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Listed 20 sub titles with search on: Information about the place  for wider area of: "KENT County ENGLAND" .

Information about the place (20)

Local government Web-Sites

Ashford Borough Council


Canterbury City Council


Dartford Borough Council


Dover District Council


Shepway District Council


Gravesham Borough Council


Kent County Council


Maidstone Borough Council


Thanet District Council


Sevenoaks District Council


Swale Borough Council


Tonbridge & Malling Borough Council


Tunbridge Wells Borough Council


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Durovernum Cantiacorum

Durovernum Cantiacorum (Canterbury) Kent, England.
At a crossing of the river Stour. The name is recorded by Ptolemy and later ancient sources. Caesar had crossed the river here or nearby in 54 B.C., but occupation of the site began only ca. A.D. 1, when a large oppidum grew up on each bank. Canterbury has been continuously inhabited ever since, but opportunity for large-scale excavation occurred only after WW II as a result of bombing.
  The Belgic oppidum was found to cover a wide area with sporadic huts and gulleys; it was probably a regional capital and a silver coin of Voicenos attests an otherwise unknown ruler. Soon after A.D. 43 gulleys were filled in and a Roman street-grid laid down; thus Durovernum was one of the earliest civitas capitals to be developed, and presumably reflects the pro-Roman character of the region. The Cantiaci were not a single tribe; their name, derived from Cantium, suggests a Roman amalgamation of small groups to form an administrative area of convenient size. The earliest buildings were of half-timber and/or clay; masonry structures began to appear ca. A.D. 100. About this time a theater or amphitheater was built; it was entirely remodeled as a large classical theater with vaulted substructure in the early 3d c. Two bath buildings are known.
  The town lacked defenses until ca. 270, when a wall and bank were constructed enclosing 52 ha. The defended area was confined to the E bank of the Stour, and occupation ceased on the other side. Excavation has yielded evidence for a regular settlement (early 5th c.) by Germanic immigrants using Anglo-Frisian pottery and living in Grubenhauser that are probably of the period of Hengist. Another important discovery was a late 4th c. silver treasure carrying Christian symbols, which had been concealed just outside the walls near the river. It reminds us of the Christian churches which, according to Bede, could still be identified by St. Augustine.

S.S. Frere, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Feb 2006 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Dubris (Dover) Kent, England.
The Roman fort lies beneath the modern city in a valley between steep chalk hills, close to the sea. The site was probably continuously occupied from the time of the Roman invasion of A.D. 43. The nature of the 1st c. occupation is uncertain, but in the 2d c. a fort was constructed to house a detachment of the Classis Britannica. Part of the wall, a gate, and a series of internal buildings belonging to the fort were discovered in 1970. At a later date, probably towards the end of the 3d c., the old structure was replaced by a more substantial fort of the Saxon Shore series. Its extent is at present unknown but it must have enclosed an area of over 2.4 ha. Traces of other buildings, as well as evidence of wharves and jetties, have come to light from time to time. The finds are housed in the City Museum.
  On the E hill, within what is now Dover Castle, stand the remains of a well-preserved Roman lighthouse. The structure is octagonal in plan outside but rectangular inside. Originally it would have stood ca. 24 in high with the outer face stepped back in eight stages, but only four Roman stages now remain. It was built of flint rubble faced with limestone blocks and bonded with tile courses. Its window openings and doors are well preserved. Fragments of another lighthouse survive on the W heights on the far side of the valley.

B.W. Cunliffe, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Feb 2006 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Lemanis (Lympne) Kent, England.
A Roman fort on the side of a hill overlooking Romney Marsh; originally a navigable inlet flanked its S side. Occupation in the 2d and 3d c. is attested by the presence of fragments of tiles stamped CL BR (Classis Britannica) and by the discovery of an altar, reused in the later foundations, dedicated by one Aufidius Pantera Prefectus Classis Britannicae. These fragments hint at the existence of an early naval base in the vicinity. The fort now visible was built towards the end of the 3d c. and remained in use until the late 4th c. when it appears to have been abandoned, possibly as part of the reorganizations carried out by Count Theodosius.
  The walls are now distorted by landslips, but in their original form they enclosed an irregular area of 4-4.4 ha. They were 3.6 m thick, 6 m high, built of rubble with a limestone facing bonded at intervals with tiles, and had a series of external D-shaped bastions. One gate, in the E wall, has been excavated: a simple opening 3.3 m wide, flanked by two solid bastions. The W wall was pierced by a narrow postern gate.
  Internally, two buildings have been identified, a principia set back in the N part of the fort, and a small bath suite close to the E gate.

