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Listed 100 (total found 415) sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "ATTIKI Region GREECE" .

Information about the place (415)


It streches from N-NW 5,5 miles to the S-SE, with biggest width in the middle of the island 1,8 miles. The earth is barren and rocky and the highest peak is Plagara, 378m, in the middle of the W coasts.

The plain of Attica is enclosed by mountains on every side except the south, where it is open to the sea, the Gulf of Paleron. This plain is bounded on the NW. by Mt. Parnes, on the NE. by Mt. Pentelicus, on the SE. by Mt. Hymettus, and on the W. by Mt. Aegaleos and Mt. Poecilus.

KIRIADES (Ancient demos) ATHENS


Deme of the Hippothoontis or the Oeneis tribe.



It is positioned within the city of Athens, and more accurately to the N & NE slope of the Acropolis.

Beazley Archive Dictionary

ATHENS (Ancient city) GREECE



FLYA (Ancient demos) CHALANDRI


The ancient deme of Phlya extended to the modern municipalities of Chalandri, Agia Paraskevi, Glyka Nera and Paiania.



   Agistri's climate is the typical climate of Greece and especially of areas which they combine sea and mountain with extended pine forest.
   More specifically, during the summer there is ample sunshine with temperatures that rarely exceed 35° C (95° F) on very hot days and on normal levels of humidity.
  The winter, most times, is quite cold with rain and snow at times. The winds are quite strong but the temperature does not drop at very low levels due to the fact that Agistri is an island and there is water all around.

Commercial WebPages


ATTICA, EAST (Prefectural seat) ATTIKI

ATTICA, WEST (Prefectural seat) GREECE


Vouliagmenis - Cannibal Island




Commercial WebSites - Notable



Community of Agistri


PSYRI (City quarter) ATHENS

Psirri Online

The creation of PSIRRI ONLINE is an initiative by the people who work or maintain a business in the PSIRRI area, one of Athens' most historic and beautiful neighbourhoods. An initiative which aims to promote the cultural, artistic and commercial value of an area which is being rapidly being transformed into one of the most attractive locations of the Greek capital, mainly through the efforts of the people who live and work in this landmark neighbourhood.

Commercial WebSites


ATTICA, WEST (Prefectural seat) GREECE

CHOLARGOS (Suburb of Athens) ATTIKI


KIFISSIA (Municipality) ATTIKI


METHANA (Municipality) GREECE


NEA SMYRNI (Municipality) ATTIKI


PIRAEUS (Prefectural seat) ATTIKI



TRIZINA (Municipality) GREECE

Educational institutions WebPages

ATHENS (Ancient city) GREECE

The Ancient City of Athens

All of the images presented here are from the personal slide collection of Kevin T. Glowacki and Nancy L. Klein of the Department of Classical Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington

Elements from Princeton Encyclopedia


Zea, the small round harbor (of Piraeus) between Akte and Mounychia. . .
According to Demosthenes the shiphouses (neosoikoi) were among the glories of Athens. Fourth c. inscriptions (IG, II2, 1627-1631) tell us that there were 94 ship-sheds in Kantharos, 196 in Zea, and 82 in Mounychia. Thus Zea was the main base of the war fleet. Remains have been found at various points, especially in Zea. An inscription of the second half of the 4th c. B.C. (IG II2 1668) found N of Zea, gives detailed specifications for the construction of a great skeuotheke or arsenal for the storage of equipment, a long rectangular structure divided into three lengthwise by colonnades. Philon is named as the architect.


AGRYLI (Ancient demos) ATHENS


At first it belonged to the Erechteid tribe. From 306 BC it belonged to the Antigonis tribe and since 200 BC to the Attalis tribe. It was located at Ardettus and up to Hymettus.


The ancient deme was located between modern Markopoulo and Porto-Rafti, at the place called "Angelisi", where the church of the Holy Trinity (Agia Triada) is.

The village is on the SW coast of the inlet of the bay.

CHOLARGOS (Ancient demos) ATTIKI

It was probably located to the west of Cephisus, near the region of Kamatero and Liosia of today. The name of the ancient deme was given to the Cholargos of today by mistake (Papyrus-Larousse-Britannika encyclopedia).

DEKELIA (Ancient demos) ACHARNES


The ancient deme is identified by scholars as being within the grounds of the once royal estate and the surrounding area.



The ancient deme was probably located to the west of Acharnae. According to others, it was located between Kalogreza and Psychiko.



The ancient deme is located beyond Cephisus river, to the northwest of Athens.



The ancient deme was located near Marathon. It belonged to Erecthiis tribe.

GEFYREI (Ancient demos) ATTIKI


The ancient deme was located near Iera Odos at the point where it crossed Cephisus river. There, there was a bridge, from which the Athenians crossed after their return from celebrating the Eleusinian Mysteries at Eleusis.

KILI (Ancient demos) ATHENS


The ancient deme was located between Pnyka and the hill of the Muses (Philopappou hill).

KOLLYTOS (Ancient demos) ATHENS


The ancient deme was probably located to the south of Agora.



Gaidouronissi is believed by some researchers to be the seat of the ancient deme of Coprus.

KROPES (Ancient demos) KROPIA


Modern town of Coropi is the location of the ancient deme.


Small deme of Attica, its position in Mesogeia. In ancient times along with the deme Filaidae it probably consisted the city of Vravron.

LAKIA (Ancient demos) ATHENS


Its ancient location northwest to Cerameikos beside the Sacred Road leading to Eleusis. According to Pausanias its name derives from the heroe Lacius, according to Stephanos Byzantios from the name of the location Lakia.


It was one of the biggest demes of Attica, geographically divided in two areas (Lamptrae cathypermen in the inner land "mesogeia" and hypenerthen, the coastal part). The former it was situated near to the modern desolate village Lambrika, south of Coropi along the stream of "Lycouriza's river", where ancient tombs and inscriptions were found.

LEFKONOI (Ancient demos) PIRAEUS


In ancient times it was probably situated between Faliro and Hymettos mountain.

LOUSSIA (Ancient demos) ATHENS


Its ancient location within modern Athens, belonging to the tribe Iniis, located in the beginning of the Holy Road.

MELITI (Ancient demos) ATHENS


It belonged to the city of Athens and its position was between the Acropolis and the hill of the Muses (today's Philopappou hill).


Modern Merenda, is the place where the ancient deme of Myrrhinous was once positioned, a place rich in archaelogical findings.

OIE (Ancient demos) ATHENS

Oie (Oa & Oe)

Its position was above the shrine of Pythios Apollon, west to Aegaleo mountain, north to Poikilo mountain and east to the city of Athens. According to ancient inscriptions the inhabitants belonged at first to Pandiodis and later to Andrianis tribe.

OTRYNI (Ancient demos) ELEFSINA


Ancient coastal deme of Attica opposite to Salamina island.



Probably on mountain Parnitha (Pamphi area).


In this place, the Keratea Cave and the monasteries of St. John and St. Skepi are located.


Pergassai, Pergasse

Aristophanes (Hippeis 321) gives us the information that Pergasse was on the road from the city of Athens to Aphidna. This combined with some inscriptions led the researchers to locate Pergasse to the West or North of Cephissia.

PILIKES (Ancient demos) EGALEO


Belonging to the tribe of Leontis, it was probably situated to the north of Athens, on the west side of Aegaleo and more spesifically in the area between Aegaleo and Parnitha mountain. It consisted "tricomia" along with the demes of Cropiae and Euporides.


Paysanias calls it Potamous. In all probability its location is identified with the area around Daskalio bay 8,5 miles north to the coast of Lavrio.


The name Potamos is applied to three demes on the southeast side of Attica, between Thorikos to the North and Prassiae to the South: 1) Potamos Hypenerthen 2) Potamos Kathyperthen 3) Potamos Deiradiotou or Deirades


The name Potamos is applied to three demes on the southeast side of Attica, between Thorikos to the North and Prassiae to the South: 1) Potamos Hypenerthen 2) Potamos Kathyperthen 3) Potamos Deiradiotou or Deirades.



Ancient deme of Attica in the region Epakria or Diakria, identified with the modern villages Varnava and Kalentzi.



It was located in the north-west side of the walls of Athens, inside the ancient city.



It was located near to ancient Aphidnes, in Diakria region.

TRINEMIA (Ancient demos) ANIXI


The ancient deme was located to the W of modern Dionysos, on the slopes of the Mt. Parnes.

VOUTADE (Ancient demos) ATHENS


The ancient deme was located between Dipylon and Cephisus.

