Πληροφορίες για τον τόπο ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ (Δήμος) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

Πληροφορίες τοπωνυμίου

Εμφανίζονται 17 τίτλοι με αναζήτηση: Πληροφορίες για τον τόπο  στην ευρύτερη περιοχή: "ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ Δήμος ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ" .


Πληροφορίες για τον τόπο (17)

Κόμβοι επίσημοι

Μεσολόγγι

ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙ (Πόλη) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
  Το Μεσολόγγι αναφέρεται για πρώτη φoρά από τον Ενετό Paruta κατά την περιγραφή της ναυμαχίας της Ναυπάκτου. Σύμφωνα με την κυρίαρχη ιστορική άποψη, η oνoμασία τoυ πρoήλθε από τoν συνδυασμό των ιταλικών λέξεων mezzo langhi (Mezzolanghi) πoυ σημαίνει στo "μέσoν λιμνών" ή messo langhi (Messolanghi) πoυ σημαίνει "τόπo εν μέσω λιμνών". Μέχρι τo 1700 τo Μεσoλόγγι βρισκόταν κάτω από την Ενετική Κυριαρχία. Oι κάτoικoί τoυ ήταν στην πλειoψηφία τoυς ψαράδες. Oι κατoικίες τoυς ήταν καλύβες, κατασκευασμένες από αδιάβρoχo χoρτάρι (ρένα) και καλάμι, στερεωμένες σε πασσάλoυς για να μην έρχoνται σε επαφή με τη θάλασσα. Από τότε μέχρι σήμερα oνoμάζoνται πελάδες (σπίτια τoυ πελάγoυ). Τo 1770, κατά τα Oρλωφικά, o μεσoλoγγίτικoς στόλoς καταστράφηκε και περιήλθε στoυς Τoύρκoυς.
  Τo Μεσoλόγγι κήρυξε την επανάσταση στις 20 Μαϊoυ 1821. Η πρώτη πoλιoρκία τoυ ξεκινά στις 25 Oκτωβρίoυ 1822 και λήγει στις 31 Δεκεμβρίoυ 1822 με σημαντικές απώλειες τoυ εχθρoύ σε έμψυχo και άψυχo υλικό. Στις 15 Απριλίoυ 1825 αρχίζει η δεύτερη πoλιoρκία από τoν Κιoυταχή, τoυ oπoίoυ o στρατός αριθμoύσε 30.000 άνδρες, για να ενισχυθεί αργότερα με 10.000 άνδρες τoυ Ιμπραήμ. Ύστερα από ασφυκτική πoλιoρκία ενός έτoυς και μπρoστά στoν κίνδυνo τoυ θανάτoυ από τo λιμό, απoφασίζεται η Έξoδoς της Φρoυράς τη νύχτα της 10ης Απρίλη 1826. Στo Μεσoλόγγι βρίσκoνταν 10.500 άτoμα εκ των oπoίων oι 3.500 ήταν oπλoφόρoι. Ελάχιστoι ήταν αυτoί πoυ σώθηκαν ξεφεύγoντας από τoν τoυρκικό κλoιό μετά την πρoδoσία τoυ σχεδίoυ τoυς.
  Τo Μεσoλόγγι oνoμάστηκε "Ιερά Πόλις" τo 1937 με κείμενo νόμoυ της κυβέρνησης ως αναγνώριση της θυσίας των κατoίκων τoυ κατά τoν Απελευθερωτικό Αγώνα.
  Σήμερα τo Μεσoλόγγι διατηρεί την Πύλη Εισόδoυ και τμήμα από το ένδοξο Oχύρωμα των Ελεύθερων Πoλιoρκημένων, ανακατασκευασμένο από τον Όθωνα. Αμέσως μετά την Πύλη βρίσκεται o κήπoς των Ηρώων, μέσα στoν oπoίo έχoυν ταφεί ανώνυμoι και επώνυμoι ήρωες πoυ έπεσαν ένδoξα κατά την Ηρωική Έξoδo. Τo Ηρώo αποτελεί τα Ηλύσια Πεδία τoυ νεότερoυ Ελληνισμoύ και είναι αναμφίβoλα τo πιo εντυπωσιακό πάρκo της Ελλάδας. Κάθε χρόνo στην εoρτή των Bαΐων εoρτάζεται η επέτειoς της Εξόδoυ, που απoτελεί τη "μεγάλη τοπική γιoρτή" στην oπoία συμμετέχει επίσημα η Ελληνική Πολιτεία.
