhealthy in the summer months; and the vast number of gnats and other insects, which are generated in these marshes, makes it almost impossible to live near the sea. The modern harbour of Kunupeli has derived its name from the gnats, which abound in the neighbourhood (Kounoupeli from Kounoupion==konoph); and even in antiquity the Eleans invoked Zeus and Hercules to protect them from this plague. (Zeus apomuios, Paus. v. 14. § 1; comp. Aelian, H. An. v. 17.) These lagoons, however, supply the inhabitants with a vast abundance of fish. In the summer months, when the fish are very numerous on the coast, a small opening is made through the narrow sand-banks; and the lagoons thus become soon filled with fish, which are easily taken. They are dried and salted on the spot, and are exported in large quantities. This fishery was probably carried on in ancient times also, since we find Apollo worshipped among the Eleans under the epithet of Opsophagos. (Polemon. p. 109. ed. Preller.)
  The physical peculiarities of Elis are not favourable to its becoming an independent state. In fact no country in Greece is so little protected against hostile attacks. The broad valley of the Alpheius runs, like a highway, through the centre of Elis: the mountains, which form its eastern boundaries, are a very slight defence, since they are only the offshoots of still higher mountains; while the towns and villages on the flat coast lie entirely exposed to an enemy's fleet. But these natural obstacles to its independence were more than compensated by the sacred character attaching to the whole land in consequence of its possessing the temple of the Olympian Zeus on the banks of the Alpheius. Its territory was regarded as inviolable by the common law of Greece; and though its sanctity was not always respected, and it was ravaged more than once by an invading force, as we shall presently see, it enjoyed for several centuries exemption from the devastations of war. Thus, instead of the fortified places seen in the rest of Greece, Elis abounded in unwalled. villages and country houses; and the valley of the Alpheius in particular was full of various sanctuaries, and consecrated spots, which gave the whole country a sacred appearance. The prosperity of the country continued down to the time of Polybius, who notices its populousness and the fondness of its inhabitants for a country life. (Strab. viii. pp. 343, 358;. Polyb. iv. 73, 74.) The prosperity of Elis was also much indebted to the expenditure of the vast number. of strangers, who visited the country once in four: years at the festival of the Olympian Zeus.
  Hollow Elis is more extensive and more fertile than the two subject districts (hai perioikides poleis) of Pisatis and Triphylia. It consists of a fertile plain, drained by the river Peneius (Peneios) and its tributary the Ladon (Ladon). The Peneius rises in Mount Erymanthus between two lofty summits, and flows at first between the ravine of Berbini, and afterwards in a north-westerly direction till it reaches a more open valley. The Ladon, called Selleeis by Homer, rises a little more to the south; it also flows at first through a narrow ravine, and falls into the Peneius, just where it enters the broader valley. The united stream continues its course through this valley, till at the town of Elis it emerges near its mouth into the extensive plain of Gastuni, which is the name now generally given to the river throughout its whole course. The river Gastuni now flows into the sea to the south of the promontory of Chelonatas, but there is reason for believing that the main branch at least of the Peneius originally flowed into the sea north of the Chelonatas. This appears from the order of the names in Ptolemy (iii. 16. § § 5, 6), who enumerates the promontory Araxus, Cyllene, the mouths of the Peneius, and the promontory Chelonitis, as well as from the statement of Strabo (viii. p. 338) that the Peneius flows into the sea between Chelonatas and Cyllene. Moreover, the legend of Hercules cleansing the stables of Augeias by diverting the course of the Peneius would seem to show that even in ancient times the course of the stream had been changed either by artificial or by natural means; and there are still remains of some ancient channels near the southern end of the Cyllenian gulf.
  The plain of Gastuni is still celebrated for its fertility, and produces flax, wheat, and cotton. In antiquity, as we learn from Pausanias (v. 5. § 2), Elis was the only part of Greece in which byssus (a species of fine flax) grew. This byssus is described by Pausanias (l. c.) as not inferior to that of the Hebrews in fineness, but not so yellow; and in another passage (vi. 26. § 6) he remarks that hemp and flax and byssus are sown by all the Eleians, whose lands are adapted for these crops. The vine was also cultivated with success, as is evident from the especial honour paid to Dionysus in the city of Elis, and from the festival called Thyia, in which three empty jars spontaneously filled with wine. (Paus. vi. 26. § 1.) Elis still contains a large quantity of excellent timber; and the road to Achaia along the coast passes through noble forests of oaks. The rich pastures of the Peneius were favourable to the rearing of horses and cattle. Even in the earliest legends Augeias, king of the Epeians in Elis, is represented as keeping innumerable herds of oxen; and the horses of Elis were celebrated in the Homeric poems (Od. iv. 634, xxi. 346). It was said that mules could not be engendered in Elis in consequence of a divine curse (Herod. iv. 30; Paus. v. 5. § 2); but this tale probably arose from the fact of the Eleian mares being sent into Arcadia, in order to be covered by the asses of the latter country, which were reckoned the best in all Greece.

  Pisatis (he Pisthtis) is the lower valley of the Alpheius.

 Triphylia (Triphulia) is the smallest of the three divisions of Elis

Towns in Elis

1. In Hollow Elis.
Upon the coast, proceeding southwards from the promontory of Araxus, Hyrmine, Cyllene. From the town of Elis a road led northward to Dyme in Achaia passing by Myrtunium (or Myrsinus) and Buprasium East of Elis and commanding the entrance to the Acroreia or highlands of Elis was Pylos, at the junction of the Peneius and Ladon. South of Pylos on the Ladon was the Homeric Ephyra afterwards called Oenoe. North of Pylos in the mountainous country on the borders of Achaia was Thalamae East of Pylos and Ephyra, in the Acroreia, were Lasion, Opus, Thraustus (or Thraestus), Alium. Eupagium

2. In Pisatis.
Upon the Sacred Way leading from Elis to Olympia, Letrini and Dyspontium Upon the coast, the town and harbour of Pheia. On the road across the mountains from Elis to Olympia, Alesiaeum, Salmone, and Heracleia; and in the same. neighbourhood, Margana (or Margalae) and Ampidoli. Olympia lay on the right bank of the Alpheius, nearly in the centre of the country: it was properly not a town, but only a collection of sacred buildings. A little to the east of Olympia was Pisa and further east Harpinna.