XYPETI (Ancient demos) MOSCHATO


The settlements of the deme should have been covering parts of the modern Kallithea, Peireaus & Moschato. Along with the demes of Peireaus, Phaliron & Thymenidae formed a religious union known as "tetrakomon" with the common worship of Hercules.


ATTICA (Ancient area) GREECE


   A division of Greece, in the form of a triangle, two sides of which are washed by the Aegean Sea, while the third is separated from Boeotia on the north by the mountains Cithaeron and Parnes. Megaris, which bounds it on the northwest, was formerly a part of Attica. In ancient times it was called Acte and Actice, or the "coast-land" (akte), from which the later form, Attica, is said to have been derived. According to tradition, it derived its name from Atthis, the daughter of the mythical king Cranaus; and old-fashioned etymologists found in it the root which appears in that of the goddess Athene. Attica is divided by many ancient writers into three districts. (1) The Highlands, the northeast of the country. (2) The Plain, the northwest of the country, including both the plain round Athens and the plain round Eleusis, and extending south to the promontory Zoster. (3) The Seacoast District, the south part of the country, terminating in the promontory Sunium. Besides these three divisions, we also read of (4) the Midland District, still called Mesogia, an undulating plain in the middle of the country. The soil of Attica is not very fertile. The greater part of it is not adapted for growing corn; but it produces olives, figs, and grapes, especially the two former, in great perfection. The country is dry; the chief river is the Cephissus, rising in Parnes and flowing through the Athenian plain. The abundance of wild flowers in the country made the honey of Mount Hymettus very celebrated in antiquity. Excellent marble was obtained from the quarries of Pentelicus, northeast of Athens, and a considerable supply of silver from the mines of Laurium near Sunium. The territory of Attica, including the island of Salamis, which belonged to it, contained between 700 and 800 square miles; and the population in its flourishing period was probably about 500,000, of which nearly four fifths were slaves.
    Attica is said to have been originally inhabited by Pelasgians. Its most ancient political division was into twelve independent States, attributed to Cecrops, who, according to some legends, came from Egypt. Subsequently Ion, the grandson of Hellen, divided the people into four tribes, Geleoutes, Hopletes, Argades, and Aegicores; and Theseus, who united the twelve independent States of Attica into one political body and made Athens the capital, again divided the nation into three classes, the Eupatridae, Geomori, and Demiurgi. Clisthenes (B.C. 510) abolished the old tribes and created ten new ones, according to a geographical division; these tribes were subdivided into demes or townships.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Attica, one of the political divisions of Greece.
I. Name.
  The name of Attica is probably derived from Acte (Akte), as being a projecting peninsula, in the same manner as the peninsula of Mt. Athos was also called Acte. Attica would thus be a corruption of Actica (Aktike), which would be regularly formed from Acte. It is stated by several ancient writers that the country was originally called Acte. (Strab. ix. p. 391; Steph. B. s. v. Akte; Plin. iv, 7. s. 11.) Its name, however, was usually derived by the ancient writers from the autochthon Actaeus or Actaeon, or from Atthis, daughter of Cranaus, who is represented as the second king of Athens. (Paus. i. 2. § 6; Strab. ix. p. 397; Apollod. iii. 14. § 5.) Some modern scholars think that Attica has nothing to do with the word Acte, but contains the root Att or Ath, which we see in Ath-enae.
II. Natural Divisions.
  Attica is in the form of a triangle, having two of its sides washed by the sea, and its base united to the land. It was bounded on the east by the Aegaean sea, on the west by Megaris and the Saronic gulf, and on the north by Boeotia. It is separated from Boeotia by a range of lofty, and in most places inaccessible, mountains, which extend from the Corinthian gulf to the channel of Euboea. The most important part of this range, immediately south of Thebes and Plataeae, and near the Corinthian gulf, was called Cithaeron. From the latter there were two chief branches, one extending SW. through Megaris under the name of the Oenean mountains, and terminating at the Scironian rocks on the Saronic gulf; and the other, called Parnes, running in a general easterly direction, and terminating on the sea coast above the promontory Rhamnus. The modern name of Parnes is Nozia; that of Cithaeron, or at least of its highest point, is Elate, derived from its fir-trees. These two chains of mountains, together with the central one of Cithaeron, completely protect the peninsula of Attica from the rest of Greece. It thus appears that Megaris naturally forms a part of the peninsula: it was one of the four ancient divisions of Attica, but was afterwards separated from it.
  There are two passes across the mountains from Corinth into the Megaris, which are spoken of under MEGARA. Through the range of Cithaeron and Parnes there are three principal passes, all of which were of great importance in ancient times for the protection of Attica on the side of Boeotia. The most westerly of these passes was the one through which the road ran from Thebes and Plataeae to Eleusis; the central one was the pass of Phyle, through which was the direct road from Thebes to Athens; and the eastern one was the pass of Deceleia, leading from Athens to Oropus and Delium. A more particular account of these important passes is given at the places Oenoe, Phyle and Deceleia. The highest points of Mt. Parnes lie between the passes of Phyle and Deceleia.
  From this range of mountains there descend several other ranges into the interior, between which there lie four plains of greater or less extent.
  On the NW. boundary of Attica a range of mountains runs down to the south, terminating on the west side of the bay of Eleusis in two summits, formerly called Cerata (ta Kerata, Strab. ix. p. 395) or the Horns, now Kandili: this range forms the boundary between Attica and Megaris. Another mountain range, extending from Parnes to the south, terminates on the eastern side of the bay of Eleusis, and at the narrow strait which separates the island of Salamis from the mainland: it bore the general name of Aegaleos, and parts of it were also called Poecilum and Corydallus. Between the range of Cerata and that of Aegaleos lies the Eleusinian and Thriasian Plain.
  Eastward of this plain lies the Athenian Plain, frequently called simply The Plain (to Pedion). It is bounded on the west by Aegaleos, as has been already mentioned. Through this range of mountains there is an important pass leading from the Eleusinian into the Athenian plain. It is a narrow rocky opening between Mt. Corydallus, and is now called the pass of Dhafni: through it the Sacred Way from Eleusis to Athens formerly ran. Further north, towards Acharnae, are some openings in the heights, where are found ruins of a rampart, seven feet high, and five feet and a half thick, built along the crest of the hills: the summit of the wall forms a commanding platform towards the Eleusinian plain. (Leake, p. 143.) On the west the Athenian plain is bounded by a range of mountains, which also descends from Parnes. The northern part of this range appears to have been anciently called Brilessus (Thuc. ii. 23), and subsequently Pentelicus (to Pentelikon oros, Paus. i. 32. § 1; Mons Pentelensis, Vitruv. ii. 8), now Mendeli or Penteli. The first Greek writer who applies the name of Pentelicus to this mountain is Pausanias; but as Strabo (ix. p. 399) speaks of Pentelic marble, we may infer with Leake that the celebrity of the marble quarried in the demus of Pentele, upon the side of Mt. Brilessus, had caused the name of Pentelicus to supplant that of the ancient Brilessus. The plain of Athens is bounded on the south-east by the lofty range of Mt. Hymettus, which is separated from that of Pentelicus by a depression about two miles in length. Hymettus, the highest point of which is 3506 feet, is separated by a remarkable break into two parts, the northern or greater Hymettus, now called Telo-Vuni, and the southern or lesser Hymettus, which formerly bore also the name of Anhydrus (Anudros, Theophr. de Sign. Pluv. p. 419, Heins.) or the Waterless, now called Mavro-Vuni. The latter terminates in the promontory Zoster.
  The hill of Lycabettus, in the neighbourhood of Athens.
  Sometimes both the Eleusinian and Athenian plains are included under the general name of The Plain; and the coast of these two plains was more specifically called Acte. (Strab. ix. p. 391.)
