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Information about the place (909)


The mountainous inner district

CHANIA (Prefecture) CRETE
  The county of Hania is divided by the proud mountains called the Lefka Ori into two completely different natural landscapes. The coastal zone, with beaches 350km long, is richer and more densely populated. The sparsely populated inner territory is one of the most sensual parts of Crete. On most of its mountainous tops, temperatures are below zero and from December to May they are covered with snow. On the mountain slopes there are many small traditional villages with their stone houses turned towards the sun, forgotten by time and which are interesting destinations of green Crete.
  Day after day, more and more wanderers try to explore them on foot, by jeep, by horse or by bicycle. The European Union promotes, with the programme “Leader”, sojourns at rustic tourists’ shelters, in places like Vamos, Milia, Keramia, Kasteli, Askifou, etc. there is the possibility for the tourist to taste Cretan life in its simplicity and particularity in nature, to enjoy the Cretan diet with a glass of wine or tsikoudia, to take part in celebrations and to feel the roots of European civilization.
  Hospitable shelters, establishments for spending your free time and shops with handmade carpets, fine jewelry, embroidery, traditional furniture, ceramics and home-made products (cheese, cakes, marmalades, etc.) of excellent quality guarantee an unforgettable stay.
(Text: Dr. Anastasia Kalpaki-Georgoulaki)
This text is cited December 2003 from the Chania Prefecture Tourism Committee tourist pamphlet (2002).


KISSAMOS (Ancient city) CHANIA
There was another Kissamos located in Kalami village, Apokoronou province.


The northern cape of Spatha peninsula

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  The village of Agia is 9km from Chania on the Chania - Alikianos road. In the area there is Agia Lake and the remains of the Byzantine bishopric of Kydonia.

Agia Galini

  The seaside village and popular resort of Agia Galini on the Libyan Sea, was once the harbour of ancient Sivritos. It is located 61km southeast of Rethimnon and 68km southwest of Iraklion. The village has a harbour, beaches to the right and left, and a Byzantine church. In the town behind the harbour there are many satisfactory restaurants and hotels. Agia Galini is a good place to stay overnight or for some days to explore the Amari Valley and the south side of Psiloritis, and to visit the archaeological areas of the Mesara Plain. The village clings to the mountains above the harbour, and has panoramic views across the Libyan Sea. The bay of Mesara shelters the harbour and provides a mild year-round water temperature. Opposite Agia Galini are seen the Paximadia islands, that can be visited by rented boats. Along the coast, marine caves are accessible only by boat. One such cave, the cave of Daedalus, is said to have been the workshop of the mythical craftsman. The beautiful beaches of Agios Georgios and Agios Pavlos are nearby and accessible by caique (boat). In addition, frequent sea excursions are available from Agia Galini to Matala, Preveli, Plakias, Frangokastello, and Hora Sfakion.

This text is cited Dec 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.


  The harbour is just in front of the village and has a boat ramp. In the town behind the harbour there are many satisfactory restaurants and hotels.

Agia Irini village

  The village of Agia Irini is 43km from Chania on the Chania - Alikianos - Agia Irini - Sougia road. The area has a pleasant gorge and some Byzantine churches.

Agia Marina

  This suburb to the west of Chania is known for the many small and picturesque hotels, tavernas, and pleasant sandy beach.

Agia Paraskevi

  The village of Agia Paraskevi is near the resort of Agia Galini, on the south side of the Amari Valley, 59km from Rethimnon, about 63km from Iraklion. The village contains some interesting Byzantine churches.

  Agia Pelagia is 20km west of Iraklion on the Iraklion - Rethimnon highway. Agia Pelagia was the site of an ancient Greek city. It is not clear which one it was, but some assume that it was Apolonia, the city that was destroyed by the Kydonians at 171 B.C. The name Agia Pelagia originates from the monastery of Agia Pelagia, approximately 1km west of the bay. In the wall of the old monastery there are two shields in relief and between them a coat of arms.