B.W. Cunlifee, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Feb 2006 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Rutupia (Richborough) Kent, England.
The Roman settlement lies on a sandy hill overlooking the valley of the river Stour, now largely silted, which marks the position of the Wantsum Channel, a watelway of some significance in the Roman period. The site was first used in the year of the invasion (A.D. 43) as a bridgehead and storage depot for the invading army, which constructed two parallel defense ditches and a rampart to protect the anchorage and its immediate vicinity. By the next year the ditches had been filled in and a substantial storage base had been laid out: a properly constructed grid of graveled roads, a series of batteries of granary buildings, workshops, and what appears to be an administrative building, all built in timber.
  By ca. A.D. 85, after a series of modifications and rebuildings, the storage base was abandoned and the buildings demolished to make way for new development. A massive monument was constructed on a concrete base (37.8 x 24.3 m, and 9 m deep). Originally it was a quadrifrons, encased in marble and ornamented with bronze statuary, but all that now remains is the foundation. Its size and elaboration, and its position at the head of Watling Street, virtually the gateway to Britain, suggest that it may have been erected to commemorate the final conquest of the country after Agricola's victory at Mons Graupius. In front of the monument the streets were remetaled and a series of shops and workshops were constructed, while nearby a mansio was built in masonry. To the S lay temples and an amphitheater.
  In the early 2d c. the settlement developed further: drains were laid, some of the shops were rebuilt in masonry, and the mansio was substantially reconstructed. The early 3d c., however, appears to have been a period of economic decline, with burials, including a masonry tomb, encroaching upon the built-up area. One possible explanation is that the nearby port of Dubris (Dover) had captured the cross-channel trade, leaving Richborough to decay.
  Towards the middle of the 3d c. much of the built-up area around the monument was flattened and the monument itself was probably turned into a lookout post. The settlement was now enclosed by a rampart and a system of triple ditches, with a single entrance in the center of the W side. It is possible that a small garrison was housed within the 0.4 ha enclosure, but no trace of its accommodation has been recorded.
  Later, probably in the 280s, the monument was demolished, the ditches filled up, and the whole central area enclosed by the massive masonry wall of a Saxon shore fort. The wall, which still stands for a substantial part of the circuit, was built of flint boulders faced with coursed limestone and bonded at intervals with horizontal courses of tiles. Originally it was ca. 9 m high. The main gate, consisting of two guard chambers flanking the single carriage roadway, was in the W side, and the N wall had a postern. Probably there was a corresponding postern in the S wall, but details are unknown. Circular turrets projected from the two surviving corners of the fort, and the intervening walls each had two rectangular bastions. Outside the walls the fort was defended by two V-shaped ditches. The inner ditch on the W side appears to have been misaligned and was dug again in a short time.
  Interior details are obscure, but some evidence suggests that the principia was built on the platform once occupied by the monument, while a small bath suite was erected in the NE corner. Two other simple masonry structures, possibly guild rooms, were found, but elsewhere the buildings must have been of timber. Occupation continued throughout the 4th c. and probably well into the 5th. During this time Richborough maintained an important position in the Saxon shore system. It was here that Count Theodosius landed in 369 to reorganize the country after the so-called "barbarian conspiracy". It is also the place where, traditionally, St. Augustine landed in 597.
  The main excavations were from 1922 to 1938, and many of the structural details discovered can be seen today. The objects are displayed in a museum on the site.

B.W. Culliffe, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Feb 2006 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Durobrivae (Rochester) Kent, England.
A Belgic settlement on the river Medway 38 km from London (Londinium) and 37 from Canterbury (Durovernum). It was important enough to have a mint in the period immediately prior to the Roman invasion. The name Durobrivae (which only occurs in the Antonine Itinerary, but the identification is certain) means "fortress by the bridges", which may suggest the existence of a Belgic oppidum. During the 1st and 2d c. a straggling development occurred along the line of Wating Street, but in the last quarter of the 2d c. the first defenses, a clay-faced earth rampart and a ditch, were constructed. A massive stone wall replaced the rampart early in the 3d c., enclosing an area of 9.2 ha. In A.D. 604 Rochester was still of sufficient importance for St. Augustine to make it the seat of the second cathedral under Justus.
  The only Roman remains now visible are parts of the city wall, which survives to the height of 5.1 m at the SE corner, with fragments elsewhere incorporated in the mediaeval defenses. Little is known of the internal plan of the Roman city, though the High Street and Northgate Street mark its principal axes and the existence of four gates is attested by references in Anglo-Saxon charters.

A.C. Harrison, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Feb 2006 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Vagniacae (Springhead) Kent, England.
A settlement on Watling Street, some 32 km SE of London, mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary. Excavation on both sides of the Roman line of Watling Street has revealed numerous buildings, of both stone and timber. There appears to have been no appreciable occupation of the site in prehistoric times and it was abandoned entirely at the end of the Roman period.
  The planning of the settlement, which appears never to have been defended, was elementary. The constituent buildings were mostly aligned on Watling Street, close to the road margins. At least three streets left the main road on the S side, and two on the N. The buildings, however, make it plain that Springhead was not an ordinary roadside village: no less than seven of the structures in the complex appear to have been temples or cult buildings. The site is thus of unique character in Roman Britain and is one of the few cult centers of the W provinces to have been extensively explored.
  At the heart of the cult center lay a walled temenos, entered through a square monumental gateway from which steps led down into the temple precinct. In the entrance court stood a statue base or altar, before which was a votive pit containing two animal burials and a number of coins. Within the temenos lay two large temples of the square Romano-Celtic type, both of them with wings, or antae, on their E sides. One building (Temple I) had a square central cella containing a base for altars, while the other (Temple II) had a number of pier bases arranged on a square plan in the center, suggesting that the central area had been an open court. Temple I also had an unusual and puzzling feature on its W side, a square projecting room, apparently contemporary with the main structure.
  The temenos included at least three other stone buildings which had religious functions, though they may not all have been temples. All were small, rectangular structures, two of them without subdivisions. Votive objects were found in all three buildings, and beneath each of the four corners of one ("Temple" IV) lay a foundation burial of a child. Indications of the cults practiced at Springhead are slight. A terracotta figurine of the Gaulish pseudo-Venus type was found in Temple I, and a bronze model of a thumb from the same area hints at a healing cult.
  On the other side of Watling Street lay other buildings which are likely to have been temples, one of which yielded a bone statuette of a genius cucullatus. Yet another temple lies less than 1 km to the S. Domestic buildings appear to have been few and simple in plan.

M. Todd, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Feb 2006 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

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