  North east of the Athenian plain, between Parnes, Pentelicus, and the sea, is a mountain district, known by the name of Diacria (Diakria) in antiquity. Its inhabitants, usually called Diacreis or Diacrii (Diakreis, Diakrioi), were sometimes also termed Hyperacrii Huperakrioi, Herod. i. 59), apparently from their dwelling on the other side of the mountain from the city. The only level part of this district is the small plain of Marathon, open to the sea. At the north-eastern extremity of this district, west of Cape Kalamo, there rises an eminence 2038 feet in height, which is probably the ancient Phelleus (Phelleus), a name which came to be used by the Athenians for any rocky heights adapted for the pasture of goats. (Aristoph. Nab. 71, Acharn. 272; Isaeus, de Ciron. Hered. p. 227, Reiske; Harpocrat., Suid., s. v. Phellea; Hesych. s. v. Phellos.)
  South-east of the Athenian plain is an undulating district, anciently called Mesogaea (Mesogaia) or the Midland district, and now Mesoghia. It is bounded by Pentelicus on the north, Hymettus on the west, the sea on the east, and the hills of Paralia on the south.
  Paralia or Paralus (Paralia, Parakos), i. e. the Sea-coast district, included the whole of the south of Attica, extending from the promontory Zoster on the west, and from Brauron on the east, to Sunium. It was a hilly and barren district, but contained the rich silver-mines of Laurium. (Thuc. ii. 55; Steph. B., Suid. s. v.)
It appears, then, that Attica is distributed into five natural divisions. 1. The Eleusinian or Thriasian Plain. 2. The Athenian Plain. 3. The Diacria or Highlands, including the Plain of Marathon. 4. The Mesogaea or Midland District. 5. The Paralia or Sea-coast District. This geographical distribution gave rise also to political divisions, as we shall see presently.
  The small plain of Oropus, lying north of Parnes upon the Euboean channel, generally belonged to Attica, though physically separated from it, and properly a part of Boeotia. The area of Attica is about 700 square miles, not including the island of Salamis, which is about 40 more. The length of the west coast from Cerata or the Horns to Sunium is about 60 miles, and the length of the east coast is about the same.
III. Rivers.
  The rivers of Attica are little better than mountain torrents, almost dry in summer, and only full in winter, or after heavy rains. The Athenian plain is watered by two rivers, the Cephissus and the Ilissus. The Cephissus (Kephissos), which is the more important of the two, flows southwards from Mt. Parnes on the west side of Athens, and after crossing the Long Walls falls into the Phaleric bay. Strabo (x. p. 400) places its sources at Trinemii. Leake observes: The most distant sources of the river are on the western side of Mt. Pentelicus, and the southern side of Mt. Parnes, and in the intermediate ridge which unites them; but particularly at Kivisia, at the foot of Pentelicus,--near Fasidhero, in the part of Diacria adjoining to the same mountain,--at Tatoy, near the ancient Deceleia, and in the steepest part of Mt. Parnes, from whence descends a broad torrent, which, passing near the village Menidhi, pours a large occasional supply into the main channel of the Cephissus. Strabo says that the Cephissus is only a torrent stream, and that in summer it fails altogether; but this is not in accordance with the account of most modern travellers, who represent it as the only river in Attica which is supplied with water during the whole year. In ancient times it flowed in a single channel, and was probably carefully embanked: it is now allowed to find its way through the olive-groves in several streams, from which there are many smaller derivations, for the purpose of watering olive-trees and gardens.
  The Ilissus (Ilissos) is a more insignificant river. It was composed of two branches, one of which was named Eridanus (Eridanos, Paus. i. 19. § 5). The main branch rises at the northern extremity of Hymettus, and receives near the Lyceium, on the east side of Athens, the Eridanus, which rises on the western slope of Hymettus at a spot called Syriani. The united stream then flows through the southern portion of the city, towards the Phaleric bay; but it scarcely ever reaches the sea, and in the neighbourhood of Athens it is always dry in the summer. The spreading plane trees, and the shady banks of this stream, which have been immortalized by the beautiful description in the Phaedrus of Plato, have been succeeded by sun-burnt rocks and stunted bushes. (Dodwell, vol. i. p. 475.) The source of the river at Syriani is a beautiful spot, and is apparently described in the passage of Ovid (Ar. Am. iii. 687), beginning:
"Est prope purpureos colles florentis Hymetti / Fons sacer, et viridi cespite mollis humus."
  There was a torrent in the Athenian plain called Cycloborus (Kukloboros), described as rushing down with a great noise (Aristoph. Equit. 137, with Schol., Acharn. 381; Hesych., Suid.): it is probably the large and deep channel, called Megalo Potamo, which descends from Parnes, and flows some miles, until lost in the olive-groves. (Dodwell, vol. i. p. 477.)
  Two small streams water the Eleusinian plain; one called the Cephissus (Sarandaforo), rises in Mt. Cithaeron, and traverses the narrow plain of Eleutherae, before it descends into that of Eleusis (Paus. i. 28. § 5); the other, now named Ianula, has its origin in the range of Parnes, near Phyle. A small stream called lapis (Iapis) formed the boundary between the territory of Eleusis and Megaris. (Scylax, s. v. Megara; Callim. ap. Steph. B. s. v. Iapis.)
  The only other rivulets of Attica deserving notice are three on the eastern coast: one flowing through the plain of Marathon; a second rising on the south-eastern side of Pentelicus, and flowing into the sea a little, below Rafina; and a third, now called the river of Vraona, which descends from Hymettus, and flows into the bay of Livadhi: the last is probably the ancient Erasinus (Erasinos: Strab. viii. p. 371).
IV. Products.
  The mountains of Attica are chiefly calcareous. The best marble was obtained from Mt. Pentelicus, which supplied inexhaustible materials for the public buildings and statues of Athens. The Pentelic marble is of a dazzling white colour, hard, and fine-grained; but, owing to the little pieces of quartz or flint imbedded in it, not easy to work. Hymettus also produced fine marble: it is not so brilliantly white as the Pentelic, and in some places is almost grey. It was much used by the Romans in architecture. (Trabes Hymettiae, Hor. Carm. ii. 18. 3.) Blue or black marble, which was frequently used in the Athenian architecture, is found at Eleusis, and was also obtained from a quarry near the promontory of Amphiale. (Strab. ix. p. 395.) Marble was an article of export from Attica. (Xen. de Vect. 1 § 4.) Between Pentelicus and Parnes, the mass of rocks appears to have been mica slate, which is also the basis of Pentelicus. Near the Horns, on the boundaries of Megaris, there is a large deposit of conchiferous limestone, which Pausanias mentions (i. 44. § 6).
  The hilly district of Laurium, above the promontory of Sunium, contained valuable silver mines, which contributed to raise Athens at an early period to a foremost rank among the Grecian states. These mines require a separate notice. (see Laurium)
  The soil of Attica is light and dry, and produces at present little wheat. In antiquity, however, agriculture was held in great honour by the Athenians, who cultivated their land with extraordinary care. Some remarks are made elsewhere (Athenae) respecting the quantity of corn probably grown in Attica in ancient times.
  The soil is better adapted for the growth of fruits. The olives and figs were particularly delicious; they both ripened earlier and continued longer in-season than those in other countries. (Xen. de Vect. 1) The olive-tree was regarded as the gift of Athena, and its cultivation was always under the especial care and protection of the goddess. From the olive-tree which grew in the temple of the goddess on the Acropolis, there came the Moriae (moriai), or sacred olive-trees in the Academy; and from these again all the other olive-trees, which grew in the precincts of the temples and the grounds of private persons. Even in the present day there are extensive groves of olive-trees along the banks of the Cephissus. The fig-tree was under the protection of Demeter, as the olive was under the care of Athena. Like the sacred olive-tree on the Acropolis, there was a sacred fig-tree at Eleusis, which the goddess Demeter is said to have produced. Olives were exported from Attica, and so probably were figs also; for the law which is said to have prohibited the exportation of the latter became obsolete in historical times, if indeed it ever existed. (Bockh, Publ. Economy of Athens, p. 41, 2nd ed.)