This text is cited Jan 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Agia Roumeli

  Agia Roumeli is the small coastal village that you reach after walking through the Samaria Gorge. A frequent boat service takes you directly to Loutro and Hora Sfakion. Agia Roumeli has various hotels, rooms, and tavernas. In May 1941, the Greek government of Emmanuel Tsouderos and King George left Greece from here when Crete fell to the Nazis. Agia Roumeli was destroyed by the Turks in 1867 after the battle of Aradena. However, the Turkish did not manage to penetrate the defence of the canyon where all the women and children were protected. The same had happened in 1866. The ancient Greek site of Tara, is on the left (east) hill as you exit the gorge. Many of the finds from Tara are in the Archaeological Museum of Chania. Tara flourished in Greek, Roman and Byzantine times. It was an independent city and it had a glass producing factory. In Agia Roumeli are the Byzantine churches of the Panagia, Agia Triada, and Agios Pavlos, a Turkish castle, and a beautiful beach.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Agia Triada

  The Agia Triada (Holy Trinity) Community is 35 km from the town of Sitia at the end of the plateau of Ziros, with a population of 156. Long ago, the village was called Tso and today it is named after the Cathedral. Despite the 8 km distance from the sea, its residents are very good fishermen. The Agia Triada Community includes the smaller communities of Dasonari, Livari, Achladi, Stalos and Amigdali. The archaeological search gave many indications of ancient features especially in Stalos where a Minoan settlement and some vaulted tombs were brought to light. In the area of Livari there is a Minoan cave the Alogara.

This text is cited September 2004 from the Interkriti URL below.

Agia Triada

  The village of Agia Triada is 12km from Rethimnon on a road south of the Rethimnon - Iraklion highway towards Arkadi at 5km. There is the Byzantine church of Agia Triada in the village.

Agia Triada

AGIA TRIADA (Archaeological site) TYMBAKI
Agia Triada is 64km southwest of Iraklion via the Iraklion - Agia Varvara - Agii Deka - Mires - Festos - Agia Triada road. It is very near Festos. During Minoan times a road ran from Festos to the royal palace of Agia Triada. This palace, or villa, may have been the summer residence of the kings of Festos, although this remains a mystery.

Agia Varvara

  This municipality is located in the centre of the Heraklion prefecture, and according to some, in the centre of Crete. It is surrounded by 8 different municipalities: to the north, Gorgolaini, Tetrachoriou and Temenos; to the east, those of Nikos Kazantzakis and Asteroussia; those of Kofinas and Gortys to the south and finally, to the west, the municipality of Rouva. This municipality includes seven of the former communities: Aghia Varvara, Aghios Thomas, Moulia, Douli, Larani, Megali Vrisi and Prinias. The municipality covers a surface of about 10.000 ha., from Malevizi to Monofatsi and the Kenourio province; it has over 5.000 inhabitants. Geographically, the municipality lies at the foot of the Psiloritis mountain, at 530 m above sea level, and is one of the main thoroughfares leading up the mountain. It forms part of the mountainous landscape of the island.
  The main sources of production are agriculture (olive trees and vineyards) and cattle raising (sheep). Other activities in the region are the following: olive oil production, cheese and dairy production, distillation of "tsikoudia" or "raki", as well as commercial activities and public services.
  Aghia Varvara is the chief town (seat) of the municipality with the same name. It has a population of more than 2.000 inhabitants and is 30 km away from the city of Heraklion, by the road that leads from Heraklion to Aghia Varvara, Moires and Phaistos, one of the main highways crossing the island from north to south.
Municipality Tel.: +3 0894 23741 & 23742
Fax: +3 0894 23743
  Historical Background
  The municipality has a rich archaeological and cultural past. The ancient city of Rizinia was located on a conspicuous height (686 m) near the settlement of Prinias. This height, also known as 'Patela of Prinias', is only accessible from the west.
  The panoramic view extends as far as the island of Dia in the Cretan sea to the north, and to the Paximadi island to the south, in the Lybian sea. It was the Italian School of Archaeology that excavated in 1906-1908 the ruins of ancient Rizinia, a city of importance from Post-Minoan to Hellenistic times (1600 to 67 BC). Its most notable monuments belong to the Classic period of the 7th and 6th centuries BC.
  The location was highly strategic: Rizinia lay half way between Knossos and Gortys, the two largest cities in Crete, one to the north, the other to the south, and from the Patela height, the town commanded a large area. The ruins of an imposing Hellenistic castle have been found (330-70BC), built from stones cut out of more ancient buildings and tombs. Some of the stones bear inscriptions and are incised with different shapes: on one there is a female figure wearing a long chiton, holding a spindle and with a half-filled distaff on the lower part. On another, a warrior, with helmet, shield and lance. These stones come from a burial site belonging to the first Hellenistic period. A great number of sherds, votive clay objects and figurines have been found among the ruins of ancient Rizinia, as well as the remnants of two temples. One of them, to the east of the site, was dedicated to the goddess Rhea and from the charred bones that were excavated, it seems obvious that animal sacrifices were held there. Many sculptures in porous stone were found in and around the temple, and are now in the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion. Close by, the cemetery was excavated, bringing to light interesting objects found in the tombs.
  According to many archaeologists, the ancient town of Panona was located not far off, where the village of Aghios Thomas now stands. Around the village there are many caves, cisterns and a beautiful wine-press, all cut out of the rock.
  The Sights
  A visit to the municipality of Aghia Varvara is indispensable for those who want to get to know Crete, especially the hinterland. There are many sites of interest for the visitor.
  Archaeological Sites
  Ancient Rizinia and the cemetery at Prinias. Tombs carved out of the rock and the wine-press at Aghios Thomas.
  Natural Sites
  The valley of Prinias, the Perdikokorifi at Prinias, the Acropolis at Rizinia, the unique "forest" of oleanders in Crete, and the drive from Moni Kardiotissa to Aghios Antonios in the Aghios Thomas area.
  The height of Taga with the Aeolian park, between Aghia Varvara and Moulia, and the hill at Anemomilos.
  Churches and Chapels
  The churches of Aghios Ioasaf, Spiliotissa, Kardiotissa, Aghios Antonios in Aghios Thomas.
  Byzantine churches of Profitis Ilias, Aghios Giorgos in Aghia Varvara and Aghios Ioannis in Megali Vrisi, and the old monastery of Aghia Pelagia. The church of Zoodochos Pigi in Ano Moulia, those of Armiri and Aghia Anna in Megali Vrisi, and the church of Aghios Nikolaos in Douli. The municipality of Aghia Varvara has a unique richness in flora and fauna, of great interest and beauty.
  The municipality has good paved roads linking all the villages to each other and making access easy to all the sites.
  There is a bus service from Heraklion to all the villages in the municipality, leaving every half hour from the square Machis Kritis at the Chanioporta in Heraklion.