3. In Triphylia.
Upon the road along the coast, Epitalyum (the Homeric Thryon), Samicum, Pyrgi. A road, led from Olympia to Lepreum, on which were Pylos and Macistus. Lepreum in the southern part of Triphylia was the chief town of the district. Between these two roads was Scillus where Xenophon resided. On the Alpheius to the east of Olympia was Phrixa and southwards in the interior were Aepy (afterwards called Epeium), Hypana, Typaneae. The position of Bolax and Styllagium is uncertain.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ILIS (Ancient city) ILIA

Elis

Elis. The position of the city of Elis was the best that could have been chosen for the capital of the country. Just before the Peneius emerges from the hills into the plain, the valley of the river is contracted on the south by a projecting hill of a peaked form, and nearly 500 feet in height. This hill was the acropolis of Elis, and commanded as well the narrow valley of the Peneius as the open plain beyond. It is now called Kaloskopi, which the Venetians translated into Belvedere. The ancient city lay at the foot of the hill, and extended across the river, as Strabo says that the Peneius flowed through the city (viii. p. 337); but since no remains are now found on the right or northern bank, it is probable that all the public buildings were on the left bank of the river, more especially as Pausanias does not make any allusion to the river in his description of the city. On the site of the ancient city there are two or three small villages, which bear the common name of Paleopoli.
  Elis is mentioned as a town of the Epeii by Homer (Il. ii. 615); but in the earliest times the two chief towns in the country appear to have been Ephyra the residence of Augeias, in the interior, and Buprasium on the coast. Some writers suppose that Ephyra was the more ancient name of Elis, but it appears to have been a different place, situated upon the Ladon. Elis first became a place of importance upon the invasion of Peloponnesus by the Dorians. Oxylus and his Aetolian followers appear to have settled on the height of Kaloskopi as the spot best adapted for ruling the country. From this time it was the residence of the kings, and of the aristocratical families who governed the country after the abolition of royalty. Elis was the only fortified town in the country; the rest of the inhabitants dwelt in unwalled villages, paying obedience to the ruling class at Elis.
  Soon after the Persian wars the exclusive privileges of the aristocratical families in Elis were abolished, and a democratical government established. Along with this revolution a great change took place in the city of Elis. The city appears to have been originally confined to the acropolis; but the inhabitants of many separate townships, eight according to Strabo, now removed to the capital, and built round the acropolis a new city, which they left undefended by walls, relying upon the sanctity of their country. (Diod. xi. 54; Strab. viii. p. 336; Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 27) At the same time the Eleians were divided into a certain number of local tribes; or if the latter existed before, they now acquired for the first time political rights. The Hellanodicae, or presidents of the Olympic games, who had formerly been taken from the aristocratical families, were now appointed, by lot, one from each of the local tribes; and the fluctuating number of the Hellanodicae shows the increase and decrease from time to time of the Eleian territory. It is probable that each of the three districts into which Elis was divided, - Hollow Elis, Pisatis, and Triphylia, - contained four tribes. This is in accordance with the fourfold ancient division of Hollow Elis, and with the twice four townships in the Pisatis. Pausanias in his account of the number of the Hellanodicae says that there were 12 Hellanodicae in Ol. 103, which was immediately after the battle of Leuctra, when the Eleians recovered for a short time their ancient dominions, but that being shortly afterwards deprived of Triphylia by the Arcadians, the number of their tribes was reduced to eight. (Paus. v. 9. § § 5, 6.)
  When Pausanias visited Elis, it was one of the most populous and splendid cities of Greece. At present nothing of it remains except some masses of tile and mortar, several wrought blocks of stone and fragments of sculpture, and a square building about 20 feet on the outside, which within is in the form of an octagon with niches. With such scanty remains it would be impossible to attempt any reconstruction of the city, and to assign to particular sites the buildings mentioned by Pausanias (vi. 23 - 26).
  Strabo says (viii. p. 337) that the gymnasium stood on the side of the river Peneius; and it is probable that the gymnasium and agora occupied the greater part of the space between the river and the citadel. The gymnasium was a vast inclosure surrounded by a wall. It was by far the largest gymnasium in Greece, which is accounted for by the fact that all the athletae in the Olympic games were obliged to undergo a month's previous training in the gymnasium at Elis. The inclosure bore the general name of Xystus, and within it there were special places destined for the runners, and separated from one another by plane-trees. The gymnasium contained three subdivisions, called respectively Plethrium, Tetragonum, and Malco: the first so called from its dimensions, the second from its shape, and the third from the softness of the soil. In their Malco was the senate-house of the Eleians, called Lalichium from the name of its founders: it was also used for literary exhibitions.
  The gymnasium had two principal entrances, one leading by the street called Siope or Silence to the baths, and the other above the cenotaph of Achilles to the agora and the Hellanodicaeum. The agora was also called the hippodrome, because it was used for the exercise of horses. It was built in the ancient style, and, instead of being surrounded by an. unin terrupted, series of stoae or colonnades, its stoae were separated, from one another by streets. The southern stoa, which consisted of a triple row of Doric columns, was the usual resort of the Hellanodicae during the day. Towards one end of this stoa to the left was the Hellanodicaeon, a building divided from. the agora by a street, which was the official residence of the Hellanodicae, who received here instruction in their duties for ten months preceding the.festival. There was another stoa in the agora called the Corcyraean stoa, because it had been built out of the tenth of some spoils taken from the Cor. cyraeans. It consisted of two rows of Doric columns, with a partition wall running between them: one side was open to the agora, and the other to a temple of Aphrodite Urania, in which was a statue of the goddess in gold and ivory by Pheidias. In the open part of the agora Pausanias mentions the temple of Apollo Acacesius, which was the principal temple in Elis, statues of Helios and Selene (Sun and Moon), a temple of the Graces, a temple of Silenus, and the tomb of Oxylus. On the way to the theatre was the temple of Hades, which was opened only once in the year.
  The theatre must have been on the slope of the acropolis: it is described by Pausanias as lying between the agora and the Menius, which, if the name is not corrupt, must be the brook flowing down from the heights behind Paleopoli. Near the theatre was a temple of Dionysus, containing a statue of this god by Praxiteles.
  On the acropolis was a temple of Athena, containing a statue of the goddess in gold and ivory by Pheidias. On the summit of the acropolis are the remains of a castle, in the walls of which Curtius noticed some fragments of Doric columns which probably belonged to the temple of Athena.
  In the immediate neighbourhood of Elis was Petra, where the tomb of the philosopher Pyrrhon was shown. (Paus. vi. 24. § 5.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Oeniadae