  The wine of Attica was pleasant to the taste, though not of a superior kind. The most celebrated was grown at Icaria, where Dionysus is said to have been welcomed. One of the varieties of the Attic grape was called the Nicostratian (Nikostratios Botrus, Athen. xiv. p. 654.) The honey, however, was particularly fine, especially from the bees which sucked the wild flowers of Mt. Hymettus.
  Attica is not adapted for the breeding of horses to any extent; the country is too hilly, and the soil too poor to afford much nourishment for them. Hence they were very scarce in early times, and even at later times could be kept only by the wealthy. For the same reason horned cattle were also scarce, and Philochorus mentions an ancient law which prohibited the killing of these animals. (Athen. ix. p. 375.) The slopes of the mountains, however, afforded excellent pasture for sheep and goats, which were very numerous in ancient times. Goats in particular formed a large portion of the wealth of the ancient inhabitants; and, from this animal, one of the four ancient tribes was called Aegicoreis. Of sheep there were several different breeds, particularly of the finest kinds. (Dem. c. Euery. et Mnesib. p. 1153; Athen. xii. p. 540.) To encourage the breeding of sheep, there was an ancient law, which forbade the sacrifice of a sheep until it had lambed or had been shorn. (Athen. ix. p. 375.) The seas around the coast abounded in fish, which were a favourite article of diet among the Athenians. Leake enumerates several varieties caught in the Phaleric bay, of which the aphue, probably a sort of anchovy or sardine, is often mentioned. Off Cape Zoster was caught the red mullet (trigle).
  On the mountains wild animals were found. Even in the time of Pausanias the bear and the wild boar were hunted on Mt. Parnes. (Pans. i. 32. § 1.)
V. Political Divisions.
  The oldest political division of Attica is said to have been made by Cecrops, who divided the country into twelve independent communities, which were afterwards united into one state by Theseus. The names of these communities were: Cecropia, Tetrapolis, Epacria, Deceleia, Eleusis, Aphidna, Thoricus, Brauron, Cytherus, Sphettus, Cephisia, and Phalerus. (Philochor. ap. Strab. ix. p. 397; Etymol. M. s. v. Epakria; Plut. Thes. 24.) Their position has been ably discussed by Finlay, in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature (vol. iii. p. 396), but as we shall have occasion to speak of each presently, it is only necessary to state now that these names continued to exist down to the latest times of Athenian history; that Cecropia became the Acropolis of Athens; that Tetrapolis contained the four demi of Oenoe, Marathon, Tricory-thus, and Probalinthus (Strab. viii. p. 383); and that the remaining cities sunk into demi.
  Another ancient division of Attica into four parts, among the sons of Pandion, has a distinct reference to the physical divisions of the country. Nisus received Megaris; Aegeus the Coastland (akte), with the capital and the adjoining plain (pedias); and the two other brothers Diacria (diakria), or the Highlands in the NE. of the country, and Paralia (paralia), or the southern coast. (Strab. ix. p. 392; Schol. ad Aristoph. Vesp. 1223, and ad Vesp. 58.) That this division has a reference to some historical fact, is clear from the circumstance that, after Megaris had been torn away from Athens by the Dorians, the inhabitants of the remaining parts formed three political parties in the time of Solon and Peisistratus, known by the name of the Men of the Plain, the Parali, and the Diacrii or Hyperacrii. (Herod. i. 59; Plut. Sol. 13.)
  Another division of the people of Attica into four (phulai or tribes, existed from the earliest times. These tribes were called by different names at different periods. In the time of Cecrops they were called Cecropis, Autochthon, Actaea, and Paralia, the two former names being derived from mythical persons, and the two latter from the physical divisions of the country. In the reign of Cranaus, these names were changed into Cranais, Atthis, Mesogaea, and Diacris, where again the two former are mythical, and the two latter local denominations. Afterwards we find a new set of names, Dias, Athenais, Poseidonias, and Hephaestias, evidently derived from the deities who were worshipped in the country. But these names all disappeared before the four Ionic tribes of Geleontes, Hopletes, Argades, and Aegicores, which continued to exist down to the time of Cleisthenes (B.C. 510). One of the most important measures in the democratical revolution, brought about by Cleisthenes after the expulsion of the Peisistratidae, was the abolition of the four ancient Ionic tribes, and the formation of ten new tribes. The names of these ten tribes, derived from Attic heroes, were, in order of precedence, Erechtheis, Aegeis, Pandionis, Leontis, Acamantis, Oeneis, Cecropis, Hippothoontis, Aeantis, Antiochis. This number remained unaltered down to B.C. 307, when it was increased to twelve by the addition of two new tribes, Antigonias and Demetrias, in honour of Antigonus and his son Demetrius, because the latter had delivered Athens from the rule of Cassander. The name of Antigonias was subsequently changed into that of Ptolemais, in honour of Ptolemy Philadelphus; and the Demetrias into Attalis, when Attalus was the ally of Athens against Philip and the Rhodians. Finally, the number of tribes was increased to thirteen, in the reign of Hadrian, by the addition of Hadrianis, in honour of this emperor.
  Each tribe was subdivided into a certain number of demoi, townships, cantons, or parishes. The whole territory of Attica was parcelled out into these demi, in one or other of which every Athenian citizen was enrolled. The number of these demi is not ascertained: we only know that they were 174 in the time of Polemo, who lived in the third century B.C. (Strab. ix. p. 396; Eustath. in Il. ii. 546.) It has been supposed, from the words of Herodotus (deka de kai tous demous kateneme es tas phulas, v. 69), that there were originally one hundred demi, ten to each tribe; but it is improbable that the number of demi was increased so largely as from 100 to 174, and hence some modern critics construe deka with phulas, and not with demous, as the least difficulty in the case.
  It is important to bear in mind that the demi assigned by Cleisthenes to each tribe were in no case all adjacent to each other. The reason for this arrangement cannot be better stated than in the words of Mr. Grote (vol. iv. p. 177): The tribe, as a whole, did not correspond with any continuous portion of the territory, nor could it have any peculiar local interest, separate from the entire community. Such systematic avoidance of the factions arising out of neighbourhood will appear to have been more especially necessary, when we recollect that the quarrels of the Parali, the Diacrii, the Pediaci, during the preceding century, had all been generated from local feud, though doubtless artfully fomented by individual ambition. Moreover, it was only by this same precaution that the local predominance of the city, and the formation of a city-interest distinct from that of the country, was obviated; which could hardly have failed to arise, had the city itself constituted either one deme or one tribe. We know that five of the city demi belonged to five different tribes: [p. 325] namely, the demus Cerameicus belonged to the tribe Acamantis; Melite to the Cecropis; Collytus to the Aegeis; Cydathenaeum to the Pandionis; Scambonidae to the Leontis. Moreover, Peiraeeus belonged to the Hippothoontis, and Phalerum to the Aeantis.
  For further information respecting the Athenian tribes in general, and the organization of the demus, the reader is referred to the Diet. of Antiq. arts. Tribus and Demus.
  It is certain that the descendants of a man always remained in the demus in which their ancestor was originally enrolled in the time of Cleisthenes. Consequently, if a person transferred his abode to another demus, he was not enrolled in the new demus in which he settled, even if he was highly esteemed by the inhabitants of the latter, and had conferred great obligations upon them. This is clear from an inscription in Bockh's collection (n. 101). (Sauppe, De Demis Urbanis Athenarum, p. 13.) It is important to bear this fact in mind, because modern writers have sometimes fixed the site of a demus, simply in consequence of finding upon the spot the name of this demus attached to the name of a man; but this is not conclusive, since the demus in which a man was enrolled, and the demus in which he resided, might be, and frequently were, different.