  Τo Μεσoλόγγι είναι η πατρίδα πέντε πρωθυπoυργών της Ελλάδας, με εξέχoυσα τη φυσιoγνωμία τoυ Χαρίλαου Τρικoύπη και των λογοτεχνών Κ. Παλαμά, Μ. Μαλακάση, Α. Τραυλαντώνη. Είναι η πόλη πoυ αγάπησε και άφησε την τελευταία τoυ πνoή o Λόρδoς Βύρων, πρoσφέρoντας σημαντικές υπηρεσίες στoν Αγώνα των "Ελευθέρων Πoλιoρκημένων".
  Η πόλη τoυ Μεσoλoγγίoυ, πρωτεύουσα του νομού Αιτωλοακαρνανίας με 17.597 κατοίκους, είναι όμoρφη, λειτoυργική , με oρθή πoλεoδoμική διαρρύθμιση, πρoικισμένη με πoλλά ενδιαφέρoντα oικoδoμήματα παραδoσιακής αρχιτεκτoνικής. Τo αρχoντικό των Τρικoύπηδων, του Παλαμά, η Βάλβειoς Βιβλιoθήκη, η Πινακoθήκη Σύγχρονης Τέχνης Χρήστoυ και Σoφίας Μoσχανδρέoυ δίνουν τη σφραγίδα της πνευματικότητας και του μεγαλείoυ πoυ ανέκαθεν χαρακτήριζε τo Μεσoλόγγι. Τo Μoυσείo Ιστoρίας και Τέχνης στεγάζεται σ' ένα νεoκλασικό κτίριo στη πλατεία Μ. Μπότσαρη και φιλoξενεί πίνακες διασήμων Ελλήνων και ξένων ζωγράφων πoυ εμπνεύστηκαν από τoν Αγώνα τoυ Μεσoλoγγίoυ.
  Oι ζώνες πρασίνoυ, oι χώρoι αναψυχής, η λιμνoθάλασσα, η ιστoρία αλλά ταυτόχρoνα τα σύγχρονα oυζερί με τoυς τoπικoύς "μεζέδες", oι ταβέρνες και τα ψαράδικα συνθέτoυν τη σημερινή ιδιαιτερότητα τoυ Μεσoλoγγίoυ που γoητεύει όσoυς τo επισκέπτoνται, αλλά και τους νέους που αποφασίζουν να σπουδάσουν στο ΤΕΙ του Μεσολογγίου.
  Γεωγραφία
  Το Μεσoλόγγι βρίσκεται στην είσoδo τoυ Πατραϊκoύ κόλπoυ και ανάμεσα στις εκβoλές δύo πoταμών, τoυ Αχελώoυ και τoυ Ευήνoυ. Oι φερτές ύλες των δύo πoταμών σχημάτισαν με τo πέρασμα των αιώνων ένα ιδιαίτερα εκτεταμένo σύστημα αβαθών νερών, τρεις λιμνoθάλασσες, τoυ Μεσoλoγγίoυ, τoυ Αιτωλικoύ και της Κλείσoβας. Oι λιμνoθάλασσες της περιoχής διαχωρίζoνται από τη θάλασσα τoυ Ιoνίoυ με λoυρoνησίδες ή αμμoθίνες. Oι υγρoβιότoπoι της περιοχής είναι από τoυς σημαντικότερoυς της Μεσoγείoυ με σπάνια χλωρίδα και πανίδα. Στα νερά τoυς καθρεπτίζoνται τα βoυνά Βαράσoβα, Αράκυνθoς, Ταξιάρχης και πλήθoς λόφων από προσχωμένες νησίδες των Εχινάδων πoυ βρίσκoνται διάσπαρτοι στην περιoχή. Η παρoυσία αυτών εκτός της ιδιαιτερότητας τoυ τoπίoυ δημιoυργεί ιδανικές συνθήκες για την πoικιλία των φυτικών και ζωικών ειδών. Τo Μεσoλόγγι είναι o πιo φημισμένoς ιχθυoπαραγωγικός τόπoς στην Ελλάδα και η περιoχή φιλoξενεί πoλλά ιχθυoτρoφεία.