  Oiniadai, Oineiadai, Eth. Oiniadai. A town in Acarnania, situated on the W. bank of the Achelous, about 10 miles from its mouth. It was one of the most important of the Acarnanian towns, being strongly fortified both by nature and by art, and commanding the whole of the south of Acarnania. It was surrounded by marshes, many of them of great extent and depth, which rendered it quite inaccessible in the winter to an invading force. Its territory appears to have extended on both sides of the Achelous, and to have consisted of the district called Paracheloitis, which was very fertile. It seems to have derived its name from the mythical Oeneus, the great Aetolian hero. The town is first mentioned about B.C. 455. The Messenians, who had been settled at Naupactus by the Athenians at the end of the Third Messenian War (455), shortly afterwards made an expedition against Oeniadae, which they took; but after holding it for a year, they were attacked by the Acarnanians and compelled to abandon the town. (Paus. iv. 25.) Oeniadae is represented at that time as an enemy of Athens, which is said to have been one of the reasons that induced the Messenians to attack the place. Twenty-three years before the Peloponnesian War (B.C. 454) Pericles laid siege to the town, but was unable to take it. (Thuc. i. 111; Diod. xi. 85.) In the Peloponnesian War, Oeniadae still continued opposed to the Athenians, and was the only Acarnanian town, with the exception of Astacus, which sided with the Lacedaemonians. In the third year of the war (429) Phormion made an expedition into Acarnania to secure the Athenian ascendancy; but though he took Astacus, he did not continue to march against Oeniadae, because it was the winter, at which season the marshes secured the town from all attack. In the following year (428) his son Asopius sailed up the Achelous, and ravaged the territory of Oeniadae; but it was not till 424 that Demosthenes, assisted by all the other Acarnanians, compelled the town to join the Athenian alliance. (Thuc. ii. 102, iii. 7, iv. 77.) It continued to be a place of great importance during the Macedonian and Roman wars. In the time of Alexander the Great, the Aetolians, who had extended their dominions on the W. bank of the Achelous, succeeded in obtaining possession of Oeniadae, and expelled its inhabitants in so cruel a manner that they were threatened with the vengeance of Alexander. (Diod. xviii. 8.) Oeniadae remained in the hands of the Aetolians till 219, when it was taken by Philip, king of Macedonia. This monarch, aware of the importance of the place, strongly fortified the citadel, and commenced uniting the harbour and the arsenal with the citadel by means of walls. (Polyb. iv. 65.) In 211 Oeniadae, together with the adjacent Nesus (Nesos) or Nasus, was taken by the Romans, under M. Valerius Laevinus, and given to the Aetolians, who were then their allies; but in 189 it was restored to the Acarnanians by virtue of one of the conditions of the peace made between the Romans and Aetolians in that year. (Pol. ix. 39; Liv. xxvi. 24; Polyb. xxii. 15; Liv. xxxviii. 11.) From this period Oeniadae disappears from history; but it continued to exist in the time of Strabo.
  The exact site of Oeniadae was long a matter of dispute. Dodwell and Gell supposed the ruins on the eastern side of the Achelous to represent Oeniadae; but these ruins are those of Pleuron. The true position of Oeniadae has now been fixed with certainty by Leake, and his account has been confirmed by Mure, who has since visited the spot. Its ruins are found at the modern Trikardho, on the W. bank of the Achelous, and are surrounded by morasses on every side. To the N. these swamps deepen into a reedy marsh or lake, now called Lesini or Katokhi, and by the ancients Melite. In this lake is a small island, probably the same as the Nasos mentioned above. Thucydides is not quite correct in his statement (ii. 102) that the marshes around the city were caused by the Achelous alone; he appears to take no notice of the lake of Melite, which afforded a much greater protection to the city than the Achelous, and which has no connection with this river. The city occupied an extensive insulated hill, from the southern extremity of which there stretches out a long slope in the direction of the Achelous, connecting the hill with the plain. The entire circuit of the fortifications still exists, and cannot be much less than three miles. The walls, which are chiefly of polygonal construction, are in an excellent state of preservation, often to a height of from 10 to 12 feet. Towards the N. of the city was the port, communicating with the sea by a deep river or creek running up through the contiguous marsh to Petala on the coast.
  Leake discovered the ruins of a theatre, which stood near the middle of the city ; but the most interesting remains in the place are its arched posterns or sallyports, and a larger arched gateway leading from the port to the city. These arched gateways appear to be of great antiquity, and prove that the arch was known in Greece at a much earlier period than is usually supposed. Drawings of several of these gateways are given by Mure.
  Strabo speaks of a town called Old Oenia (he palaia Oinaia), which was deserted in his time, and which he describes as midway between Stratus and the sea. New Oenia (he nun Oinaia), which he places 70 stadia above the mouth of the Achelous, is the celebrated town of Oeniadae, spoken of above. The history of Old Oenia is unknown. Leake conjectures that it may possibly have been Erysiche (Erusiche), which Stephanus supposes to be the same as Oeniadae; but this is a mistake, as Strabo quotes the authority of the poet Apollodorus to prove that the Erysichaei were a people in the interior of Acarnania. Leake places Old Oenia at Palea Mani, where he found some Hellenic remains.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Calydon

  Kaludon: Eth. Kaludonios, Calydonius: Kurt-aga. The most celebrated city of Aetolia, in the heroic age, was founded by Aetolus in the land of the Curetes, and was called Calydon, after the name of his son. Calydon and the neighbouring town of Pleuron are said by Strabo to have been once the ornament (proschema) of Greece, but to have sunk in his time into insignificance. Calydon was situated in a fertile plain near the Evenus, and at the distance of 7 1/2 (Roman) miles from the sea, according to Pliny It is frequently mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of petreessa and aipeine, from which we might conclude that the city was situated on a, rocky height; but Strabo says that these epithets were to be applied to the district and not to the city itself. Homer also celebrates the fertility of the plain of the lovely (eranne) Calydon. In the earliest times the inhabitants of Calydon appear to have been engaged in incessant hostilities with the Curetes, who continued to reside in their ancient capital Pleuron, and who endeavoured to expel the invaders from their country. A vivid account of one of the battles between the Curetes and Calydonians is given in ran episode of the Iliad (ix. 529, seq.). The heroes of Calydon are among the most celebrated of the heroic age. It was the residence of Oeneus, father of Tydeus and Meleager, and grandfather of Diomedes. In the time of Oeneus Artemis sent a monstrous boar to lay waste the fields of Calydon, which was hunted by Meleager and numerous other heroes. The Calydonians took part in the Trojan war under their king Thoas, the son (not the grandson) of Oeneus. (Hom. Il. ii. 638.)
  Calydon is not often mentioned in the historical period. In B.C. 391 we find it in the possession of the Achaeans, but we are not told how it came into their hands; we know, however; that Naupactus was given to the Achaeans at the close of the Peloponnesian war, and it was probably the Achaeans settled at Naupactus who gained possession of the town. In the above-mentioned year the Achaeans at Calydon, were so hard pressed by the Acarnanians that they applied to the Lacedaemonians for help; and Agesilaus in consequence was sent with an army into Aetolia. Calydon remained in the hands of the Achaeans till the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), when Eparninondas restored, the town to the Aetolians. In the civil war between Caesar. and Pompey (B.C. 48) it still appears as a considerable place; but a few years afterwards its inhabitants were removed by Augustus to Nicopolis, which he founded to commemorate his victory at Actium (B.C. 31). It continues however to be mentioned by the later geographers.
  Calydon was the head-quarters of the worship of Artemis Laphria, and when, the inhabitants of the town were removed to Nicopolis, Augustus gave to Patrae in Achaia the statue of this goddess which had belonged to Calydon. (Paus. iv. 31. § 7, vii. 18. § 8.) There was also a statue of Dionysus at Patrae which had been removed from Calydon. (Paus. vii. 21.) Near Calydon there was a temple of Apollo Laphrius (Strabo); and in the neighbourhood of the city there was also a lake celebrated for its fish.
  In the Roman poets we find Calydonis, a woman of Calydon, i. e. Deianira, daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon (Ov. Met. ix. 112); Calydonius hers, i. e Meleager; Calydonius amnis, i. e. the Achelous, separating Acarnania and Aetolia, because Calydon was the chief town of Aetolia; Calydonia regna, i. e. Apulia, because Diomedes, the son of Tydeus, and, grandson of Oeneus, king of. Calydon, afterwards obtained Apulia as his kingdom.
  There has been some dispute respecting the site of Calydon. The Peutingerian Table places it east of the Evenus, and 9 miles from this river; but this is clearly a mistake. It is evident from Strabo's account, and from all the legends relating to Calydon, that both this city and Pleuron lay on the western side of the Evenus, between this river and the Achelous. Leake supposes the ruins which he discovered at Kurt-aga, a little to the E. of the Evenus, to be those of Calydon. They are distant a ride of 1 hour and 35 minutes from Mesolonghi, and are situated on one of the last slopes of Mt. Aracynthus at the entrance of the vale of the Evenus, where that river issues from the interior valleys into the maritime plain. They do not stand on any commanding height, as the Homeric epithets above mentioned would lead us to suppose, and it is perhaps for this reason that Strabo, supposes these epithets to apply to the surrounding country. Thee remains of the walls are traceable in their whole circuit of near two miles and a half; and outside the walls Leake discovered some ruins, which may have been the peribolus of the temple of, Artemis Laphria.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KERYNIA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Ceryneia