  Each of the larger demi contained a town or village; but several of the smaller demi possessed apparently only a common temple or place of assembly, the houses of the community being scattered over the district, as in many of our country parishes. The names of most of the demi are preserved. It was the practice in all public documents to add to the name of a person the name of the district to which he belonged; and hence we find in inscriptions the names of a great number of demi. Many others are met with in Harpocration, Hesychius, Stephanus, and Suidas, as well as in the earlier writers. But though the names of most of the demi are thus preserved, it is impossible to fix the site of a large number of them, as they were not of sufficient importance to be mentioned in history. We shall endeavour, however, to ascertain their position as far as is practicable, arranging the demi under: 1. The Demi of the Athenian Plain. 2. The Demi of the Eleusinian Plain. 3. The Demi of Diacria and Mount Parnes. 4. The Demi of Paralia and Mesogaea.
The demi in the city of Athens and its suburbs:
1-10. Cerameicus, Melite, Scambonidae, Collytus, Cydathenaeum, Diomeia, Coele, and perhaps Ceiriadae. To these must be added Peiraeus and Phalerum.
(a.) West of the Cephissus in the direction from N. to S. were:
11. Xypete, 12. Thymoetadae, 13. Echelidae, 14. Corydallus, 15. Hermus, 16. Oea or Oe, 17. Oeum Cerameicum, 18. Scirum, 19. Laciadae, 20. Colonus
(c.) Farther north:
21. Acharnae, 22. Eupyridae, 23. Cropia, 24. Peleces, 25. Paeonidae, 26. Leipsydrium, 27. Cephisia, 28. Athmonum, 29. Iphistiadea, 30. Eiresidae, 31. Pentele, 32. Pallene, 33. Gargettus, 34. Agnus.
(d.) East of Athens:
35. Alopece, 36-37. Agryle (was the name of two demi, 38. Halimous, 39. Halae Aexonides.
  The celebrated Sacred Way (Hiera Hodos), leading from Athens to Eleusis, demands a few words. It was the road along which the solemn procession in the Eleusinian festival travelled every year from Athens to Eleusis. It was lined on either side with numerous monuments. (Dict. of Ant. s. v. Eleusinia.) This road, with its monuments, is described [p. 328] at some length by Pausanias (i. 36--38), and was the subject of a special work by Polemon, which is unfortunately lost. (Harpocrat. s. v. Hiera Hooos.)
  It has been mentioned elsewhere, that there were probably two roads leading from Athens, to each of which the name of the Sacred Way was given, one issuing from the gate called Dipylum, and the other from the Sacred Gate, and that these two roads united shortly after quitting Athens, and formed the one Sacred Way.
  Pausanias, in his journey along the Sacred Way, left Athens by Dipylum. The first monument, which was immediately outside this gate, was that of the herald Anthemocritus. Next came the tomb of Molossus, and then the place Scirum. After some monuments mentioned by Pausanias there was the demus Laciadae, and shortly afterwards the Cephissus was crossed by a bridge, which Pausanias has omitted to mention, but which is celebrated as the place at which the initiated assailed passengers with vulgar abuse and raillery, hence called gephurismoi. (Strab. ix. p. 400; Suid. s. v. Gephurizon; Hesych. s. v. Gephuristai.) After crossing the Cephissus, Pausanias describes several other monuments, of which he specifies two as the most remarkable for magnitude and ornament, one of a Rhodian who dwelt at Athens, and the other built by Harpalus in honour of his wife Pythionice. The latter, as we have already seen, was situated at the demus Hermus.
  The next most important object on the road was the temple of Apollo on Mount Poecilum, the site of which is now marked by a church of St. Elias. In one of the walls of this church there were formerly three fluted Ionic columns, which were removed by the Earl of Elgin in 1801: the capitals of these columns, a base, and a part of one of the shafts, are now in the British Museum. It was situated in the principal pass between the Eleusinian and Thriasian plains. This pass is now called Dhafni; at its summit is a convent of the same name. Beyond the temple of Apollo was a temple of Aphrodite, of which the foundations are found at a distance of less than a mile from Dhafni. That these foundations are those of the ancient temple of Aphrodite appears from the fact that doves of white marble have been discovered at the foot of the rocks, and that in the inscriptions still visible under the niches the words Phile Aphroditei may be read. This was the Philaeum or the temple of Phila Aphrodite, built by one of the flatterers of Demetrius Poliorcetes in honour of his wife Phila (Athen. vii. pp. 254, a. 255, c.); but Pausanias, whose pious feelings were shocked by such a profanation, calls it simply a temple of Aphrodite. Pausanias says that before the temple was a wall of rude stones worthy of observation, of which, according to Leake, the remains may still be seen; the stones have an appearance of remote antiquity, resembling the irregular masses of the walls of Tiryns.
  At the bottom of the pass close to the sea were the Rheiti (Peitoi), or salt-springs, which formed the boundaries of the Athenians and Eleusinians at the time of the twelve cities. The same copious springs are still to be observed at the foot of Mt. Aegaleos; but the water, instead of being permitted to take its natural course to the sea, is now collected into an artificial reservoir, formed by a stone wall towards the road. This work has been constructed for the purpose of turning two mills, below which the two streams cross the Sacred Way into the sea. (Leake.)
  Half a mile beyond the Rheiti, where the road to Eleutherae branches off to the right, was the Tomb of Strato, situated on the right-hand side of the road. There are still ruins of this monument with an inscription, from which we learn its object; but it is not mentioned by Pausanias. The Way then ran along the low ground on the shore of the bay, crossed the Eleusinian Cephissus, and shortly afterwards reached Eleusis. Leake found traces of the ancient causeway in several places in the Eleusinian plain, but more recent travellers relate that they have now disappeared.
40. Eleusis, 41. Thria, 42. Icaria, 43. Oenoe, 44. Eleutherae, not a demus. 45. Panactum, a fortress, also not a demus. 46. Melaenae, 47. Drymus, a fortress, not a demus.
48. Phyle, 49. Harma, a fortress, but not a demus, near Phyle. 50. Chastieis, 51. Deceleia, 52. Oeum Deceleicum, 53. Sphendale, 54. Oropus, 55. Psaphis, 56. Rhamnus.
58, 59, 60. Titacidae, Perrhidae and Hyrgonidae were probably all in the neighbourhood of Aphidna. These three demi, together with Aphidna, are said to have been removed from the Aeantis to another tribe. (Harpocr. s. v. Thurgonidai.) Perrhidae is described as a demus in Aphidna (Hesych. Phavor. demos en Aphidnais); and that Titacidae was in the same locality may be inferred from the story of the capture of Aphidna by the Dioscuri in consequence of the treachery of Titacus. (Herod. ix. 73; Steph. s. v. Titakidai.)
61. Tinemeia
62, 63, 64, 65. Marathon, Probalinthus, Tricorynthus and Oenoe, four demi situated in the small plain open to the sea between Mt. Parnes and Mt. Pentelicus, originally formed the Tetrapolis, one of the twelve ancient divisions of Attica. The whole district was generally known under the name of Marathon, under which it is described in this work.
66. Epacria, 67. Semachidae, 68. Plotheia
69, 70. Phegaea, the name of two demi of uncertain site.
71. Hecale, 72. Elaeus.
  Mount Hymettus, which bounded the Athenian plain on the south, terminated in the promontory of Zoster, opposite to which was a small island called Phaura). At Zoster, upon the sea, stood four altars, sacred respectively to Athena, Apollo, Artemis, and Leto; (Strab. ix. [p. 331] p. 398; Paus. i. 31. § 1; Steph. s. v. Zoster.) The hill of Zoster terminates in three capes; that in the middle is a low peninsula, which shelters in the west a deep inlet called Vuliasmeni. (Leake.) The island Phaura is now called Fleva or Flega.
73. Anagyrus, 74. Cholleidae,
75. Thorae (Thorai), a little south of Anagyrus. (Strab. ix. p. 398; Harpocr.; Steph.; Etym. M.)
76, 77. Lampptra, the name of two demi, Upper Lamptra and Lower or Maritime Lamptra
78. Aegilia, 79. Anaphlystus, 80. Azenia, 81. Sunium, 82. Thoricus
83, 84. Aulon and Maroneia, two small places of uncertain site, not demi, in the mining district of Mt. Laurium.
85. Besa, 86. Amphitrope,
87, 88. Potamos or Potamoi, the name of two demi
89. Prasiae, 90. Steiria.
91. Brauron, one of the twelve ancient cities, but never mentioned as a demus.
92. Halae Araphenides, 93. Araphen, 94. Prospalta, 95. Myrrhinus, 96. Phlya.
97, 98. Paeania, divided into Upper and Lower Paeania.
99. Philaidaei, 100. Cephale, 101. Sphettus, 102. Cytherrus.