This text is cited September 2004 from the Interkriti URL below, which contains images.

Agia Varvara

  This unimposing town is the crossroads for various excursions. Agia Varvara 30km southwest of Iraklion, is located at important crossroads to the Mesara Plain and south of the Psiloritis Mountains towards Rethimnon. The excursions from Iraklion towards the important archaeological sites of Mesara go through Agia Varvara. The resorts towns of Matala and Agia Galini that can be used as the basis for excursions in Mesara are to the west of Agia Varvara (Agia Varvara - Agii Deka - Mires - Matala or Agia Varvara - Agii Deka - Mires - Timbaki - Agia Galini).

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Agies Paraskies

  The village of Agies Paraskies is 20km south of Iraklion, on the road Iraklion - Kounavi - Agies Paraskies, and has a good view of the valley of Peza.

Agii Deka

  The town of Agii Deka is 44km south of Iraklion on the Iraklion - Timbaki road. The town and the Byzantine church of the Agii Deka (Ten Martyrs) have been named after the ten martyrs. The Romans beheaded these men about 250 A.D., after they refused to worship the Roman pagan idols. An earlier church has been excavated beside the newer church of Agii Deka.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Agios Ioannis

  Beyond Aradena the unpaved road continues west towards the small community of Agios Ioannis. Agios Ioannis is 14km from Hora Sfakion on the Hora Sfakion - Anopolis - Agios Ioannis road. The village of Agios Ioannis followed the fortune of Anopolis and Aradena and it was destroyed in 1770 and 1867. From here some of the families of the fighters managed to escape into the Lefka Ori and to the safety of the Samaria Gorge. In 1823 thirty-two local rebels blocked the exit of Agios Ioannis to the Samaria Gorge from the pursuing Egyptian troops which were co-operating with the Turks. They faced a large army and all thirty-two were killed, but they gave enough time to the women and children of the villages nearby to escape to the protection of Samaria.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Mount Pahnes

  It is also possible to climb Mount Pahnes, the highest peak of the Lefka Ori (2,452m) from here.