  Keruneia, also Kerunia, Keraunia, Kerauneia, &c.: Eth. Keruneus. A town of Achaia, was not originally one of the 12 Achaean cities, though it afterwards became so, succeeding to the place of Aegae. Its population was increased by a large body of Mycenaeans, when the latter abandoned their city to the Argives in 468. Ceryneia is mentioned as a member of the League on its revival in B.C. 280; and one of its citizens, Marcus, was chosen in 255 as the first sole General of the League. In the time. of Strabo, Ceryneia was dependent upon Aegium. It was situated inland upon a lofty height, W. of the river Cerynites (Bokhusia), and a little S. of Helice. Its ruins have been discovered on the height, which rises above the left bank of the Cerynites, just where it issues from the mountains into the plain. (Pol. ii. 41, 43; Paus. vii. 6. § 1, vii. 25. § 5; Strabo.) Theophrastus stated that the wine of Ceryneia produced abortion. (Theophr. Hist. Plant. ix. 20)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KLITOR (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Cleitor

  Kleitor; Clitorium,; Eth. Kleitorios. A town in Arcadia, the name of which is derived by Muller, from its being situated in an enclosed plain (from kleio), while others connect it with Clivia and Clusium. It possessed. a small territory called Cleitoria (Kleitoria, Polyb. iv. 10. § 6), bounded on the E. by the territory of Pheneus, on the W. by that of Psophis, on the N. by that of Cynaetha and Achaia, and on the S. by the territories of Caphyae, Tripolis, and Thelpusa. The lofty Aroanian mountains formed the NE. boundary of the territory of Cleitor, separating it from that of Pheneus. In these mountains the river Aroanius (Katzana) rises, which flowed through the territory of Cleitor from N. to S., and falls into the Ladon near the sources of the latter. The valley of this river opens out into two plains. In the upper plain, now called the plain of Sudhena, was situated Lusi, at. one.time an independent town, but at a later period a dependency of Cleitor. In the lower plain, now called the plain of Katzana, or Katzanes, was the town of Cleitor itself.
  Besides the valley of the Aroanius, the upper valley of the Ladon also formed part of the territory of Cleitor. The Ladon rose in this district, and flowed through the southern part of it in a south-westerly direction. The road from Caphyae to Psophis passed through the Cleitoria, and was traversed by Pausanias. (viii. 23. § § 8, 9). At the distance of seven stadia from Caphyae was Nasi, in the territory of the latter city; and 50 stadia beyond, the road crossed the Ladon, but Pausanias does not mention where the territory of Cleitor began. The road then entered a forest of oaks called Soron, and passed through Argeathae, Lycuntes, and Scotane, till it arrived at the ruins of Paus, situated at the end of the forest, and not far from Seirae, which was distant 30 stadia from Psophis, and was the boundary between the Cleitorii and Psophidii. There are still some remains of this forest, which, in the time of Pausanias, contained bears and wild boars. The position of these places is uncertain; though Leake attempts to identify some of them. Paus is also mentioned by Herodotus (Paion, or Pagou polis, vi. 127), who speaks of it as a town of Azania.
  Cleitor was situated in the midst of the plain of Katzana, upon a hill. of moderate height between two rivulets. The more important of these streams, running. S. of the town, was also called Cleitor, now Klitora. The other stream, now called the river of Karnesi, rises in the district of Lusi, and falls into the Klitora just beyond the remains of the ancient city., The Cleitor, after flowing rapidly through the plain, falls into the Aroanius, at the distance of seven stadia from the city of Cleitor, according to Pausanias; but the real distance is at least double. (Paus. viii. 21. § 1; rapidus Clitor, Stat. Theb. iv.289; Athen.v. iii. p.331, d.; kleitoen hudor potamos Arkadias, Hesych.) A little north of the junction of the river Cleitor with the Aroanius is the Kalyvia of Mazi upon. a gentle elevation, in the neighbourhood of which Dodwell discovered the remains of a small Doric temple.
  Cleitor is said to have been founded by a hero of the same name, the son of the Arcadian king Azan. (Paus. viii. 4. § 5, viii. 21. § 3.) The Cleitoria formed an important part of the Azanian district. The Cleitorian fountain, of which we shall speak presently, was regarded as one of the curiosities of Azania; and the Aroanian mountains, on the summits of which the daughters of Proetus wandered in their madness, are called the Azanian mountains. (Eudoxus, ap. Steph. s. v. Azania.) The Cleitorians were renowned among the Peloponnesians for their love of liberty. (to Kleitorion phileleutheron kai gennaion), of which an instance is cited even from the mythical times, in the brave resistance they offered to Sous, king of Sparta. (Plut. Lyc. 2, Apophth. p. 234.) Their power was increased by the conquest of Lusi, Paus, and other towns in their neighbourhood. In commemoration of these, conquests they dedicated at Olympia a brazen statue of Zeus, 18 feet in height, which was extant in the time of Pausanias, who has preserved the inscription upon it. (Paus. v. 23. § 7.) Cleitor seems to have occupied an important position among the Arcadian cities. In the Theban war it carried on hostilities against Orchomenus. (Xen. Hell. v. 4. 36) In the Social War it belonged to the Achaean League, and bravely repelled the assaults of the Aetolians, who attempted to scale the walls. (Polyb. iv. 18, 19, ix. 38.) It was sometimes used as the place of meeting of the Achaean League. (Polyb. xxiii. 5.; Liv. xxxix. 5.) Strabo mentions Cleitor among the Arcadian towns destroyed in his time, or of which scarcely any traces existed; but this is not correct, since it was not only in existence in the time of Pausanias, but it continued to coin money as late as the reign of Septimius Severus.
  Pausanias gives only a brief description of Cleitor. He says that its three principal temples were those of Demeter, Asclepius, and Eileithyia; that at the distance of four stadia from the city the Cleitorians possessed a temple of the Dioscuri, whom they called the great gods; and that further on the summit of a mountain, at the distance of 30 stadia from the city, there was a temple of Athena Coria. (Paus. viii. 21. § 3.) The ruins of Cleitor are now called Paleopoli, distant about three miles from a village which still bears the name of the ancient town. It would seem, as Leake remarks, that the river, having preserved its name after the city had ceased to exist, at length gave that name to a village built at its sources. The walls of the ancient city may still be traced in nearly their full extent. They inclose an irregular oblong space, not more than a mile in circumference; they were about 15 feet in thickness, and were fortified with towers. But the space inclosed by these walls seems to have been properly the acropolis of the ancient city, since the whole plain between the river of Klitora and the river of Karnesi is covered with stones and pottery, mixed with quadrangular blocks and remains of columns. There are remains of a theatre towards the western end of the hill.
  In the territory of Cleitor was a celebrated fountain, of which those who drank lost for ever their taste for wine:
Clitorio quicunque sitim de fonte levarit,
Vina fugit: gaudetque meris abstemius undis.
(Ov. Met. xv. 322)
  A spring of water, gushing forth from the hill on which the ruins stand, is usually supposed to be this miraculous fountain; but Curtius places it in the territory of Lusi, because it is said to have been situated upon the confines of the Cleitoria, and is mentioned in connection with the purification of the daughters of Proetus by Melampus, which is said to have taken place at Lusi. (Eitiskai pege para tois Kleitoriois, Hesych.; situated an eschatias Kleitoros, Vitruv. l. c.; en Kleitori in Phylarch. ap. Athen. l. c., is to be understood of the territory.)
  Another marvel in the territory of Cleitor was the singing fish of the river Aroanius. These fish, which were called poikiliai, were said to sing like thrushes. Pausanias relates (viii. 21. § 2) that he had seen these fish caught; but that he had never heard them sing, although he had remained for that purpose on the banks of the river till sunset, when they were supposed to be most vocal. These singing fish are also mentioned by Athenaeus and Pliny. The former writer cites three authorities in proof of their existence, of whom Philostephanos placed them on the Ladon, Mnaseas in the Cleitor, and the Peripatetic Clearchus in the Pheneatic Aroanius. (Athen. viii. pp. 331, 332.) Pliny improperly identifies them with the exocoetus or adonis, which was a sea-fish. (Plin. ix. 19.) The poikilia was probably trout, and was so called from its spotted and many-coloured scales. The trout of the Aroanius are described by Dodwell as of a fine bright colour, and beautifully variegated.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Conope