(The best works on the demi are by Leake, The Demi of Attica, London, 1841, 2nd ed., and Ross, Die Demen von Attika, Halle, 1846; from both of which great assistance has been derived in drawing up the preceding account. The other most important works upon the topography of Attica are Grotefend, De Demis sive Pagis Atticae, Gott. 1829; Finlay, in Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, vol. iii. p. 396, seq., and Remarks on the Topography of Oropia and Diacria, 12mo. Athens, 1838; K. O. Muller, art. Attika, in Ersch and, Gruber's Encyclopadie, vol. vi., translated by Lockhart, London, 1842; Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, London, 1836; Kruse, Hellas, vol. ii.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii.; Stuart's Antiquities; and the Travels of Dodwell, Gell, Bronsted, Fiedler, and Mure.)

At the end of the following URL ther is analphabetical table-list of the demi (Total 160), the first column contains the name of each demus; the second that of the demotes; the third that of the tribe to which each demus belonged during the time of the ten tribes; and the fourth that of the tribe when there were twelve or thirteen tribes. Of the demi in this list, which have not been spoken of above, the site is unknown.

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Attic tribes & demes

  Depending on the context, Athens may refer to the city of Athens proper, exclusive of its suburbs such as Piraeus, its main harbor, or the larger urbain area including such suburbs as Piraeus, or the whole of Attica, the territory of the “city-state”, in which most of its citizens would live and own land, or even the whole of the Athenian empire that spread all through the Mediterranean, grew and shrunk over the years. Thus, what were called citizens of Athens, were in fact people living all through Attica, not necessarily in the city of Athens itself, though they all had to go there from time to time to accomplish their civic duties.
  The organisation of Attica in the time of Socrates and Plato was the result of a reform by Cleisthenes in 508. According to this organisation, all citizens of Attica entitled to participate in the political institutions of Athens were divided in ten “tribes” (phylai in Greek), named after ten eponym heroes chosen by the oracle of Delphi from a list of one hundred names. Attica as a whole was divides into three areas: a peripheral zone along the coast (exclusive of the costal area close to Athens), called Paralia; a central area called Mesogeia; and a third one including Athens and its vicinity, called Asty, that is, the City area (asty is the common name in Greek for an urban area as opposed to the countryside, agros). Each tribe was made up of sections of each of these three areas, called trittues in Greek, that is, “Thirds”.
  These so-called trittues were further divided into “demes” (demoi in Greek, corresponding in general to the various villages of Attica and districts of Athens. Each citizen of Athens was called by the name of his deme, as for instance “Socrates from Alopece” and he had to register in the deme of his father to enjoy his political rights as a citizen of Athens. He would stay a member of that deme even if he was no longer living on its territory.
  Aside from this “political” organisation, there remained older groupings, such as “families” (gene in Greek) and “phratries” (groups of people supposed to have a common ancestor), that played a mainly religious role in Socrates and Plato's time.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


The location of Aegina

The island of Aegina is in the middle of Saronic gulf. On the south west there is a small plain where in the past there were vineyards and fig trees. Now most have been replaced by pistachio-trees. Its port is about 16.5 nautical miles from Pireus (the main Greek port). Aegina's area is 83 km2 and its population is 14.000 residents. The shape of the island is triangular and its perimeter is 36km. The greatest part of the island is covered by small mountains. Many natural harbors exists its rocky coasts. These small harbors are: in Aegina city, Souvala, Agia Marina and Perdika. On the west there is a bigger gulf, Marathon, where the Greek ships were assembled after the famous naval battle of Salamis. The climate of the island is dry, and water is provided mostly from wells and springs, or carried by special water boats from the mainland. The highest mountain of Aegina is Oros with a height of 539 m.. It is in some way the "omfhalos" (belly button)of the Saronic gulf.

This text is cited May 2003 from the Municipality of Egina URL below, which contains images.

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)



Acharnae, Acharnai: Eth. Acharneus, Acharnanus, Adj. Acharnikos. The principal demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Oeneis, was situated 60 stadia N. of Athens, and consequently not far from the foot of Mt. Parnes. It was from the woods of this mountain that the Acharnians were enabled to carry on that traffic in charcoal for which they were noted among the Athenians. (Aristoph. Acharn. 332.) Their land was fertile ; their population was rough and warlike; and they furnished at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war 3000 hoplites, or a tenth of the whole infantry of the republic. They possessed sanctuaries or altars of Apollo Aguieus, of Heracles, of Athena Hygieia, of Athena Hippia, of Dionysus Melpomenus, and of Dionysus Cissus, so called, because the Acharnians said that the ivy first grew in this demus. One of the plays of Aristophanes bears the name of the Acharnians. Leake supposes that branch of the plain of Athens, which is included between the foot of the hills of Khassia and a projection of the range of Aegaleos, stretching eastward from the northern termination of that mountain, to have been the district of the demus Acharnae. The exact situation of the town has not yet been discovered. Some Hellenic remains, situated 3/4 of a mile to the westward of Menidhi, have generally been taken for those of Archarnae; but Menidhi is more probably a corruption of Paionidai.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

ACHERDOUS (Ancient demos) ATTICA


Acherdus (Acherdous,--ountos: Eth. Achepdousios), a demus of Attica of uncertain site, belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. Aristophanes (Eccl. 362) in joke, uses the form Achradousios instead of Acherdousios. (Steph. B. s. vv. Acherdous, Achradous; Aeschin. in Tim. 110)

AFIDNES (Ancient demos) AFIDNES


  Aphidna, Aphidnai: Eth. Aphidnaios. Οne of the twelve ancient towns of Attica (Strab. ix. p. 397), is celebrated in the mythical period as the place where Theseus deposited Helen, entrusting her to the care of his friend Aphidnus. When the Dioscuri invaded Attica in search of their sister, the inhabitants of Deceleia informed the Lacedaemonians where Helen was concealed, and showed them the way to Aphidna. The Dioscuri thereupon took the town, and carried off their sister. (Herod. ix. 73; Died. iv. 63; Plut. Thes. 32; Paus. i. 17. § 5, 41. § 3.) We learn, from a decree quoted by Demosthenes (de Coron. p. 238), that Aphidna was, in his time, a fortified town, and at a greater distance than 120 stadia from Athens. As an Attic demus, it belonged in succession to the tribes Aeantis (Plut. Quaest. Symp. i. 10; Harpocrat. s. v. Thurgonidai), Leontis (Steph. B.; Harpocrat. l. c.), Ptolemais (Hesych.), and Hadrianis (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. 275).
  Leake, following Finlay, places Aphidna between Deceleia and Rhamnus, in the upper valley of the river Marathon, and supposes it to have stood on a strong and conspicuous height named Kotroni, upon which are considerable remains indicating the site of a fortified demus. Its distance from Athens is about 16 miles, half as much from Marathon, and something less from Deceleia.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

AGRYLI (Ancient demos) ATHENS


Agryle (Agrule, Araule, Agroile, Steph.; Harpocrat.; Suid.; Hesych.; Zonar.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 332), was the name of two demi, an upper and a lower Agryle. They lay immediately south of the stadium in the city. (Harpocrat. s. v. Apdettos.) It is not improbable that the district of Agrae in the city belonged to one of these demi. [See p. 302, b.]

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Agrae (Agrai), was situated south of the Ilissus, and in the SE. of the city. Respecting its site, see p. 300, b. It does not appear to have been a separate demus, and was perhaps included in the demus of Agryle, which was situated south of it.


Halae Araphenides

Halae Araphenides (Halai Araphenides), so called to distinguish it from Halae Aexonides [No. 39], lay on the east coast between Brauron and Araphen, and was the proper harbour of Brauron, from whence persons crossed over to Marmarium in Euboea, where were the marble quarries of Carystus. (Strab. ix. p. 399, x. p. 446.) Hence Halae is described by Euripides (Iphig. in Taur. 1451) as geiton deirados Karustias. The statue of the Taurian Artemis was preserved at this place.

ALIMOUS (Ancient demos) ALIMOS


(Halimous, Harpocrat.; Suid.; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 376; Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 498), said to have been so called from ta halima, sea-weeds (Etym. M. s. v.), was situated on the coast between Phalerum and Aexone (Strab. ix. p. 398), at the distance of 35 stadia from the city (Dem. c. Eubulid. p. 1302), with temples of Demeter and Core (Paus. i. 31. § 1), and of Hercules. (Dem. pp. 1314, 1319.) Hence Leake places it at C. Kallimakhi, at the back of which rises a small but conspicuous hill, crowned with a church of St. Cosmas. Halimus was the demus of Thucydides the historian.

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

ALOPEKES (Ancient demos) ATHENS


Alopece (Alopeke), was situated only eleven or twelve stadia from the city (Aesch. c. Timarch. p. 119, Reiske), and not far from Cynosarges. (Herod. v. 63.) It lay consequently east of Athens, near the modern village of Ambelokipo, between Lycabettus and Ilissus. It possessed a temple of Aphrodite (Bockh, Inscr. n. 395), and also, apparently, one of Hermaphroditus. (Alciphr. Ep. iii. 37.) There are some remains of an ancient building in the church at Ambelokipo, which Leake supposes may be those of the temple of Aphrodite.



Amphitrope, north of Besa and in the district of the mines, placed by Stuart at Metropisti. (Bockh, Inscr. No. 162; Steph.; Hesych.)

ANAGYRUS (Ancient demos) VARI


  Anagyrus (Anagurous, -ountos: Eth. Anagurasios), a demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Erechtheis, situated S. of Attica near the promontory Zoster. Pausanias mentions at this place a temple of the mother of the gods. The ruins of Anagyrus have been found near Vari. (Strab. p. 398; Paus. i. 31. § 1; Harpocrat., Suid., Steph. B.; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 56.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

ATHENS (Ancient city) GREECE


ATHMONON (Ancient demos) ATTIKI


Athmonun (Athmonon, also Athmonia, Harpocrat.; Steph. B.; Zonar.; Suid.), situated on the site of the village Marusi, which is a mile and a half from Kifisia on the road to Athens. The name of the modern village has been derived from Amarysia, a surname of Artemis, who was worshipped under this designation at Athmonum (Paus. i. 35.5). An inscription found near Marusi, in which the temenos of this goddess is mentioned, puts the matter beyond dispute. (horos Artemidos temenous Amarudias, Bockh, Inscr. n. 528.) Athmonum also possessed a very ancient temple of Aphrodite Urania (Pans. i. 14.7). The inhabitants of this demus appear to have been considered clever wine-dressers. (Aristoph. Pac. 190.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

AZINIA (Ancient demos) ATTIKI


Azenia, the only demus mentioned by Strabo (l. c.) between Anaphlystus and Sunium. (Harpocr.; Hesych.; Steph.; Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 348.) It was probably situated in the bay of which Sunium forms the eastern cape. Opposite this bay is a small island, now called Gaidharonisi, formerly the Island or Rampart of Patroclus (Patroklou charax or nesos), because a fortress was built upon it by Patroclus, who commanded on one occasion the ships of Ptolemy Philadelphus. (Strab. l. c.; Paus. i. 1. § 1; Steph. s. v. Patroklou nesos.) Ten miles to the south of this island, at the entrance of the Saronic gulf, is Belbina, now St. George, which was reckoned to belong to Peloponnesus, though it was nearer the coast of Attica.