Agios Ioannis

  The municipality of Agios Ioannis covers the area east of the municipality of Ierapetra, from the southern slope of the mountain "Thripti" or "Aori" as the locals call it, to the coast and it is the easternmost part of the county of Ierapetra. Most of the 1,069 permanent residents, live at the coastal villages and occupy with farming and tourism. The municipality conisits of the villages:
Koutsounari, a coastal village of 437 inhabitants, 10.5 km east of Ierapetra, is the seat of the municipality. At Koutsounari there is one of the longest and prettiest beaches of Ierapetra, with all the tourist facilities.
Agios Ioannis, a small traditional village located at the slope of the hill "Katalimata" 500m a.s.l. 17.7km away from Ierapetra, with 38 inhabitants.
Ferma, a village close to Koutsounari with 579 inhabitants, also a popular tourist resort.
Agia Fotia a small settlement, located in a picturesque cove, within a few distance from Ferma to the east. It has 15 permanent residents and quite a few hotels and taverns.
  The gorge of "Milonas" with small water falls, not easily accessible. Many chapels of architectural and historical interrest.
  Tourist facilities
  There are a lot of hotels of all classes, bars, and taverns especially at the beach of Koutsounari and Ferma. The place attracts a lot of visitors every year due to the clear sea, awarded with the blue flag by the EEC.

This text is cited September 2004 from the Interkriti URL below.

Agios Ioannis, Amari

  The village of Agios Ioannis is 56km from Rethimnon on the Rethimnon - Apostoli - Meronas - Agios Ioannis road. In the village there is a Byzantine church.

Agios Ioannis, Pirgiotisa

  The village of Agios Ioannis is very near Festos and contains an interesting Byzantine church.

Agios Konstantinos

Agios Konstantinos name is taken from the local church. It is testified in Venetian censuses of the 16th and 17th centuries, while in the Egyptian administration's 1834 census it comprised 50 families. In 1881 it formed part of the Municipality of Roustika and had 263 inhabitants; by 1900 this number had increased to 345. Since 1928 it has formed a community in its own right. Under Venetian rule it was a fief of the Barozzi family - to this day the village retains the overall appearance of that time. Several fine houses were built during the period Agios Konstantinos served as a summer retreat for the Venetian nobles of Rethymnon. The drinking fountain erected by the Barozzi family can still be seen one mile to the east of the village. The municipal ward of Agios Konstantinos includes the Venetian settlement of Agios Georgios, lying at an altitude of 390m.

Agios Miron

  The village of Agios Miron is 19km southwest of Iraklion on the road Iraklion - Voutes - Agios Miron. Agios Miron is the site of the ancient city Ravkos which flourished during the Greek era. It was an ally of Gortyn against Knossos and Lycastos. In 166 B.C. Gortyn and Knossos signed a treaty and since then no signs of Ravkos appear. The village is prosperous and presently produces raisins and wine. Agios Miron is an important Byzantine site. It was probably the bishopric of Knossos during the first Byzantine period, as it continued to be in the second Byzantine period. In the village is the church of Agios Miron.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Agios Nikolaos

  Agios Nikolaos, the capital of the prefecture of Lassithi, is a picturesque and popular resort town on the bay of Mirabelo with a harbour area pulsating with activity and restaurants and cafes providing a cosmopolitan atmosphere, though the town itself has maintained its traditional style.
Agios Nikolaos is easily reached in an hour (65km) from Iraklion, 1 1/2 hours from Sitia (70km), and 45 minutes from Ierapetra (36km).
There is no airport, although Iraklion airport is less then one hour away. There are boats to Piraeus (Athens) and to Rhodes during the summer. The islands of the Cyclades are accessible from Agios Nikolaos, as are Kasos, Karpathos, and Kos of the Dodecanese.
The municipality of Agios Nikolaos organizes "Lato" during the tourist season. This festival consists of a number of music and dance groups including ethnic and foreign, folkloric, and modern. There are also theatrical performances and water sports competitions. In addition, every two years, during Naval Week in July, special events are organized.
All types of tourist facilities may be found in Agios Nikolaos. Since it is a very popular resort, there may be some difficulty finding accommodation. The National Tourist Office (EOT) is very helpful and is found on the main street, on the west side of the bridge at the harbour.
Tours may be arranged in Agios Nikolaos to Spinalonga Islet, to Lassithi Plateau, the town of Kritsa and its Byzantine churches. The best beaches are on the east side of the town, in the small protected bays, and may be reached by local bus service. Ask for details at the Tourist Office.
Agios Nikolaos is the most touristically developed town in Crete. The area has a great deal to offer to everyone.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Agios Thomas