Το κείμενο παρατίθεται τον Δεκέμβριο 2004 από την ακόλουθη ιστοσελίδα, με φωτογραφίες, της Γενικής Γραμματείας Περιφέρειας Δυτικής Ελλάδας/a>


Κόμβοι, εμπορικοί

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Halicyrna

ΑΛΙΚΑΡΝΑ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ
Halikurna: Eth. Hadikurnaios. A village of Aetolia, described by Strabo as situated 30 stadia below Calydon towards the sea Pliny places it near Pleuron. Leake discovered some ruins, midway between Kurt-aga (the site of Calydon) and the eastern termination of the lagoon of Mesolonghi, which he supposes to be the remains of Halicyrna.

Aracynthus

ΑΡΑΚΥΝΘΟΣ (Βουνό) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
Aracynthus (Arakunthos: Zygos), a range of mountains in Aetolia running in a south-easterly direction from the Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. pp. 450, 460; Dionys. Perieg. 431; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 121.) Pliny (iv. 2. § 3) and Solinus (7. § 22) erroneously call Aracynthus a mountain of Acarnania. If we can trust the authority of later writers and of the Roman poets, there was a mountain of the name of Aracynthus both in Boeotia and in Attica, or perhaps on the frontiers of the two countries. Thus Stephanus B. (s. v.) and Servius (ad Virg. Eel. ii. 24) speak of a Boeotian Aracynthus; and Sextus Empiricus (adv. Gramm. c. 12, p. 270), Lutatius (ad Stat. Theb. ii. 239), and Vibius Sequester (de Month. p. 27) mention an Attic Aracynthus. The mountain is connected with the Boeotian hero Amphion both by Propertius (iii. 13. 42) and by Virgil (Ecl. ii. 24); and the line of Virgil - Amphion Dircaeus in Actaeo Aracyntho - would seem to place the mountain on the frontiers of Boeotia and Attica. (Comp. Brandstater, Die Gesch. des Aetol. Landes, p. 108.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Calydon

ΚΑΛΥΔΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ
  Kaludon: Eth. Kaludonios, Calydonius: Kurt-aga. The most celebrated city of Aetolia, in the heroic age, was founded by Aetolus in the land of the Curetes, and was called Calydon, after the name of his son. Calydon and the neighbouring town of Pleuron are said by Strabo to have been once the ornament (proschema) of Greece, but to have sunk in his time into insignificance. Calydon was situated in a fertile plain near the Evenus, and at the distance of 7 1/2 (Roman) miles from the sea, according to Pliny It is frequently mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of petreessa and aipeine, from which we might conclude that the city was situated on a, rocky height; but Strabo says that these epithets were to be applied to the district and not to the city itself. Homer also celebrates the fertility of the plain of the lovely (eranne) Calydon. In the earliest times the inhabitants of Calydon appear to have been engaged in incessant hostilities with the Curetes, who continued to reside in their ancient capital Pleuron, and who endeavoured to expel the invaders from their country. A vivid account of one of the battles between the Curetes and Calydonians is given in ran episode of the Iliad (ix. 529, seq.). The heroes of Calydon are among the most celebrated of the heroic age. It was the residence of Oeneus, father of Tydeus and Meleager, and grandfather of Diomedes. In the time of Oeneus Artemis sent a monstrous boar to lay waste the fields of Calydon, which was hunted by Meleager and numerous other heroes. The Calydonians took part in the Trojan war under their king Thoas, the son (not the grandson) of Oeneus. (Hom. Il. ii. 638.)
  Calydon is not often mentioned in the historical period. In B.C. 391 we find it in the possession of the Achaeans, but we are not told how it came into their hands; we know, however; that Naupactus was given to the Achaeans at the close of the Peloponnesian war, and it was probably the Achaeans settled at Naupactus who gained possession of the town. In the above-mentioned year the Achaeans at Calydon, were so hard pressed by the Acarnanians that they applied to the Lacedaemonians for help; and Agesilaus in consequence was sent with an army into Aetolia. Calydon remained in the hands of the Achaeans till the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), when Eparninondas restored, the town to the Aetolians. In the civil war between Caesar. and Pompey (B.C. 48) it still appears as a considerable place; but a few years afterwards its inhabitants were removed by Augustus to Nicopolis, which he founded to commemorate his victory at Actium (B.C. 31). It continues however to be mentioned by the later geographers.
  Calydon was the head-quarters of the worship of Artemis Laphria, and when, the inhabitants of the town were removed to Nicopolis, Augustus gave to Patrae in Achaia the statue of this goddess which had belonged to Calydon. (Paus. iv. 31. § 7, vii. 18. § 8.) There was also a statue of Dionysus at Patrae which had been removed from Calydon. (Paus. vii. 21.) Near Calydon there was a temple of Apollo Laphrius (Strabo); and in the neighbourhood of the city there was also a lake celebrated for its fish.
  In the Roman poets we find Calydonis, a woman of Calydon, i. e. Deianira, daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon (Ov. Met. ix. 112); Calydonius hers, i. e Meleager; Calydonius amnis, i. e. the Achelous, separating Acarnania and Aetolia, because Calydon was the chief town of Aetolia; Calydonia regna, i. e. Apulia, because Diomedes, the son of Tydeus, and, grandson of Oeneus, king of. Calydon, afterwards obtained Apulia as his kingdom.
  There has been some dispute respecting the site of Calydon. The Peutingerian Table places it east of the Evenus, and 9 miles from this river; but this is clearly a mistake. It is evident from Strabo's account, and from all the legends relating to Calydon, that both this city and Pleuron lay on the western side of the Evenus, between this river and the Achelous. Leake supposes the ruins which he discovered at Kurt-aga, a little to the E. of the Evenus, to be those of Calydon. They are distant a ride of 1 hour and 35 minutes from Mesolonghi, and are situated on one of the last slopes of Mt. Aracynthus at the entrance of the vale of the Evenus, where that river issues from the interior valleys into the maritime plain. They do not stand on any commanding height, as the Homeric epithets above mentioned would lead us to suppose, and it is perhaps for this reason that Strabo, supposes these epithets to apply to the surrounding country. Thee remains of the walls are traceable in their whole circuit of near two miles and a half; and outside the walls Leake discovered some ruins, which may have been the peribolus of the temple of, Artemis Laphria.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Pleuron

ΠΛΕΥΡΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
  (Pleuron: Eth. Pleuronios, also Pleuroneus, Pleuronius). the name of two cities in Aetolia, the territory of which was called Pleuronia. ( Strab. x. p. 465; Auson. Epitaph. 10.)
1. Old Pleuron ( he palaia Pleuron, Strab. x. p. 451), was situated in the plain between the Achelous and the Evenus, W. of Calydon, at the foot of Mount Curium, from which the Curetes are said to have derived their name. Pleuron and Calydon were the two chief towns of Aetolia in the heroic age, and are said by Strabo (x. p. 450) to have been the ancient ornament (proschema) of Greece. Pleuron was originally a town of the Curetes, and its inhabitants were engaged in frequent wars with the Aetolians of the neighbouring town of Calydon. The Curetes, whose attack upon Calydon is mentioned in an episode of the Iliad (ix. 529), appear to have been the inhabitants of Pleuron. At the time of the Trojan War, however, Pleuron was an Aetolian city, and its inhabitants sailed against Troy under the command of the Aetolian chief Thoas, the son (not the grandson) of Oeneus. (Hom. Il. ii. 639, comp. xiii. 217, xiv. 116.) Ephorus related that the Curetes were expelled from Pleuronia, which was formerly called Curetis, by Aeolians (ap. Strab. x. p. 465); and this tradition may also be traced in the statement of Thucydides (iii. 102) that the district, called Calydon and Pleuronia in the time of the Peloponnesian War, formerly bore the name of Aeolis. Since Pleuron appears as an Aetolian city in the later period of the heroic age, it is represented in some traditions as such from the beginning. Hence it is said to have derived its name from Pleuron, a son of Aetolus ; and at the very time that some legends represent it as the capital of the Curetes, and engaged in war with Oeneus, king of Calydon, others suppose it to have been governed by the Aetolian Thestius, the brother of Oeneus. Thestius was also represented as a descendant of Pleuron; and hence Pleuron had an heroum or a chapel at Sparta, as being the ancestor of Leda, the daughter of Thestius. But there are all kinds of variations in these. traditions. Thus we find in Sophocles Oeneus, and not Thestius, represented as king of Pleuron. (Apollod. i. 7. § 7; Paus. iii. 14. § 8; Soph. Trach. 7.) One of the tragedies of Phrynichus, the subject of which appears to have been the death of Meleager, the son of Oeneus, was entitled Pleuroniai, or the Pleuronian Women; and hence it is not improbable that Phrynichus, as well as Sophocles, represented Oeneus as king of Pleuron. (Paus. x. 31. § 4.) Pleuron is rarely mentioned in the historical period. It was abandoned by its inhabitants, says Strabo, in consequence of the ravages of Demetrius, the Aetolian, a surname probably given to Demetrius II., king of Macedonia (who reigned B.C. 239 - 229), to distinguish him from Demetrius Poliorcetes. (Strab. x. p. 451.) The inhabitants now built the town of
2. New Pleuron (he neotera Pleuron which was situated at the foot of Mt. Aracynthus. Shortly before the destruction of Corinth (B.C. 146), we find Pleuron, which was then a member of the Achaean League, petitioning the Romans to be dissevered from it. (Paus. vii. 11. § 3.) Leake supposes, on satisfactory grounds, the site of New Pleuron to be represented by the ruins called to Kastron tes Kurias Eirenes, or the Castle of Lady Irene about one hour's ride from Mesolonghi. These ruins occupy the broad summit of one of the steep and rugged heights of Mt. Zyqos (the ancient Aracynthus), which bound the plain of Mesolonghi to the north. Leake says that the walls were about a mile in circumference, but Mure and Dodwell describe the circuit as nearly two miles. The most remarkable remains within the ruined walls are a theatre about 100 feet in diameter, and above it a cistern, 100 feet long, 70 broad, and 14 deep, excavated on three sides in the rock, and on the fourth constructed of masonry. In the acropolis Leake discovered some remains of Doric shafts of white marble, which he conjectures to have belonged to the temple of Athena, of which Dicaearchus speaks (1. 55) ; but the temple mentioned by Dicaearchus must have been at Old Pleuron, since Dicaearchus was a contemporary of Aristotle and Theophrastus, and could not have been alive at the time of the foundation of New Pleuron. Dodwell, who visited the ruins of this city, erroneously maintains that they are those of Oeniadae, which were, however, situated among the marshes on the other side of the Achelous. Leake places Old Pleuron further south, at a site called Ghyfto-kastro, on the edge of the plain of Mesolonghi, where there are a few Hellenic remains.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Calydon

ΚΑΛΥΔΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ
   A city of Aetolia, below the river Evenus, and between that stream and the sea. It was famed in Grecian story on account of the boar-hunt in its neighbourhood, the theme of poetry from Homer to Statius. We are told by mythologists that Oeneus, the father of Meleager and Tydeus, reigned at Calydon, while his brother Agrius settled in Pleuron. Frequent wars, however, arose between them on the subject of contiguous lands. Some time after the Peloponnesian War, we find Calydon in the possession of the Achaeans. It is probable that the Calydonians themselves invited over the Achaeans, to defend them against the Acarnanians. Their city was, in consequence, occupied by an Achaean garrison, until Epaminondas, after the battle of Leuctra, compelled them to evacuate the place. It was still a town of importance during the Social War, and as late as the time of Caesar. Augustus accomplished its downfall by removing the inhabitants to Nicopolis.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Pleuron

ΠΛΕΥΡΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
   An ancient city in Aetolia, situated at a little distance from the coast. It was abandoned by its inhabitants when Demetrius II., king of Macedonia, laid waste the surrounding country, and a new city was built under the same name near the ancient one. The two cities are distinguished by geographers under the names of Old Pleuron and New Pleuron respectively.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Links

Calydon

ΚΑΛΥΔΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ
  City of Aetolia on the northern coast of the western part of the gulf of Corinth.
  In mythology, Calydon was founded by a king by that name, one of the sons of Aetolus and of Pronoe, the daughter of Phorbas. Calydon had only daughters, one of which, Epicaste, married Agenor, the son of her uncle Pleuron. Thus, Agenor became king of Pleuron and Calydon, as was his son Porthaon after him. In the next generation, Pleuron became the kingdom of Thestius, the son of Ares and of Porthaon's sister Demonice, while Calydon remained the kingdom of Oeneus, Porthaon's son.
  Oeneus first married Althaea, the daughter of Thestius, and they had two children, Meleagrus and Deiareina. Once grown up, Meleagrus took the lead in an episode called the hunt of Calydon, which tells the story of the hunt of a monstrous boar sent by Artemis in the country of Calydon after Oeneus had forgotten to name her in a thanksgiving ceremony at the end of the crops. To try and get rid of the beast, Meleagrus called upon heroes from all around Greece to come and help him in the hunt.
  After Althaea had died, Oeneus married Periboea, daughter of Hipponous, with whom he had a son, Tydeus. When Tydeus reached adulthood, he killed his brother and had to leave his country. He eventually arrived at the court of Adrastus in Argos at the same time as Polynices, the exiled son of Oedipus deprived of his share of kingship by his brother. Adrastus greeted them both, purified Tydeus of his crime and gave one of his daughters in marriage to each, promissing to help them recapture their throne. This is why Tydeus got involved in the expedition of the seven against Thebes, where he died, and his son Diomedes, who was thus also a grandson of Adrastus by his mother Deipyle, became king of Argos and participated in the victorious expedition of the Epigones against Thebes.
  Diomedes was also involved in a fight against the sons of Agrius, a brother of Oeneus, who had helped their father take over the throne of Calydon from an aging Oeneus unable to defend himself. Diomedes killed all but two of them who had fled in Peloponnese, and handed Oeneus' kingdom over to Andraemon, the husband of Oeneus' daughter Gorge.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Pleuron

ΠΛΕΥΡΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
  City of Aetolia on the northern coast of the gulf of Patrae.
  In mythology, Pleuron was founded by a king by that name, one of the sons of Aetolus, the eponym of the Aetolians, himself a son of Endymion, king of Elis, and of Pronoe, the daughter of Phorbas and sister of Augeas, another king of Elis. Pleuron was the brother of Calydon, who founded the nearby city by that name. He married Xanthippe, the daughter of Dorus (the eponym of the Dorians). They had several sons, starting with Agenor, who married Epicaste, the daughter of Calydon, to become king of Pleuron and Calydon (Calydon had no sons).
  Agenor was the father of Porthaon, who succeded him, and of Demonice, who was loved by Ares and became the mother of Thestius. Thestius became king of Pleuron while Oeneus, the son of Porthaon, became king of Calydon. Thestius was the father of, among others, Althaea and Leda. Althaea became the wife of her uncle Oeneus and the mother of Meleagrus and Deiareina (one of Heracles' wives), while Leda became the wife of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta, while he was in exile at the court of her father after having been unseated by his half-brother Hippocoon. Leda was loved by Zeus under the appearance of a swan and was the mother of Castor and Pollux, Helen and Clytaemnestra.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Project index

Pleuron

ΠΛΕΥΡΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
Total results on 24/4/2001: 75 for Pleuron.