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

CHOLIDES (Ancient demos) ATTIKI


Cholleidae (Cholleidai, Chollidai, Harpocr.; Suid.; Steph.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn. 404), is supposed to have been near the Nymphaeum, or Grotto of the Nymphs, situated at the southern end of Mt. Hymettus, and about three miles from Vari by the road. From the inscriptions in this cave, we learn that it was dedicated to the nymphs and the other rustic deities by Archedemus of Pherae (not Therae, as is stated by some modern writers), who had been enrolled in the demus of Cholleidae. Hence it is inferred that the grotto was, in all probability, situated in this demus. A full and interesting description of the grotto is given by Wordsworth (p. 192, seq.; comp. Leake, p. 57.).

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

DEKELIA (Ancient demos) ACHARNES


Deceleia (Dekeleia) was situated near the entrance of the eastern pass across Mount Parnes,which leads from the north-eastern part of the Athenian plain to Oropus, and from thence both to Tanagra on the one hand, and to Delium and Chalcis on the other. It was originally one of the twelve cities of Attica. (Strab. ix. p. 397.) It was situated about 120 stadia from Athens, and the same distance from the frontiers of Boeotia: it was visible from Athens, and from its heights also might be seen the ships entering the harbour of Peiraeeus. (Thuc. vii. 19; Xen. Hell. i. 1. 25) It was by the pass of Deceleia that Mardonius retreated from Athens into Boeotia before the battle of Plataeae (Herod. ix. 15); and it was by the same road that the grain was carried from Euboea through Oropus into Attica. (Thuc. vii. 28.) In B.C. 413 Deceleia was occupied and fortified by the Lacedaemonians under Agis, who kept possession of the place till the end of the war; and from the command which they thus obtained of the Athenian plain, they prevented them from cultivating the neighbouring land, and compelled them to bring the corn from Euboea round Cape Sunium. (Thuc. ii. 27, 28.) The pass of Deceleia is now called the pass of Tatoy. Near the village of this name there is a peaked height, which is a conspicuous object from the Acropolis: the exact site of the demus is probably marked by a fountain, near which are many remains of antiquity. (Leake.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The position of Oropus is thus defined by Strabo. The beginning [of Boeotia] is Oropus, and the sacred harbour, which they call Delphinium, opposite to which is old Eretria in Euboea, distant 60 stadia. After Delphinium is Oropus at the distance of 20 stadia, opposite to which is the present Eretria, distant 40 stadia. Then comes Delium. (Strab. ix.) The modern village of Oropo stands at the distance of nearly two miles from the sea, on the right bank of the Vourieni, anciently the Asopus: it contains some fragments of ancient buildings and sepulchral stones. There are also Hellenic remains at the Skala or wharf upon the bay, from which persons usually embark for Euboea: this place is also called es tous hagious atostolous, from a ruined church dedicated to the Holy Apostles. Leake originally placed Oropus at Oropo and Delphinium at Skala; but in the second edition of his Demi he leaves the position of Oropus doubtful. It seems, however, most probable that Oropus originally stood upon the coast, and was removed inland only for a short time. In the Peloponnesian War Thucydides speaks of sailing to and anchoring at Oropus (iii. 91, viii. 95); and Pausanias, as we have already seen, expressly states that Oropus was upon the coast. Hence there can be little doubt that Skala is the site of Oropus, and that Oropo is the inland site which the Oropians occupied only for a time. It is true that the distance of Oropo from the sea is more than double the 7 stadia assigned by Diodorus, but it is possible that he may have originally written 17 stadia. If Oropus stood at Skala, Delphinium must have been more to the eastward nearer the confines of Attica.


Delphinium (Delphinion), the port-town of Oropus.

DIOMIA (Ancient demos) ATHENS


Diomeia. Eth. Diomeis. A demus belonging to the tribe Aegeis, consisting, like Cerameicus, of an Outer and an Inner. Diomeia. The Inner Diomeia comprised the eastern part of city, and gave its name to one of the city-gates in this quarter. In the Outer Diomeia was situated the Cynosarges. (Steph., Suid. s. v. Diomeia; Hesych. s. v. Diomeis; Steph., Hesych. s. v. Kunosarges; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 664; Plut. de Exsil. l. c.) The Outer Diomeia could not have extended far beyond the walls, since the demus Alopece was close to Cynosarges. and only eleven or twelve stadia from the walls of the city. (Herod. v. 63; Aesch. c. Tim. p. 119, Reiske.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Echelidae (Echelidai), so called from the hero Echelus, lay between Peiraeeus and the Heracleium, in or near a marshy district, and possessed a Hippodrome, in which horse-races took place. (Steph. B. s.v.; Etym. M.s. v. Echelos; Hesych. and Etym. M. s. v. en Echelidon.) It is probable that this Hippodrome is the place to which the narrative in Demosthenes refers (c. Everg. p. 1155, seq.), in which case it was near the city. (Ibid. p. 1162; comp, Xen. de Mag. Eq. 3 § § 1, 10.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Aegaleos (Aighaleos, Herod. viii. 90; to Aighaleon oros, Thuc. ii. 19: Skarmanga), a range of mountains in Attica, lying between the plains of Athens and Eleusis, from which Xerxes witnessed the battle of Salamis. (Herod.) It ended in a promontory, called Amphiale (Amphlhale), opposite Salamis, from which it was distant only two stadia according to Strabo. The southern part of this range near the coast was called Corydalus or Corydallus (Kornodalhos, Korndallhos) from a demus of this name (Strab.), and another part, through which there is a pass from the plain of Athens into that of Eleusis, was named Poecilum (Polkhilon, Paus. i. 37. § 7.) (Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 2, seq.)

EGILOS (Ancient demos) ANAVYSSOS


Aegilia (Aigilhia) or Aegilus (he Haigtlos, Theocr. i. 147: Eth. Aigilieus), a demus in Attica belonging to the tribe Antiochis, situated on the western coast between Lamptra and Sphettus. It was celebrated for its figs. (Aigilhides isChhades, Athe. ; Theocr.) It is placed by Leake at Tzurela, the site of a ruined village on the shore, at the foot of Mt. Elymbo. (Strab., Harpocrat., Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Demi)

EKALI (Ancient demos) GRAMMATIKO

Hecale (Hekale), probably near Marathon, since this demus is said to have obtained its name from a woman who hospitably received Theseus into her house, when he had set out to attack the Marathonian bull, which was ravaging the Tetrapolis. It contained a sanctuary of Zeus Hecaleius. (Philochor. ap. Plut. Thes. 14; Suid. s. vv. Hekale, Kolias, Epaulia; Steph. s. vv. Hekale, Hiapis, Trinemeis; Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn. 127.)