  Agios Thomas is 30km southwest of Iraklion on the road Iraklion - Venerato - Agios Thomas. Agios Thomas is believed to be the location of the ancient Greek city Pannona. Several remains have been found in the area. In addition, there are several interesting Byzantine churches nearby. This small village is between Psiloritis and the Dikte Mountains of Lassithi. It separates the Mesara Plain from the north. During the Venetian era it was a large town that the Turks destroyed in 1821 and 1866. Archaeologists discovered ancient Roman tombs, cisterns, and early Greek writing in the area. The area of Agios Thomas was reputed to have had 38 churches in the past.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Agios Vasilios

  The village of Agios Vasilios is 21km south of Iraklion on the Iraklion - Knossos - Kounavi - Agios Vasilios road and the area includes several Byzantine churches.

Agria Gramvousa Island

  Imeri Gramvousa contains the remains of a Venetian castle (1579). The castle, although built for 3,000 men, was never involved in a major battle. The Venetians handed it over to the Turks in 1692 -- 23 years after Iraklion fell.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.

Akoumia (Koumia)

  The village of Koumia is 39km south of Rethimnon on the Rethimnon - Spili - Koumia - Agia Galini road, and it has Byzantine churches.

Akrotiri Hills

  The peninsula of Akrotiri rises to the northeast of Chania and acts as a barrier that protects Souda Bay from heavy north winds. On the north coast, sandy beaches provide excellent swimming, and the northeast has old monasteries to visit. The airport and military facilities dominate the centre and south of the peninsula. Many visitors come to Crete to see its rare wild flowers, and many different kinds may be found from January to April on the Akrotiri.

This extract is cited Oct 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.


  The village of Alagni is 25km from Iraklion on the road Iraklion - Arkalohori. The area has several Byzantine churches.


  Alikambos is 40km from Chania on a side road from the Chania - Vrises - Hora Sfakion road. Alikambos was a centre of revolutionary activities against the Venetians. The Venetians destroyed it in 1527 and prohibited the people from rebuilding the town. In Alikambos one can see interesting old village houses with Venetian remains, and a Byzantine church.

This extract is cited Nov 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

Alikabos has been a centre of revolutionary activities against the Venetians. The Venetians destroyed it in 1527 and prohibited the people from rebuilding the town. In the village one can see interesting old houses with Venetian remains, and a Byzantine church.


  Alikianos is 9km southwest of Chania, and the area has remains of a Venetian tower and very important Byzantine churches.


  Almirida, a small fishing village, lies along the east of the Souda Bay opposite the cape of Akrotiri, within 25 kilometers from the city of Hania. The surrounding area, with picturesque villages, lovely beaches, and historical sites consists one of the most worth to visit areas in the island of Crete. Kera, Plaka, Kambia, and Kokkino Horio are some of the most renowned and unforgettable places to the numerous friends of Almirida.
  The area has been just developed the last eight years, in a way that the traditional characteristics which attracts the most demanding guests, remained unspoilt.
  Historically, it introduces great interest. The whole area used to be a colony of the ancient Foinikes, a place named Finika exists in the area, while some ancient ruins and tombs of the time were unearthed there.
  At the entrance of Almirida archaeologists discovered Mosaic and tombs which belong to the Royal Church rhythm of the 5th century A.D. Here the last battle between the Greek revolutionaries and the Turks in 1896 took place.
  There are a lot of places of interest which guests can visit: like the "Diktamo Gorge" and the "gorge of Saint Nikolas" and the 215 caves scattered in the area.
  In the bay of Almirida is the islet "Karga", ideal for a small sea trip, fishing and relax, while some remnants of ancient walls as well as tunnel from the second world war are worth to see. The islet is also a refuge for migratory and endemic birds.
  Kokkino Horio a village where the famous film "Zorbas", based on the novel of Nikos Kazantzakis the Cretan writer, was filmed stands in a small distance from Almirida.
  Another point of attraction is the small factory which produces items from "blown glass", located also at Kokkino Horio.
  A little further from Plaka to the south is the picturesque village "Kambia", with traditional houses, flowery yards and the small chapel of "Agos Nikitas". A local festival is organized every year at September 15 to celebrate the Saint's name day
  At Kambia you will find an exhibition with the work of the well known painter Santorinakis, who has a special technique of painting on mirrors.
  Plaka is the biggest village in the area with 250 permanent inhabitants, occupying mostly with farming, cattle breeding, fishing and lately with tourism.
  The visitor can admire here a magical sunset, as well as many other attractions like the natural sea caves (nerospilia), the old houses, the narrow stone paved streets and will enjoy the July festival "Plakiana", in honour of the Cretan lyra player Mihalis Papadakis, where many old local customs are brought to life.
  Almirida has been characterized (by the authorities) as a place of great natural beauty, and thus all efforts are made to preserve the authenticity of it.
  The climate due to the ever present olive trees which go as far as the beach, and the Lefka Ori mountain range is temperate considered to be one of the healthiest in the whole world!
  Almirida has tourist accommodation of all types and class. Not large hotel resorts but many small family operated and well looked after with friendly and quiet environment, which however can provide all the modern facilities.
  Fresh fish and lots of Cretan specialties are offered at the small taverns located on the coastal street by the sea. There also many bars, cafes, music clubs etc to offer the visitors unforgettable evenings.
  For your shopping there are shops with traditional products and souvenirs of a wide range, and of course many mini markets which remain open until late.
  There is regular bus transportation service to the town of Hania and the surrounding villages in 24 hour basis.

