ASTREA (Ancient country) MACEDONIA
Astraeum (Liv. xl. 24; Astraia, Steph. B. s.v.; Alstraion, Ptol. iii. 13. § 27), a town of Paeonia in Macedonia, which Leake identifies with Strunmitza. Aelian (H. An. xv. 1) speaks of a river Astraeus, flowing between Thessalonica and Berrhoea, which Leake supposes to be the same as the Vistritza. Tafel, however, conjectures that Astraeus in Aelian is a false reading for Axius. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 293, 466, seq.; Tafel, Thessalonica, p. 312, seq.)
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
PELAGONIA (Ancient area) MACEDONIA
Pelagonia (Pelagonia, Strab. vii. pp. 326, 327; Pelagonia, Steph. B.), a district of Macedonia, bordering on Illyricum, occupied by the Pelagones (Pelagones, Strab. vii. pp. 327, 331, Fr. 38-40, 434; Ptol. iii. 13. § 34; Plin. iv.17). Although Livy employs the name of Pelagonia, corresponding with the fertile plains of Bitolia, in his narrative of the campaigns of Sulpicius, as that of a large district containing Stymbara, it is evident, from his account of the division of Macedonia after the Roman conquest, that Pelagonia became the appellation of the chief town of the Pelagones, and the capital of the Fourth Macedonia, which included all the primitive or Upper Macedonia E. of the range of Pindus and Scardus. (Liv. xlv 29.) It was perhaps not specifically employed as the name of a town until the other two cities of Pelagonia were ruined; for that Pelagonia, or a portion of it, once contained three, may be inferred from the adjunct Tripolitis, given to it by Strabo (vii. p. 327). The town, which, from the circumstance of its having been the capital of the Fourth Macedonia, must have been of some importance, existed till a late period, as it is noticed in the Synecdemus of Hierocles, and by the Byzantine historian, Malchus of Philadelphia, who speaks of the strength of its citadel (ap. Const. Porph. Excerpt. de Legat. p. 81). From its advantageous position it was occupied by Manuel Comnenus, in the war with Geisa II. and the Hungarians. (Nicet. p. 67; Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. xvi. p. 141.) The name of Pelagonia still exists as the designation of the Greek metropolitan bishopric of Bitolia or Monasteri, now the chief place of the surrounding country, and the ordinary residence of the governor of Rumili. At or near the town are many vestiges of ancient buildings of Roman times. The district was exposed to invasions from the Dardani, who bordered on the N., for which reasons the communication (fauces Pelagoniae, Liv. xxxi. 34) were carefully guarded by the kings of Macedonia, being of great importance, as one of the direct entrances from Illyricum into Macedonia by the course of the river Drilon. Between the NE. extremity, Mt. Ljubatrin, and the Klisura of Devol, there are in the mighty and continuous chain of Scardus (above 7000 feet high) only two passes fit for an army to cross, one near the N. extremity of the chain from Kalkandele to Prisrendi or Persserin, a very high col, not less than 5000 feet above the sea-level; the other considerably to the S, and lower as well as easier, nearly in the latitude of Akridha. Leake (Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 318-322) is of opinion that the passes of Pelagonia, in which Perseus was stationed by his father Philip, were this latter depression in the chain over which the modern road from Scodra or Scutari runs, and the Via Egnatia travelled formerly. The Illyrian Autariatae and Dardani, to the N. of Pelagonia, no doubt threatened Macedonia from the former pass, to the NE. of the mountain-chain of Scardus. (Comp. Grote, Greece, c. xxv. and the references there to Pouqueville, Boue, Grisebach, and Miller.) Stymbara or Stubara, was situated apparently on the Erigon, as also were most of the Pelagonian towns. Polybius (v. 108) speaks of a Pelagonian town named Pissaeum (Pissaion). Ptolemy (l. c.) assigns to the Pelagones the two towns of Andraristus or Euristus (Peut. Tab., the orthography is not quite certain), and Stobi.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
STYVERA (Ancient city) MACEDONIA
Stumbara, Stuberrha, Stubera. A town on the frontier of regal Macedonia, which is by some assigned to Deuriopus, and by others to Pelagonia, which in the campaign of B.C. 400 was the third encampment of the consul Sulpicius; it must be looked for in the basin of the Erigon.
MACEDONIA (Ancient area) GREECE
A country in Europe, north of Greece, said to have been originally named Emathia. Its boundaries before the time of Philip, the father of Alexander, were, on the south, Olympus and the Cambunian Mountains, which separated it from Thessaly and Epirus; on the east, the river Strymon, which separated it from Thrace; and on the north and west, Illyria and Paeonia. Macedonia was greatly enlarged by the conquests of Philip. He added to his kingdom Paeonia on the north; a part of Thrace on the east as far as the river Nestus, which Thracian district was usually called Macedonia Adiecta; the peninsula Chalcidice on the south; and on the west a part of Illyria as far as Lake Lychnitis. On the conquest of the country by the Romans, B.C. 168, Macedonia was divided into four districts, independent of one another; but the whole country was formed into a Roman province after the conquest of the Achaeans in 146.
