More important for Roman legend than for Greek history and archaeology,
for the Romans believed that Evander set out from there to settle the Palatine
in Rome. Though already mentioned in Hesiod (Fr. 162 Merkelbach-West), the town
never attained importance. It subscribed to the Arkadian synoecism after the battle
of Leuktra; a battle between Kleomenes and Aratos took place there in 228 (Plut.
Cleom. 4.4, Arat. 35.5); because of the fancied Arkadian origin of the first settlers
of the Palatine, the emperor Antoninus Pius made the village a city libera et
immunis (Paus. 8.43.3).
The ancient city is located some 7 km SW of Tripolis, just E of the Tripolis-Megalopolis road. On a low hill rising in front of Mt. Kravari (ancient Boreion) the Chapel of St. John is set down in the foundations of a rectangular building (16.15 x 8.90 m) with an E orientation, probably the sanctuary dedicated to the Pure Gods mentioned by Pausanias (8.44.5). A few in to the N, with the same orientation, there is a smaller, earlier, megaron (10.45 x 4.50 m). A number of votive offerings (6th-5th c. B.C.), now in the museum at Tegea, were found beneath a terracotta paving of a small room in the area. Portions of the acropolis wall are still in place. On the S slope of the hill, on a large terrace, there are to be found the foundations of a temple (21.40 x 11.70 m), apparently of 5th c. date. About 1.6 km SW of Pallantion, on the N portion of Mt. Boreion in a place called Vigli there are observable the foundations of a temple (11.55 x 24.70 m), dated to the last quarter of the 6th c. which has been identified with that of Athena Soteira and Poseidon (Paus. 8.44.4). The structure replaces an earlier, 7th c. building on the same site.
W. F. Wyatt, Jr., ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
Pallantium, more rarely Palantion: Eth. Pallantieus. One of the most ancient towns of Arcadia, in the district Maenalia, said to have been founded by Pallas, a son of Lycaon, was situated W. of Tegea, in a small plain called the Pallantic plain (Pallantikon pedion, Paus. viii. 44. § 5), which was separated from the territory of Tegea by a choma (choma) or dyke. It was from this town that Evander was said to have led colonists to the banks of the Tiber, and from it the Palatium or Palatine Mount at Rome was reputed to have derived its name. (Hes. ap. Steph. B. s. v.; Paus. viii. 43. § 2; Liv. i. 5; Plin. iv. 6; Justin, xliii. 1.) Pallantium took part in the foundation of Megalopolis, B.C. 371 (Paus. viii. 27. § 3); but it continued to exist as an independent state, since we find the Pallantieis mentioned along with the Tegeatae, Megalopolitae and Aseatae, as joining Epaminondas before the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 362. (Xen. Hell. vii. 5. 5) Pallantium subsequently sank into a mere village, but was restored and enlarged by the emperor Antoninus Pius, who conferred upon it freedom from taxation and other privileges, on account of its reputed connection with Rome. The town was visited by Pausanias, who found here a shrine containing statues of Pallas and Evander, a temple of Core (Proserpine), a statue of Polybius; and on the hill above the town, which was anciently used as an acropolis, a temple of the pure (katharoi) gods. (Paus. viii. 43. § 1, 44. § § 5, 6.) Leake was unable to find the site of Pallantium, and supposed that it occupied a part of Tripolitza itself; though at a later time he appears to have adopted the erroneous opinion of Gell, who placed it at the village of Thana, to the S. of Triolitza. (Leake, Morea, vol. i., vol. iii. p. 36 Gell, Itinerary of the Morea, p. 136.) The remains of tie town were first discovered by the French expedition at a quarter of an hour's distance from the Khan of Makri on the road from Tripolitza to Leondari. The ruins have been used so long as a quarry by the inhabitants of Tripolitza and of the neighbouring villages, that there are very few traces of the ancient town. Ross discovered the foundations of the temple of the pure gods on the highest point of the acropolis.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
(Pallantion). An ancient town of Arcadia, near Tegea, said to have been founded by Pallas, son of Lycaon. Evander is said to have come from this place, and to have called the town which he founded on the banks of the Tiber Pallanteum (afterwards Palantium and Palatium), after the Arcadian town. Hence Evander is called Pallantius heros.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
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