This text is cited September 2004 from the Interkriti URL below, which contains images.


  The village of Amari is the capital of the province of Amari. It is located 40km southeast of Rethimnon in the Amari Valley, on the road Rethimnon - Apostoli - Assomaton Monastery - Monastiraki - Amari. Amari is an old village and has engaging Byzantine churches. Walking along the narrow alleys of Amari one can see remains of old buildings with decorative portals.

This text is cited Dec 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.


  The village of Amnatos is 18km from Rethimnon, on a road right at 6km along the Rethimnon - Iraklion highway. In Amnatos there are Venetian remains.


  The village of Anatoli is 10km northwest of Ierapetra and it contains some remains of a Venetian fort as well, as of a Byzantine church.


  For church enthusiasts, the Byzantine church of Agios Antonios in the village of Aggeliana 24km east of Rethimnon, near Perama, will be of interest.

Ano Asites

  The village of Ano Asites is 27km southwest of Iraklion, on the Iraklion - Agios Miron - Kato Asites - Ano Asites road. Near Ano Asites there is an interesting Byzantine church.

Ano Meros

  The village of Ano Meros is 50km from Rethimnon, on the Rethimnon - Apostoli - Meronas - Ano Meros road. The remains of an old monastery and church are above the village. The village located on the slopes of the Amari Valley has a spectacular view of the valley. The village maintains traditional activities.

This text is cited Dec 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.

Ano Moulia

  The village of Ano Moulia is 32km south of Iraklion on the Iraklion - Agia Varvara - Ano Moulia - Agii Deka road and has the Byzantine church of Agii Apostoli.

Ano Viannos

  From Pirgos to Ano Viannos it is 35km. The scenery is pleasant, but the drive is long and tiresome. Ano Viannos is 65km southeast of Iraklion on the road Iraklion - Arkalohori - Ano Viannos. In the wider area of Viannos there are Byzantine churches, Minoan remainders and clean beaches. The famous early twentieth century journalist, Yannis Kondilakis, came from this village . During World War II, the Germans killed 400 women and children and razed the villages of the area.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.


  Anogia is a village high in the Psiloritis Mountains. It is 54km east of Rethimnon on the Rethimnon - Panormon - Perama - Anogia road. Anogia is 36km from Iraklion on the road Iraklion - Tilisos - Sklavokambos - Anogia. Because of the village's isolation, local customs, dress, and dialects have been preserved. Recently Anogia has become a popular stop for tourists. It is one of the major handicraft and cottage industry centres on Crete. Many workshops are open to the public and it is possible to see cloth being woven on large looms. There are many tavernas, cafes, restaurants and also limited accommodation. Anogia took part in all of Crete's struggles for liberation, the men of the area are reputed to be fierce fighters. During World War II it was a major centre for the resistance movement and it paid dearly for its involvement. In 1944, resistance fighters kept the kidnapped German General Von Kreipe prisoner here before smuggling him into Africa. In retaliation, German forces razed every building except the church and killed all the men they could find.

This text is cited Dec 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.