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Kalydon

ΚΑΛΥΔΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ
  An ancient city in Aitolia near the N coast of the gulf of Patras, at the entrance to the gulf of Corinth, on the S ridges of Mt. Arakynthos. It is mentioned in the Iliad where it is the scene of the struggle between Herakles and the river god Acheloos, and of the hunt for the Kalydonian boar.
  The city lay on a hill with two summits and in the valley below. There are a few remains of the circuit walls dating from the beginning of the 3d c. B.C.; the perimeter was ca. 4 km and there were occasional towers. The acropolis, to the NW, was well fortified and had a double gate flanked by two towers; inside this was a large inner courtyard. The road to Stratos, the ancient capital of Akarnania, left the city through that gate. The W gate was also handsome and well fortified; it was on the axis of the Via Sacra, 400 m long, which led to Laphrion, the sacred precinct situated on a narrow plateau and probably dedicated in the 8th c. B.C. to the worship of Artemis and Apollo.
  Various periods of construction in Laphrion are distinguishable. Two Doric temples in antis date from the end of the 7th c. B.C.; Temple A was dedicated to Apollo (or Dionysos?) and Temple B to Artemis. Remains of Temple B include terracotta decorations (sima, antefixes, akroteria, and metopes). Between the first decade and the second half of the 6th c. these two temples were refaced. To that period belongs a series of terracotta metopes from Temple A, painted with mythological figures whose Corinthian origin is confirmed by letters in the Corinthian alphabet incised before the metopes were fired. From Temple B in the same period come antefixes with anthemia, an akroteria with sphinxes, and metopes that depict the Labors of Herakles. About 500 B.C. Temple B was enclosed by a portico. Two other small buildings belong to the 6th c.; one of them, an apsidal structure, yielded numerous votive offerings to Artemis and Dionysos.
  At the beginning of the 4th c. B.C. the entire zone was remodeled and buttressed by massive ramparts. A portico was built to the SE, with six columns along the front, and ca. 360 a peripteral Doric temple in poros, with 6 by 13 columns, arose on the site of the Temple of Artemis. It had a marble roof, gutters with spouts representing dogs' heads, and sculptured metopes (only a single undecipherable one remains). In the cella, which probably had 20 channeled Ionic columns, stood the chryselephantine statue of Artemis, the work of Menaechmos and Soidas of Naupaktos (460 B.C.) mentioned by Pausanias (7.18.10). This statue is believed to be represented on some coins of Patras. An altar, an exedra, and an entrance propylon are of the same date as the temple. In the Hellenistic period, N of the sacred precinct, a large square was built; it had a long stoa with two aisles, probably further divided into different lanes and decorated at the ends by two large semicircular niches (3d-2d c. B.C.). To the W of the square stairs led to the valley of the Kallirhoe river.
  In the remaining area, limited to the N by the city gate and to the S by a slope, the remains of a series of small archaic thesauroi have yielded abundant terracotta objects and some Hellenistic tombs. The most important of these, in a valley to the SE, is the heroon, also called the Leonteion after its owner, Leon of Kalydon. It is a rectangular building (37.5 x 34.4 m) dating from ca. 100 B.C., with rooms on three sides, and promenades, around a square peristyle (16.78 m on a side). The largest room, to the N, has at least 11 large medallions on the walls, on which are carved the gods and heroes of the legendary history of Kalydon. An arch on the N side of the room leads to a small chamber below which is the hypogeum, with a barrel vault and marble sarcophagi in the form of beds. A second heroon has been discovered in the valley of the Kallirhoe.
  The decline of Kalydon began in the Roman era during the struggle between Caesar and Pompey, when the city was occupied by Pompey's followers. In 30 B.C. the inhabitants of Kalydon were transferred to Nikopolis. The major terracotta finds, marvelous documents of archaic Corinthian painting, are in the National Museum at Athens. The stone gate of the crypt of the heroon is also there.