Eleusis or Eleusin: Eth. Eleusinios (Lepsina). A demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. It owed its celebrity to its being the chief seat of the worship of Demeter and Persephone, and to the mysteries celebrated in honour of these goddesses, which were called the Eleusinia, and continued to be regarded as the most sacred of all the Grecian mysteries down to the fall of paganism. As an account of these mysteries, and of the legends respecting their institution, is given elsewhere where, it only remains now to speak of the topography and history of the town. Eleusis stood upon a height at a short distance from the sea, and opposite the island of Salamis. Its situation possessed three natural advantages. It was on the road from Athens to the Isthmus; it was in a very fertile plain; and it was at the head of an extensive bay, formed on three sides by the coast of Attica, and shut in on the south by the island of Salamis. The town itself dates from the most ancient times. It appears to have derived its name from the supposed advent (eleusis) of Demeter, though some traced its name from an eponymous hero Eleusis. (Paus. i. 38.7.) It was one of the 12 independent states into which Attica was said to have been originally divided. (Strab. ix. p. 397.) It was related that in the reign of Eumolpus, king of Eleusis, and Erechtheus, king of Athens, there was a war between the two states, in which the Eleusinians were defeated, whereupon they agreed to acknowledge the supremacy of Athens in every thing except the celebration of the mysteries, of which they were to continue to have the management. (Thucyd. ii. 15; Paus. i. 38.3.) Eleusis afterwards became an Attic demus, but in consequence of its sacred character it was allowed to retain the title of polis (Strab. ix.; Paus. i. 38.7), and to coin its own money, a privilege possessed by no other town in Attica, except Athens. The history of Eleusis is part of the history of Athens. Once a year the great Eleusinian procession travelled from Athens to Eleusis, along the Sacred Way, which has been already described at length. The ancient temple of Demeter at Eleusis was burnt by the Persians in B.C. 484 (Herod. ix.); and it was not till the administration of Pericles that an attempt was made to rebuild it. When the power of the Thirty was overthrown after the Peloponnesian War, they retired to Eleusis, which they had secured beforehand, but where they maintained themselves for only a short time. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. 8, seq., 43) Under the Romans Eleusis enjoyed great prosperity, as initiation into its mysteries became fashionable among the Roman nobles. It was destroyed by Alaric in A.D. 396, and from that time disappears from history. When Spon and Wheler visited the site in 1676, it was entirely deserted. In the following century it was again inhabited, and it Ad is now a small village called Lephina, which is only a corruption of the ancient name. Eleusis was built at the eastern end of a low rocky height, a mile in length, which lies parallel to the sea-shore, and is separated to the west from the falls of Mount Cerata by a narrow branch of the plain. The eastern extremity of the hill was levelled artificially for the reception of the Hierum of Demeter and the other sacred buildings. Above these are the ruins of an acropolis. [ "Castellum, quod et imminet, et circumdatum est templo," Liv. xxxi. 25.] A triangular space of about 500 yards each side, lying between the hill and the shore, was occupied by the town of Eleusis. On the eastern side the town wall is traced along the summit of an artificial embankment, carried across the marshy ground from some heights near the Hierum, on one of which stands a castle (built during the middle ages of the Byzantine empire). This wall, according to a common practice in the military architecture of the Greeks, was prolonged into the sea, so as to form a mole sheltering a harbour, which was entirely artificial, and was formed by this and two other longer moles which project about 100 yards into the sea. There are many remains of walls and buildings along the shore, as well as in other parts of the town and citadel; but they are mere foundations, the Hierum alone preserving any considerable remains. (Leake.) Pausanias has left us only a very brief description of Eleusis (i. 38. 6): The Eleusinians have a temple of Triptolemus, another of Artemis Propylaea, and a third of Poseidon the Father, and a well called Callichorum, where the Eleusinian women first instituted a dance and sang in honour of the goddess. They say that the Rharian plain was the first place in which corn was sown and first produced a harvest, and that hence barley from this plan is employed for making sacrificial cakes. There the so-called threshing-floor and altar of Triptolemus are shewn. The things within the wall of the Hierum [i. e. the temple of Demeter] a dream forbade me to describe. The Rharian plain is also mentioned in the Homeric Hymn to Artemis (450): it appears to have been in the neighbourhood of the city; but its site cannot be determined.
  The present state of the antiquities at Eleusis is described by the Commission of the Dilettanti, of whose researches a brief account is given by Leake. Upon approaching Eleusis from Athens, the first conspicuous object is the remains of a large pavement, terminating in some heaps of ruins, which are the remains of a propylaeum, of very nearly the same plan and dimensions as that of the Acropolis of Athens. Before it, near the middle of a platform cut in the rock, are the ruins of a small temple, 40 feet long and 20 broad, which was undoubtedly the temple of Artemis Propylaea. The peribolus, which abutted on the Propylaeum, formed the exterior inclosure of the Hierum. At a distance of 50 feet from the propylaeum was the north-eastern angle of the inner inclosure, which was in shape an irregular pentagon. Its entrance was at the angle just mentioned, where the rock was cut away both horizontally and vertically to receive another propylaeum much smaller than the former, and. which consisted of an opening 32 feet wide between two parallel walls of 50 feet in length. Towards the inner extremity this opening was narrowed by transverse walls to a gateway of 12 feet in width, which was decorated with antae, opposed to two Ionic columns. Between the inner front of this propylaeum and the site of the great temple lay, until the year 1801, the colossal bust of Pentelic marble, crowned with a basket, which is now deposited in the public library at Cambridge. It has been supposed to be a fragment of the statue of Demeter which was adored in the temple; but, to judge from the position in which it was found, and from the unfinished appearance of the surface in those few parts where any original surface remains, the statue seems rather to have been that of a Cistophorus, serving for some architectural decoration, like the Caryatides of the Erechtheium.
  The temple of Demeter itself, sometimes called mustikos sekos, or to telesterion, was the largest in all Greece, and is described by Strabo as capable of containing as many persons as a theatre (ix. p. 395). The plan of the building was designed by Ictinus, the architect of the Parthenon at Athens; but it was many years before it was completed, and the names of several architects are preserved who were employed in building it. Its portico of 12 columns was not built till the time of Demetrius Phalereus, about B.C. 318, by the architect Philo. (Strab. l. c.; Plut. Per. 13; Dict. of Biogr. vol. iii. p. 314, a.) When finished, it was considered one of the four finest examples of Grecian architecture in marble. It faced the south-east. Its site is occupied by the centre of the modern village, in consequence of which it is difficult to obtain all the details of the building. The Commission of the Dilettanti Society supposed the cella to be 166 feet square within; and comparing the fragments which they found with the description of Plutarch (Per. 13), they thought themselves warranted in concluding that the roof of the cella was covered with tiles of marble like the temples of Athens; that it was supported by 28 Doric columns, of a diameter (measured under the capital) of 3 feet 2 inches; that the columns were disposed in two double rows across the cella, one near the front, the other near the back; and that they were surmounted by ranges of smaller columns, as in the Parthenon, and as we still see exemplified in one of the existing temples at Paestum. The cella was fronted with a magnificent portico of 12 Doric columns, measuring 61 1/2 feet at the lower diameter of the shaft, but fluted only in a narrow ring at the top and bottom. The platform at the back of the temple was 20 feet above the level of the pavement of the portico. An ascent of steps led up to this platform on the outside of the north-western angle of the temple, not far from where another flight of steps ascended from the platform to a portal adorned with two columns, which perhaps formed a small propylaeum, communicating from the Hierum to the Acropolis.
  There are no remains which can be safely ascribed to the temple of Triptolemus, or to that of Poseidon. The well Callichorum may have been that which is now seen not far from the foot of the northern side of the hill of Eleusis, within the bifurcation of two roads leading to Megara and to Eleutherae, for near it are the foundations of a wall and portico. Near Eleusis was the monument of Tellus, mentioned by Herodotus (i. 30).
  The town of Eleusis and its immediate neighbourhood were exposed to inundations from the river Cephissus, which, though almost dry during the greater part of the year, is sometimes swollen to such an extent as to spread itself over a large part of the plain. Demosthenes alludes to inundations at Eleusis (c. Callicl. p. 1279); and Hadrian raised some embankments in the plain in consequence of an inundation which occurred while he was spending the winter at Athens (Euseb. Chron. p. 81). In the plain about a mile to the south of Eleusis are the remains of two ancient mounds, which are probably the embankments of Hadrian. To the same emperor most likely Eleusis was indebted for a supply of good water by means of the aqueduct, the ruins of which are still seen stretching across the plain from Eleusis in a north-easterly direction. (Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 154, seq., from which the greater part of the preceding account is taken.) The annexed coin represents on the obverse Demeter in a chariot drawn by winged snakes, and holding in her hand a bunch of corn, and on the reverse a sow, the animal usually sacrificed to Demeter.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

ELEOUS (Ancient demos) ATTIKI


Elaeus (Elaious, Steph.), of uncertain site, but placed by Leake at Liosia, a village two miles to the west of Aphidna, because he considers this name a corruption of Elaeus; but this is not probable.

ERMOS (Ancient demos) CHAIDARI


Hermus (Hermos), lay on the sacred road to Eleusis, between the Cephissus and the Pythium, a temple of Apollo on Mt. Poecilum, upon a rivulet of the same name. Here was the splendid monument of Pythonice, the wife of Harpalus. (Plut. Phoc. 22; Harpocrat. s. v. Hermos; Paus. i. 37.4; Athen. xiii.; Diod. xvii. 108.)

This is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

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