  From Hora Sfakion an impressive ascent of 12km climbs to the plateau of Anopolis, which is 600 metres above sea level. There is a bus from Hora Sfakion late in the afternoon, returning in the morning. The village of Anopolis had many inhabitants at one time but now the population is only about 800. Their main occupation is agriculture and goats and sheep are raised on the plateau and the nearby mountains.
Anopolis is a very old place evident from traces of remains from the ancient Greek eras that have been found. There are remains of cyclopean walls near Agia Ekaterini Church. Anopolis had many inhabitants and its harbour was located in what is now Loutro. It flourished mainly in the Roman and the Venetian Periods.
Anopolis was a revolutionary centre against the Venetians and was destroyed in 1365. Anopolis, and the province of Sfakia in general, was the centre of revolutions against the Turks in Crete and was never inhabited by the Turks, making it the only free place in Crete during the Turkish occupation. Anopolis is known today for the hiking paths to the Lefka Ori and the aerial views of the south coast of Crete from Agia Ekaterini and the site of ancient Anopolis.

This extract is cited Nov 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains imageσ.


ANOPOLIS (Ancient city) SFAKIA
Anopoli is a very old place evident from traces of remains from the ancient Greek eras that have been found. There are remains of cyclopean walls near Agia Aikaterini Church. Anopoli had many inhabitants and its harbour was located in what is now Loutro. It flourished mainly in the Roman and the Venetian Periods.


  The village of Anidri is 5km east of Paleohora. The road from Paleohora to Anidri gives exceptional views of the sea, valleys and small gorges, and it makes a pleasant excursion. The village also has some interesting Byzantine churches.

This extract is cited Oct 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.


This village is located at a height of 320 m above sea-evel, a short distance of Sokaras, to the north of Asimi. It is mentioned in the 1583 Register with 280 inhabitants. Residents of Apoini found an important collection of ancient coins in the ruins of Velouli in 1957, but nobody knows what has become of it.


  The village of Apodoulou on the south side of Psiloritis is equidistant (56km) from Rethimnon and Iraklion. The village of Apodoulou is high up in the Psiloritis Mountains and has an excellent view of the Amari Valley and a good climate. The area of Apodoulou contains Minoan remains and Byzantine churches.

This text is cited Dec 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.


  There are many Byzantine churches in the village of Apostoli.

APTERA (Ancient city) SOUDA
  Aptera has Greek, Roman and Byzantine remains, as well as a Turkish fort. On the top you will see a track to the right towards the Byzantine and Roman remains. Looking south across the valley of Stylos, you will enjoy the view of the Lefka Ori. The view is quite breathtaking from here in the spring when the White Mountains are covered with snow.
  Aptera was a powerful city of Crete. Legend says that Aptera (meaning wingless) acquired its name after the defeat of the Sirens in a music contest. The Muses clipped the wings of the Sirens and when the Sirens tried to fly, they fell into the water and formed the small islands in Souda Bay.
  Aptera has been in existence since Minoan times, and its name appears in the tablets of Knossos. It became a very important city-state of Crete during Greek times and was involved in the Cretan wars. It had two harbours. The first one, Minoa, was at the north entrance to Souda Bay, where Marathi beach is today. The second was on the other side of the bay where Kalami or Kalives is located. These harbours dominated the entrance to the protected bay of Souda. Aptera continued to be an important city during the Roman and first Byzantine periods but it was destroyed by the Arabs in 823 A.D. The Venetians built a fort there which was destroyed by the pirate Barbarosa.
  The city prospered until its destruction by the Arabs and later it was abandoned. It was reoccupied by the Byzantines and, in several places, impressive city walls are still visible, which were 4km long at one time. In the middle of the site there is a small temple dating from classical times, (second century B.C.). It is assumed that the temple was dedicated to a pair of gods, possibly Dimitra and Kori.


  Aradena is 19km from Hora Sfakion on the Hora Sfakion - Anopolis - Agios Ioannis road. After Anopolis the road becomes a dirt road, but it is easily accessible. You will cross the gorge of Aradena over a wooden-planked bridge. In the area, there is the abandoned village of Aradena, the Byzantine church of Michael Archangelos, and the Aradena Gorge.
The abandoned village of Aradena is on the other side of the bridge. Aradena is the site of the ancient Greek city, Aradin. It flourished during Roman, Byzantine and Venetian times. Its inhabitants were once concerned with shipping, and Aradin followed the fate of Anopolis and was destroyed in 1770 and in 1867 by the Turks. The village has been abandoned; however, it is interesting to walk along the narrow paths among the houses of the old village to see traditional village architecture.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.