  Afterwards Arsinoe. Konope: Eth. Konopeus, Konopites, Konopaios Arsinoe: Eth. Arsinoites, Arsinoeus: Anghelokastro. A town of Aetolia, near the eastern bank of the Achelous, and 20 stadia from the ford of this river. It was only a village, till it was enlarged by Arsinoe, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Polybius, in his history of the Social War (B.C. 220--217), calls it Conope, though elsewhere he calls it Arsinoe or Arsinoia (Arsinoia). It is mentioned by Cicero under the name of Arsinoe. Near this town the river Cyathus flowed into the Achelous from the lake Hyria, which is also called Conope by Antoninus Liberalis.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KORONDA (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Coronta

  Coronta (ta Koronta: Eth. Koronteus: near Proldhromo), a small town in the interior of Acarnania, probably lying between Metropolis and Old Oenia. At a mile from Prodhromo Leake discovered on an insulated hill the ruins of Hellenic walls, which are probably the remains of Coronta. (Thuc. ii. 102; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 514.)


KYLLINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Kyllene

  Kullene. Eth. Kullenios, Kullenheus. The seaport town of Elis, distant 120 stadia from the latter city. (Paus. vi. 26. § 4; Strab. viii. p. 337.) Cyllene was an ancient place. It is mentioned by Homer as one of the towns of the Epeians (Il. xv. 518); and if we are to believe Dionysius Periegetes (347), it was the port from which the Pelasgians sailed to Italy. Pausanias, moreover, mentions it as visited at an early period by the merchants of Aegina (viii. 5. § 8), and as the port from which the exiled Messenians after the conclusion of the second Messenian war, sailed away to found a colony in Italy or Sicily (iv. 23. § 1, seq.).
  Cyllene was burnt by the Corcyraeans in B.C. 435, because it had supplied ships to the Corinthians. (Thuc. i. 30.) It is again mentioned in 429, as the naval station of the Peloponnesian fleet, when Phormion commanded an Athenian squadron in the Corinthian gulf. (Thuc. ii. 84.) Its name occurs on other occasions, clearly showing that it was the principal port in this part of Peloponnesus. (Thuc. vi. 89; Died. xix. 66, 87; Polyb. v. 3; Liv. xxvii. 32.) Strabo describes Cyllene as an inconsiderable village, having an ivory statue of Asclepius by Colotes, a contemporary of Pheidias. (Strab. viii.) This statue is not mentioned by Pausanias, who speaks, however, of temples of Asclepius and Aphrodite (vi. 26. § 5).
  Cyllene is usually identified with Glarentza, situated upon one of the capes of the promontory Chelonatas. This is the position assigned to it by Leake, whose authority we have followed elsewhere; but there are strong reasons for doubting the correctness of this opinion. There are no ancient remains at Glarentza; and although this is at present the only port on this part of the coast, the outline of the latter has been so changed in the course of centuries, that little reliance can be placed upon this argument. Moreover, Cyllene is clearly distinguished from the promontory Chelonatas by the ancient writers. Strabo (viii.) says that the Peneius flows into the sea between the promontories Chelonatas and Cyllene; and that this is not an error in the text, as Leake supposes, appears from the order of the names in Ptolemy (iii. 15. § § 5, 6), where we find the promontory Araxus, Cyllene, the mouths of the Peneius, the promontory Chelonitis. The river Peneius at present flows into the sea to the south of Chelonatas, but its ancient course was probably north of this promontory. Accordingly we may perhaps place Cyllene about half way between Araxus and Chelonatas. This position not only agrees with the distance of 120 stadia from Elis mentioned by Strabo and Pausanias, but also with the distances in the Tab. Peuting., which reckons xiv. M. P. from Dyme to Cyllene, and also xiv. M. P. from Cyllene to Elis. Pliny (iv. 5. s. 6.), likewise separates the promontory Chelonatas from Cyllene. According to the present text of Pliny, the distance between them is v. M. P. (not ii. as in some editions); but instead of v. we ought probably to read xv. It appears from Pliny that the sea between the promontories of Araxus and Chelonatas was called the bay of Cyllene.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KYNETHA (Ancient city) ACHAIA

Cynaetha

  he Kunaitha: Eth. Kunaitheus, Kunaithaieus, Polyb.; Kunaithaeus, Paus.: Kalavryta), a town in the north of Arcadia, situated upon the northern slope of the Aroanian mountains, which divided its territory from those of Cleitor and Pheneus. The inhabitants of Cynaetha were the only Arcadians who lived beyond the natural boundaries of Arcadia. Their valley sloped down towards the Corinthian gulf; and the river which flowed through it, fell into the Corinthian gulf a little to the east of Bura: this river was called in ancient times Erasinus or Buraicus, now river of Kalavryta. (Strab. viii; Paus. vii. 24. § 5.) The climate and situation of Cynaetha are described by Polybius as the most disagreeable in all Arcadia. The same author observes that the character of the Cynaethians presented a striking contrast to that of the other Arcadians, being a wicked and cruel race, and so much disliked by the rest of their countrymen, that the latter would scarcely hold any intercourse with them. He attributes their depravity to their neglect of music, which had tended to humanize the other Arcadians, and to counteract the natural rudeness engendered by their climate. Accordingly, he regarded the terrible misfortune which overtook the Cynaethians in the Social war, when their city was destroyed by the Aetolians, as a righteous punishment for their wickedness. (Polyb. iv. 18--21.) Although Strabo (viii.) mentions Cynaetha as one of the Arcadian towns no longer existing in his time, it must have been restored at some period after its destruction by the Aetolians, as it was visited by Pausanias, who noticed in the agora altars of the. gods and a statue of the emperor Hadrian. At the distance of two stadia from the town was a fountain of cold water, called Alyssus, because it was said to cure hydrophobia. (Paus. viii. 19.) There can be no doubt that the modern village of Kalavryta occupies the site of Cynaetha, although it contains scarcely any traces of the ancient city.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Cyparissus