L. Vlad Borrelli, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Oct 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Pleuron

ΠΛΕΥΡΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
  The city is in Aitolia-Akarnania. The name refers to two settlements, the older of which was at the foot of Mt. Kurios (Strab. 10.451) between the river Acheloos and the river Euenos, and was mentioned by Homer (Il. 2.638).
  Pleuron, according to Strabo, was founded by the Kouretes; or Thoas, son of Aeneas, guided the Aitolians there (10.461). When Demetrios II of Macedonia destroyed Pleuron the inhabitants founded a new city on the uplands of Arakinthos, which had the protection of Rome before the taking of Corinth. During the Imperial age the uprisings in Aitolia continued. The ruins of the more ancient city are N of the newer one and cosist of a few remnants of Cyclopean walls. Nea Pleuron has been identified on the Arakinthos (Zygos) in the locality of the castle of Kurias Eirenes.
  The city wall is a large rectangule with seven gates and 31 towers served by stairways. The masonry is partly trapezoidal and partly peudo-isodomic with squared faces, well preserved almost everywhere, and datable to ca. 230 B.C. The acropolis occupies the upper part of the site, but little of it remains. A Byzantine chapel was built on the remains of the Temple of Athena. The actual city occupies a vast terrace 243 m above sea level, with which it is linked N-S by a defense wall that also encircles the port. The civil buildings are to the S. The theater is in the SW part of the city with the proscenium leaning against the inside surface of the city wall. The central part of the building housing the skene is a tower. The proscenium had six columns, and the parascenia must have been elevated above it and must have leaned against the wall. The circle of the orchestra is tangent to the skene building. The cavea, well preserved at the N, had five sections and six staircases. The construction of the theater is contemporary with that of the walls.
  Several other areas are recognizable within the city walls, including the site of the agora, with a stoa oriented N-S and ca. 62 m long, and the plan of the gymnasium. To the SE was a large communal cistern (30 x 20 m) with five rectangular basins. There are also remains of unidentifiable public buildings and rather extensive remnants of houses and cisterns. The necropoleis extend to the S of the terrace occupied by the city.

N. Bonacasa, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Oct 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Σημερινή τοποθεσία

Χίλια Σπίτια

ΑΛΙΚΑΡΝΑ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΙΕΡΑ ΠΟΛΙΣ ΜΕΣΟΛΟΓΓΙΟΥ

Γυφτόκαστρο

ΠΛΕΥΡΩΝ (Αρχαία πόλη) ΑΙΤΩΛΟΑΚΑΡΝΑΝΙΑ
Ερείπια της παλιάς Πλευρώνας που κατάστρεψε ο Δημήτριος, το 234 π.Χ.

Κάστρο της Κυρά Ειρήνης

Ερείπια της νεώτερης Πλευρώνας. Το κάστρο πήρε το όνομα από την Ειρήνη, σύζυγο του αυτοκράτορα Ανδρόνικου, του Βυζαντίου.

Έχετε τη δυνατότητα να δείτε περισσότερες πληροφορίες για γειτονικές ή/και ευρύτερες περιοχές επιλέγοντας μία από τις παρακάτω κατηγορίες και πατώντας το "περισσότερα":


GTP Headlines

Λάβετε το καθημερινό newsletter με τα πιο σημαντικά νέα της τουριστικής βιομηχανίας.

Εγγραφείτε τώρα!

Αναχωρησεις πλοιων

Διαφημίσεις