ARADIN (Ancient city) SFAKIA


  Argiroupolis, 27km from Rethimnon on the exit at 21km of the old road from Rethimnon to Chania, is located on a hill with an enjoyable view of the valley below. Its past is evident everywhere in the buildings of the town. The village has natural springs and lush vegetation which makes for a very pleasant stroll through its streets.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.

In the place that in the present days stands Argiroupolis was the ancient city of Lapa. As myths say, king Agamemnon, the hero of the Trojan war, created Lapa. Lapa was one of the most important cities of western Crete during Roman times. It controlled the area around it from the north to the south coast. It had two harbours, one on the north coast of Crete and another on the south. It is said that its harbour was Finix on the south coast of Crete in present-day Loutro. In the Greek wars they were allies of Knossos but when Knossos destroyed Lyttos the people of Lapa accepted the Lyttoans in their city. Lapa was also important during Byzantine times till it was destroyed by the Arabs in 828 A.D.


  Today' s Argyroupolis is built on the ruins of the ancient city Lappa, for the creation of which there are many versions the most dominant of which is the one that supports that Lappa was founded by Lappas of Tarra (Tarra was a city at the south coasts of western Crete, at the position of Agia Roumeli), and later took part at the campaign of Greeks against Troy.
  In 1050 B.C. it was conquered by the Doreans and then developed into a separate country, which included the areas of Rethymno and Sfakia and part of the areas of Agios Vasileios and Apokoronas, and had two harbors: Hydramia at the northern and Phoinikas at the southern coasts of Crete. In 333 B.C. it took part at the campaign of Alexander the Great against Persians.
  During the war between Knossos and Lyttos (221-220 B.C.), that resulted in the destruction of the latter, Lappa allied at first with Knossos and then with Littos and after the destruction accepted the refugees Lytteans.
  Lappa remained independent until 67 B.C., when it was conquered by the Roman General Cointus Caecilius Metelus, known as the Cretan, after two years of siege. Later, in 31 BC, during the conflict between Marcus Antonius with Octabianus, Lappa allied with Octabianus, who, after becoming an emperor, rebuilt the city, which went through a new era of glory and he gave Lappa special privileges, like the right to have its own currency. During this period many buildings and an aqueduct with 600 cubic meters capacity were made. Today the remains of these buildings still exist.
  During the post-christian period, Christianity was spread and the persecutions started. While Gaius Messius Cuintus Traianus Decius was an emperor at Rome, in 250 A.D., the five virgins from Lappa, Maria, Martha, Thecla, Mariamni and Enatha, were executed.
  In 350 AD a diocese, that belonged to the Church of Rome, was founded in Lappa by the Apostle Titus, while in 600 AD the Church of Crete was subdued to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Bishops of Lappa took part in many Ecumenical Synods.
  Lappa remained a city until the end of the first Byzantine period, in 823 A.D., when the Sarakins conquered Crete and totally destroyed it.
  In 980 A.D. the diocese was refounded at the village Episkopi (=diocese), the capital of today's Municipality of Lappeans.
  In 961 A.D., after the recovery of Crete by Nikiforos Fokas, Lappa was given as a feud to the Hortatsis family until 1182, when it was, most likely, given to the Byzantine family of Argyrostefanitis or Argyropoulos.
  In 1211 Lappa entered the period of Venetocracy with the rest of Crete and was inhabited by feudal lords, whose characteristics were the emblems and coats of arms at the top of the gates. During this period the dominant name is Polis instead of Lappa. At that period mineral deposits of silver were discovered at the area, to which the name Argyroupolis might be attributed. Others attribute the name Argyroupolis to the name of the Argyropoulos family.
  In 1299 the Venetians gave the city to Alexios Callergis, with the homonymous peace treaty.
  The most important events from the modern history of Crete, that took place at the area of Argyroupolis are the following:
- In 1867 the General assembly of the Cretans was transformed here.
- During September 1867, the leaders of the Cretan Revolution met here and decided the continuation of the Revolution.
- At the 3rd of February 1878 the union of Crete with the rest of Greece was voted in Argyroupolis.

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