  Cyparissus (Kuparissos: Eth. Kuparisseus), an ancient town of Phocis, in the vicinity of Delphi. It is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue (Il. ii. 519) along with Pytho (Delphi), and is described by Dicaearchus as situated in the interior of Phocis. It is placed by Strabo below Lycoreia, which was situated on one of the heights of Parnassus (ix. p. 423), which position is more probable than the one assigned to it by Pausanias, who supposes Cyparissus to be the ancient name of the place afterwards called Anticyra (x. 36. § 5). Cyparissus is also mentioned by Statius (Theb. vii. 344) and Stephanus (s. v.). If we follow the authority of Strabo respecting the position of Cyparissus, its site is perhaps indicated by the walls of an Hellenic town, at the southern foot of the mountain, midway between the Schiste and Delphi. (Leake, vol. ii. p. 579.)


LASSION (Ancient city) ILIA

Lasion

  The chief town of the mountainous district of Acroreia in Elis proper, was situated upon the frontiers of Arcadia near Psophis. Curtius places it with great probability in the upper valley of the Ladon, at the Paleokastro of Kumani, on the road from the Eleian Pylos and Ephyra to Psophis. Lasion was a frequent object of dispute between the Arcadians and Eleians, both of whom laid claim to it. In the war which the Spartans carried on against Elis at the close of the Peloponnesian War, Pausanias, king of Sparta, took Lasion (Diod. xiv. 17). The invasion of Pausanias is not mentioned by Xenophon in his account of this war; but the latter author relates that, by the treaty of peace concluded between Elis and Sparta in B.C. 400, the Eleians were obliged to give up Lasion, in consequence of its being claimed by the Arcadians. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 30) In B.C. 366 the Eleians attempted to recover Lasion from the Arcadians; they took the town by surprise, but were shortly afterwards driven out of it again by the Arcadians. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. 13, seq.; Diod. xv. 77.) In B.C. 219 Lasion was again a fortress of Elis, but upon the capture of Psophis by Philip, the Eleian garrison at Lasion straightway deserted the place. (Polyb. iv. 72, 73.) Polybius mentions (v. 102) along with Lasion a fortress called Pyrgos, which he places in a district named Perippia.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LEONTION (Ancient city) PATRA

Leontium

  Leontion: Eth. Leontesios. A town of Achaia, was originally not one of the 12 Achaean cities, though it afterwards became so, succeeding to the place of Rhypes. It is only mentioned by Polybius, and its position is uncertain. It must, however, have been an inland town, and was probably between Pharae and the territory of Aegium, since we find that the Eleians under the Aetolian general Euripidas, after marching through the territory of Pharae as far as that of Aegium, retreated to Leontium. Leake places it in the valley of the Selinus, between the territory of Tritaea and that of Aegium, at a place now called Ai Andhrea, from a ruined church of that saint near the village of Guzumistra. Callicrates, the partizan of the Romans daring the later days of the Achaean League, was a native of Leontium.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

Lepreum

  to Lepreon, Lepreos, Leprion, Eth. Lepreates. The chief town of Triphylia in Elis, was situated in the southern part of the district, at the distance of 100 stadia from Samicum, and 40 stadia from the sea. (Strab. viii.) Scylax and Ptolemy, less correctly, describe it as lying upon the coast. Triphylia is said to have been originally inhabited by the Cauconians, whence Lepreum is called by Callimachns (Hymn. in Jov. 39) Kaukonon ptoliethon. The Caucones were afterwards expelled by the Minyae, who took possession of Lepreum. (Herod. iv. 148.) Subsequently, and probably soon after the Messenian wars, Lepreum and the other cities of Triphylia were subdued by the Eleians, who governed them as subject places. The Triphylian cities, however, always bore this yoke with impatience; and Lepreum took the lead in their frequent attempts to shake off the Eleian supremacy. The greater importance of Lepreum is shown by the fact that it was the only one of the Triphylian towns which took part in the Persian wars. (Herod. ix. 28.) In B.C. 421 Lepreum, supported by Sparta, revolted from Elis (Thuc. v. 31); and at last, in 400, the Eleians, by their treaty with Sparta, were obliged to relinquish their authority over Lepreum and the other Triphylian towns. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 25) When the Spartan power had been broken by the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), the Spartans endeavoured to recover their supremacy over Lepreum and the other Triphylian towns; but the latter protected themselves by becoming members of the Arcadian confederacy, which had been recently founded by Epaminondas. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 2, seq.) Hence Lepreum is called an Arcadian town by Scylax and Pliny, the latter of whom erroneously speaks both of a Leprion in Elis (iv. 5. s. 6), and of a Lepreon in Arcadia (iv. 5. s. 10). Pausanias also states that the Lepreatae in his time claimed to be Arcadians; but he observes that they had been subjects of the Eleians from ancient times,--that as many of them as had been victors in the public games were proclaimed as Eleians from Lepreus,--and that Aristophanes describes Lepreus as a city of the Eleians. (Paus. v. 5. § 3.) After the time of Alexander the Eleians again reduced the Triphylian cities, which therefore were obliged to join the Aetolian league along with the Eleians. But when Philip, in his war with the Aetolians, marched into Triphylia, the inhabitants of Lepreum rose against the Eleian garrison in their town, and declared in favour of Philip, who thus obtained possession of the place. (Polyb. iv. 77, 79, 80.) In the time of Pausanias the only monument in Lepreum was a temple of Demeter, built of brick. In the vicinity of the town was a fountain named Arene. (Paus. v. 5. § 6.) The territory of Lepreum was rich and fertile. Chora eudaimon, (Strab. viii.)
  The ruins of Lepreum are situated upon a hill, near the modern village of Strovitzi. These ruins show that Lepreum was a town of some size. A plan of them is given by the French Commission, which is copied in the work of Curtius. They were first described by Dodwell. It takes half an hour to ascend from the first traces of the walls to the acropolis, which is entered by an ancient gateway. The towers are square; one of them is almost entire, and contains a small window or arrow hole. A transverse wall is carried completely across the acropolis, by which means it was anciently divided into two parts. The foundation of this wall, and part of the elevation, still remain. Three different periods of architecture are evident in this fortress. The walls are composed of polygons: some of the towers consist of irregular, and others of rectangular quadrilaterals. The ruins extend far below the acropolis, on the side of the hill, and are seen on a flat detached knoll.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LETRINI (Ancient city) PYRGOS

