ΦΥΛΗ (Αρχαίος δήμος) ΦΥΛΗ
Phyle (Phule), still called Fili, a strong fortress, stands on a steep rock, commanding the narrow pass across Mt. Parnes, through which runs the direct road from Thebes to Athens, past Acharnae. On the northern side of the pass was the territory of Tanagra. Phyle is situated at the distance of more than 120 stadia from Athens (Psephisma, ap. Dem. de Cor. p. 238), not 100 stadia, as Diodorus states (xiv. 32), and was one of the strongest Athenian fortresses on the Boeotian frontier. The precipitous rock upon which it stands can only be approached by a ridge on the eastern side. It is memorable in history as the place seized by Thrasybulus and the Athenian exiles in B.C. 404, and from which they commenced their operations against the Thirty Tyrants. The height of Phyle commands a magnificent view of the whole Athenian plain, of the city itself, of Mt. Hymettus, and the Saronic Gulf. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. 2, seq.; Died. l. c.; Nep. Thrasyb. 2; Strab. ix. pp. 396, 404.) In Phyle there was a building called the Daphnephoreion, containing a picture, which represented the Thargelia. (Athen. x. p. 424, f.)
This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Now Fili; a strongly fortified place in Attica, on the confines of Boeotia, and memorable as the place which Thrasybulus and the Athenian patriots seized soon after the end of the Peloponnesian War, B.C. 404, and from which they directed their operations against the Thirty Tyrants at Athens. It was an Attic deme.
The most direct way from Athens to Thebes led from Chassia up Parnes
by a difficult pass to the W of Harma and the deme of Phyle, over the watershed
into the Skourta plain, and thus to Thebes. This was the route taken, in reverse,
by Thrasybolos in 404-403 B.C. when he brought his followers from Boiotia to Phyle
and later to Peiraeus (Xen. Hell. 2.4.2). In the 4th c. B.C. an ephebic garrison
was stationed at Phyle (Dem. De cor. 38 and IG II2 2971). The fort was captured
by Kassander, retaken in 304 by Demetrios (Plut. Dem. 23.2: surely katastrepsamenos
does not have to mean "pulled down"), and returned to Athens. It continued
to be used by the ephebes in Hellenistic times.
To guard this important pass, the Athenians built a compact, well-sited, naturally defended fort early in the 4th c. B.C. In style quarry-faced isodomic ashlar, the outside face still stands to a maximum of 20 courses, strengthened by towers, the one immediately N of the main gateway circular, the others rectangular. Linking these towers was a rampart walk, defended by an embattled parapet of embrasures and buttressed merlons covered with heavy coping blocks. Within the fortification, on its flat summit, are the slight remains of several buildings. From this citadel the guards could sigual directly to Athens.
C.W.J. Eliot, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 14 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
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