Macedonia may be described as a large plain, surrounded on three sides by lofty mountains. Through this plain, however, run many smaller ranges of mountains, between which are wide and fertile valleys, extending from the coast far into the interior. The chief mountains were Scordus, or Scardus, on the northwest frontier, towards Illyria and Dardania; further east Orbelus and Scomius, which separated it from Moesia; and Rhodope, which extended from Scomius in a southeasterly direction, forming the boundary between Macedonia and Thrace. On the southern frontier were the Cambunii Montes and Olympus. The chief rivers were in the direction of east to west-- the Nestus, the Strymon, the Axius, the largest of all, the Ludias or Lydias, and the Haliacmon. The chief cities were Aegae and Pella, the capitals, and Pydna, Potidaea, Olynthus, Amphipolis, and Philippi. The great bulk of the inhabitants of Macedonia consisted of Thracian and Illyrian tribes. At an early period some Greek tribes settled in the southern part of the country. They are said to have come from Argos, and to have been led by the three sons of Temenus, the Heraclid. Perdiccas, the youngest of the three, was looked upon as the founder of the Macedonian monarchy. A later tradition, however, regarded Caranus, who was also a Heraclid from Argos, as the founder of the monarchy. These Greek settlers intermarried with the original inhabitants of the country. The dialect which they spoke was akin to the Doric, but it contained many barbarous words and forms; and the Macedonians accordingly were never regarded by the other after the Roman Conquest. Greeks as genuine Hellenes. Moreover, it was only in the south of Macedonia that the Greek language was spoken.
Very little is known of the history of Macedonia till the reign of Amyntas I., who was a contemporary of Darius Hystaspis; but from that time their history is more or less intimately connected with that of Greece, till at length Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, became the virtual master of the whole of Greece. The conquests of Alexander extended the Macedonian supremacy over a great part of Asia; and the Macedonian kings continued to exercise their sovereignty over Greece till the conquest of Perseus by the Romans, in B.C. 168, brought the Macedonian monarchy to a close.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
MACEDONIA (Ancient area) GREECE
Region of northern Greece (also called Macedonia) between Thessalia south, Thracia north and east, Epirus and Illyria west.
The kingdom of Macedon that existed in historical times traced its origins to the city of Argos, the native city of its first king, Perdiccas I, who reigned there in the VIIth century B. C. and founded a dynasty that reached its peak with Alexander the Great in the later part of the IVth century B. C. Perdiccas was supposed to descend from Heracles through Temenus, the legendary conqueror of Peloponnese and king of Argos. Macedon was made up of the gathering of several tribes under the leadership of a single king who kept his authority with the help of his army, and its borders didn't change much during the two centuries until the times of Philip and Alexander the Great.
One of Perdiccas' successors, Amyntas I established good relations with the Athens of Pisistratus, but, under his reign, Macedon was subjected to Persia. Amyntas' son, Alexander I, fought in the army of Xerxes with a Macedonian contingent during the Persian wars. Yet, he managed to secretly help the Greeks against the Persians, earning the surname “Philhellen”, that is, “friend of the Greeks”. As a result, he obtained for Macedon the freedom from Persian dominion after the victory of the Greeks.
Around 450, Alexander was succeeded by his son Perdiccas II. During his reign, Macedon switched sides several times between Athens and Sparta. The Athenians sent their troops first against Macedon, but soon accepted a truce with Perdiccas to concentrate on rebellious Potidaea. According to Thucydides (Histories, I, 56-66) these events played a key role in leading to the Peloponnesian War a couple of years later. In 424, Perdiccas, hoping for help against his own Thracian ennemies, sided with the Spartans when they sent in Thracia, under the orders of Brasidas, the expedition which led to the take over of Amphipolis. This put him in open war with Athens. Yet, soon disappointed by the insufficient help he received from Brasidas in his own enterprises, the following year, he again switched alliances and renewed with Athens. But, when, after the battle of Mantinea in 418, Argos signed a peace treaty with Sparta, Perdiccas, who traced his origins to Argos, was on their side, though, by 414, he seemed to be again fighting on the side of the Athenians. When he died the following year, he was succeeded by his son Archelaus.
With Archelaus, who remained more faithful to the alliance with Athens, the court of Pella became a brilliant place which attracted many talented artists. Yet, his death around 400 was followed by forty years of troubles and power struggles until Philip reached the throne in 359, leading to the eventual dominion of Macedon over the rest of Greece and a huge empire conquered by his son Alexander the Great, and the beginning of what is known as the “Hellenistic” period.
Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.
Total results on 23/4/2001: 1000 for Macedonia, 41 for Makedonia.
STYVERA (Ancient city) MACEDONIA
A large city in the middle of the Pelagonian plain showing Greek form and influence (triangular plan, ca. 550 x 220 m). It lay on the river Erigon (now the Vardar) and the road from Stobi to Herakleia Lynkou, near the present-day village of Cepigovo. Its origins go back to the late archaic period, and it was continually inhabited from then until late antiquity. Still visible are the city walls and the excavated gymnasium.
Strabo mentions the city, as does Livy, who tells us that in 200 B.C. the Roman army fighting Philip V turned to the N from Lynkos (Herakleia) and came to Stubera, where it could get wheat. Further on he mentions the city as the Macedonian base during Perseus' struggle with the Illyrians in 169. Stymbara is also mentioned in the work by the Ravenna Geographer (4.9.2). From the many inscriptions it is to be concluded that it belonged to the circumscription of Deuriopos, that it was included in the tribus Scaptia, and that the conventus civium Romanorum was to be found in it. The lists of city epheboi for the years 190, 203, 206, and 223 survive, enabling us to calculate that in the 2d c. the city had some 20,000 free inhabitants. A few marble statues are of artistic worth. The base is extant for the statue of Septimius Silvanus Nichomachus, member of a family which produced a few Macedonarchs and a consul. The city may have been destroyed in an earthquake.
J. Sasel, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
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