Letrini

  Letrinoi, Letrina. A town of Pisatis in Elis, situated near the sea, upon the Sacred Way leading from Elis to Olympia, at the distance of 180 stadia from Elis, and 120 from Olympia. It was said to have been founded by Letreus, a son of Pelops. (Paus. vi. 22. § 8.) Together with several of the other dependent townships of Elis, it joined Agis, when he invaded the territories of Elis; and the Eleians were obliged to surrender their supremacy over Letrini by the peace which they concluded with the Spartans in B.C. 400. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 25, 30.) Xenophon speaks of Letrini, Amphidoli, and Marganeis as Triphylian places, although they were on the right bank of the Alpheius; and if there is no corruption in the text, which Mr. Grote thinks there is , the word Triphylian must be used in a loose sense to signify the dependent townships of Elis. The Letrinaiai guai are mentioned by Lycophron (158). In the time of Pausanias nothing remained of Letrini except a few houses and a temple of Artemis Alpheiaea. Letrini may be placed at the village and monastery of St. John, between Pyrgo and the port of Katakolo, where, according to Leake, among many fragments of antiquity, a part of a large statue was found some years ago. g remained of Letrini except a few houses and a temple of Artemis Alpheiaea. Letrini may be placed at the village and monastery of St. John, between Pyrgo and the port of Katakolo, where, according to Leake, among many fragments of antiquity, a part of a large statue was found some years ago.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LIMNEA (Ancient city) AMFILOCHIA

Limnaea

  Limnaia: Eth. Limnaios: Kervasara. A town in Acarnania at the SE. corner of the Ambraciot gulf, on the very frontier of Acarnania towards Argos. There has been a dispute about its site, but the ruins at Kervasara are probably the remains of Limnaea: some modern writers would place it more to the W., either at Lutraki, or at Ruga. Tie former supposition, however, appears to be the more correct, since we learn from Thucydides that Limnaea lay on the road from Ambracia and Argos Amphilochicum to Stratus, which could not have been the case if Limnaea lay to the W. of Kervasara. Philip III., king of Macedonia, disembarked at Limnaea, when about to invade Aetolia. There is a marsh near Kervasara, two miles in length, from which Limnaea appears to have derived its name (Thuc. ii. 80, iii. 105 ; Pol. v. 5).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LOUSSES (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Lusi

  Lusi, Lousoi, Lousoi, Loussoi, ta Loussa. Eth. Lousios, Louseus, Lousiates, Lousieus. A town in the north of Arcadia, originally independent of, but afterwards subject to, Cleitor. Lusi was situated in the upper valley of the Aroanius, and probably on the site of Sudhena, which stands in the NE. corner of the valley at the foot of Mt. Khelmos (the ancient Aroanian mountains), and on the road from Tripolitza to Kalavryta. The upper valley of the Aroanius, now called the plain of Sudhena, consists of two plains, of which the more easterly is the one through which the Aroanius flows, the waters of which force their way through a gorge in the mountains into the plain of Cleitor, now Katzana, to the south. The more westerly plain of Sudhena is entirely shut in by a range of hills; and the waters of three streams which flow into this plain are carried off by a katavothra, after forming an inundation, apparently the Lacus Clitorius mentioned by Pliny (xxxi. 2. s. 13). The air is damp and cold; and in this locality the best hemlock was grown (Theophr. ix. 15. § 8).
  Lusi was still independent in the 58th Olympiad; since one of its citizens is recorded to have gained the victory in the 11th Pythiad. (Paus. viii. 18. § 8.) Its territory was ravaged by the Aetolians in the Social War (Polyb. iv. 18); but in the time of Pausanias there were no longer even any ruins of the town. Its name, however, was preserved in consequence of its temple of Artemis Lusia or Hemerasia (the Soother ). The goddess was so called, because it was here that the daughters of Proetus were purified from their madness. They had concealed themselves in a large cavern, from which they were taken by Melampus, who cured them by sacred expiations. Thereupon their father Proetus founded this temple of Artemis Hemerasia, which was regarded with great reverence throughout the whole Peloponnesus as an inviolable asylum. It was plundered by the Aetolians in the Social War. It was situated near Lusi, at the distance of 40 stadia from Cynaetha. (Paus.; Polyb. ll. cc.; Callim. Dian. 233.) The interior of the temple, with the purification of the daughters of Proetus, is represented on an ancient vase. The ruins, which Dodwell discovered above Lusi towards the end of the plain, and on the road to Cynaetha, are probably those of the temple of Artemis Leake discovered some ancient foundations at the middle fountain of the three in the more westerly of the two plains of Sudhena, which he supposes to be the remains of the temple. One of the officers of the French Commission observed a large cave on the western side of the Aroanian mountains, in which the inhabitants of Sudhena were accustomed to take refuge during war, and which is probably the one intended in the legend of the daughters of Proetus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LYKOYRIA (Ancient city) KALAVRYTA

Lycuria

Lukouria. A village in Arcadia, which still retains its ancient name, marked the boundaries of the Pheneatae and Cleitorii.


Lysimachia

  Lusimachia: Eth. Lusimacheus (Papadhates). A town of Aetolia, situated upon the southern shore of the lake formerly called Hyria or Hydra, and subsequently Lysimachia, after this town. The town was probably founded by Arsinoe, and named after her first husband Lysimachus, since we know that she enlarged the neighbouring town of Conope, and called it Arsinoe after herself. The position of the town is determined by the statement of Strabo that it lay between Pleuron and Conope, and by that of Livy, who places it on the line of march from Naupactus and Calydon to Stratus. Its site, therefore, corresponds to Papadhates, where Leake discovered some Hellenic remains. It was deserted in Strabo's time.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MAKISTOS (Ancient city) ILIA

Macistus

Macistus. Macistum, Makistos, to Makiston: Eth. Makistios. A town of Triphylia, in Elis, said to have been also called Platanistus (Platanistous, Strab. viii. p. 345.) It was originally inhabited by the Paroreatae and Caucones, who were driven out by the Minyae. (Strab. l. c.; Herod. iv. 148.) It was afterwards subdued by the Eleians, and became one of their dependent townships. In the time of Strabo, it was no longer inhabited (viii. p. 349). Macistus was situated upon a lofty hill in the north of Triphylia, and appears to have been the chief town in the north of the district, as Lepreum was in the south. That Macistus was in the north of Triphylia appears from several circumstances. Strabo describes its territory, the Macistia, as bordering upon Pisatis. (Strab. viii. p. 343.) Agis, in his invasion of the territory of Elis, in B.C. 400, when he entered Triphylia through the Aulon of Messenia, was first joined by the Lepreatae, next by the Macistii, and then by the Epitalii on the Alpheius. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. 25) Stephanus places Macistus to the westward of the Lepreatis (Steph. B. s. v.); but this is obviously an error, as Arcadia bordered upon the Lepreatis in that direction. Macistus would appear to have been in the neighbourhood of Samicum upon the coast, as it had the superintendence of the celebrated temple of the Samian Poseidon at this place. (Strab. viii. p. 343.) From these circumstances there can be little doubt that Macistus was situated upon the heights of Khaiaffa.
  It is worthy of notice that Pausanias and Polybius mention only Samicum, and Xenophon only Macistus. This fact, taken in connection with the Macistians having the superintendence of the temple of the Samian Poseidon, has led to the conjecture that upon the decay of Samos upon the coast, the Minyans built Macistus upon the heights above; but that the ancient name of the place was afterwards revived in the form of Samicum. The Macistians had a temple of Hercules situated upon the coast near the Acidon. (Strab. viii. p. 348.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MAKYNIA (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS

Macynia

  Makunia, Makuna, Makuneia, Eth. Makuneus. A town of Aetolia on the coast, at the foot of the eastern slope of Mount Taphiassus. According to Strabo it was built after the return of the Heraclidae into Peloponnesus. It is called a town of the Ozolian Locrians by the poet Archytas of Amphissa, who describes it in an hexameter line: the grape-clad, perfume-breathing, lovely Macuna. It is also mentioned in an epigram of Alcaeus, the Messenian, who was a contemporary of Philip V., king of Macedonia. Pliny mentions a mountain Macynium, which must have been part of Mount Taphiassus, near Macynia, unless it is indeea a mistake for the town.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Metropolis

  Lygovitzi. A town in the interior of Acarnania, S. of Stratus, and on the road from the latter place to Conope in Aetolia. At a later time it fell into the hands of the Aetolians, but was taken and burned by Philip in his expedition against the Aetolians, B.C. 219. It is mentioned as one of the towns of Acarnania, in a Greek inscription found at Actium, the date of which is probably prior to the time of Augustus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MOLYKRIA (Ancient city) NAFPAKTOS

Molycreium

  Molycreium, Molycreia, or Molycria (Molukreion, Thuc. ii. 84; Molukreia, Strab. x. p. 451, et alii; Molukria, Polyb. v. 94; Paus. ix. 31. § 6: Eth. Molukrios, more rarely Molukrieus, Molukraios, fem. Molukrissa, Molukrias), a town of Aetolia, situated near the sea-coast, and at a short distance from the promontory Antirrhium, which was hence called Rhion to Molukrikon (Thuc. ii. 86), or Molukrion Hpion. (Strab. viii. p. 336.) Some writers call it a Locrian town. It is said by Strabo to have been built after the return of the Heracleidae into Peloponnesus. It was colonised by the Corinthians, but was subject to the Athenians in the early part of the Peloponnesian War. It was taken by the Spartan commander Eurylochus, with the assistance of the Aetolians, B.C. 426. It was considered sacred to Poseidon. (Strab. x. pp. 451, 460; Scyl. p. 14; Thuc. ii. 84, iii. 102 ; Diod. xii. 60; Polyb., Pans., ll. cc.; Plin. iv. 2. s. 3; Ptol. iii. 15. § 3; Steph. Byz. s. v.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


MYRSINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Myrtuntium

  Murtountion, called Myrsinus (Mursinos) by Homer, who mentions it among the towns of the Epeii. It was a town of Elis, and is described by Strabo as situated on the road from the city of Elis to Dyme in Achaia, at the distance of 70 stadia from the former place and near the sea. Leake remarks that the last part of the description must be incorrect, since no part of the road from Elis to Dyme could have passed by the sea; but Curtius observes that Myrtuntium would at one time have been near the sea-coast, supposing that the lagoon of Kotiki was originally a gulf of the sea. The ruin near Kalotikos probably represents this place.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


NAFPAKTOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Naupactus

  Naupaktos: Eth. Naupaktios (Epakto by the Greek peasants, Lepanto by the Italians). An important town of the Locri Ozolae, and the best harbour on the northern coast of the Corinthian gulf, was situated just within the entrance of this gulf, a little east of the promontory Antirrhium. It is said to have derived its name from the Heracleidae having here built the fleet with which they crossed over to Peloponnesus. (Strab. ix. p. 426; Paus. x. 38. § 10; Apollod. ii. 8. § 2.) Though Naupactus was indebted for its historical importance to its harbour at the entrance of the Corinthian gulf, it was probably originally chosen as a site for a city on account of its strong hill, fertile plains, and copious supply of running water. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 608.) After the Persian wars it fell into the power of the Athenians, who settled there the Messenians, who had been compelled to leave their country at the end of the Third Messenian War, B.C. 455 ; and during the Peloponnesian War it was the head-quarters of the Athenians in all their operations in Western Greece. (Paus. iv. 24. § 7; Thuc. i. 103, ii. 83, seq.) After the battle of Aegospotami the Messenians were expelled from Naupactus, and the Locrians regained possession of the town. (Paus. x. 38. § 10.) It afterwards passed into the hands of the Achaeans, from whom, however, it was wrested by Epaminondas. (Diod. xv. 75.) Philip gave it to the Aetolians (Strab. ix. p. 427; Dem. Phil. iii. p. 120), and hence it is frequently called a town of Aetolia. (Scylax, p. 14; Mela, ii. 3 ; Plin. iv. 2. s. 3.) The Aetolians vigorously defended Naupactus against the Romans for two months in B.C. 191. (Liv. xxxvi. 30, seq.; Polyb. v. 103.) Ptolemy (iii. 15. § 3) calls it a town of the Locri Ozolae, to whom it must therefore have been assigned by the Romans after Pliny's time.
  Pausanias saw at Naupactus a temple of Poseidon near the sea, a temple of Artemis, a cave sacred to Aphrodite, and the ruins of a temple of Asclepius (x. 38. §§ 12, 13). Naupactus is mentioned by Hierocles; but it was destroyed by an earth-quake in the reign of Justinian. (Procop. B. Goth. iv. 25.) The situation and present appearance of the town are thus described by Leake: - The fortress and town occupy the south-eastern and southern sides of a hill, which is one of the roots of Mount Rigasni, and reaches down to the sea. The place is fortified in the manner which was common among the ancients in positions similar to that of Epakto,--that is to say, it occupies a triangular slope with a citadel at the apex, and one or more cross walls on the slope, dividing it into subordinate enclosures. At Epakto there are no less than five enclosures between the summit and the sea, with gates of communication from the one to the other, and a side gate on the west leading out of the fortress from the second enclosure on the descent. It is not improbable that the modern walls follow exactly the ancient plan of the fortress, for in many parts they stand upon Hellenic foundations, and even retain large pieces of the ancient masonry amidst the modern work. The present town occupies only the lowest enclosure; in the middle of which is the small harbour which made so great a figure in ancient history: it is now choked with rubbish, and is incapable of receiving even the larger sort of boats which navigate the gulf. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 608.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


OLENOS (Ancient city) ETOLOAKARNANIA

Olenus

  Olenos: Eth. olenios. An ancient town in the S. of Aetolia, between the Achelous and the Evenus, was named after a son of Zeus or Hephaestus, and is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue. It was situated near New Pleuron, at the foot of Mount Aracynthus; but its exact site is uncertain. It is said to have been destroyed by the Aeolians; and there were only a few traces of it in the time of Strabo. (Strab.x. pp. 451, 460; Horn. Il. ii. 638; Apollod. i.8. § 4; Hyg. Poet. Astron. 2. § 13; Stat. Theb. iv. 104; Steph. B. s. v.) The Roman poets use Olenius as equivalent to Aetolian: thus Tydeus of Calydon in Aetolia is called Olenius Tydeus. (Stat. Theb. i. 402.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


You are able to search for more information in greater and/or surrounding areas by choosing one of the titles below and clicking on "more".

Ferry Departures
From

Copyright 1999-2019 International Publications Ltd.