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Religious figures biography (6)
According to tradition and the information of the New Testament (
2 Corinthians , Galatians, 2 Timothy , Titus, and other Epistles of St Paul),
the venerable bishop Titus was of Greek origin. His parents were nobles from Crete.
Soon Titus became the disciple and follower of the Apostle of Nations. He followed
Paul in his ecumenical and missionary journeys. As a matter of fact Apostle Paul
took Titus to Jerusalem to attend the proceedings of the Apostolic Synod. Titus
gained invaluable experience from this Synod. Soon afterwards, around 55-56 AD,
while Paul was preaching at Ephesus, Titus was sent to Corinth to assist the local
church with matters of utmost importance. Having fulfilled his task, he left for
Philippi where he met his master. Titus gave a full account to Paul of his journey
to Corinth. In the fall of the same year, Titus was dispatched to Corinth once
more to conclude his teaching. Apostle Paul was very proud of his pupil. In Corinthians
B' Paul refers to Titus as "partner" and "fellow helper" to his missionary work.
Titus proved one of the best disciples and partners to Paul. The Apostle
entrusted him with the organisation of the Cretan Church and appointed him bishop.
Titus was installed (took office) in Crete between 62-64 AD, i.e. following the
release of Paul from Rome, where he had been brought to stand trial as reactionist.
Although the Gospel had already been delivered to Crete by Cretan missionaries,
yet certain schism matters needed immediate attention. In addition, the organisation
of the Church was deficient. Christian communities suffered internal conflicts
on account of false teaching. Thus, the task of Titus was very delicate and difficult.
In spite of this Titus managed to resolve the conflict and restore peace among
the contending parties. As an instrument of divine justice, Titus distinguished
himself as a paragon of piety and an eradicator of impiety. The influence of St.
Titus was such that a great many heretics and idolaters revoked their heresies
or abandoned their idols to become followers of the Cretan Saint. According to
legend, St. Titus, the agent of Paul, died at Gortyna of Crete at the age of 94,
after many years of service to God. During the fourth century the Church declared
Titus saint and since then his memory is celebrated on August 25. In addition,
he was recognised as patron of Crete.
During the 6th century a wooden roofed basilica was built in his name
at the place were his holy relics had been deposited. However, when Crete was
conquered by the Saracens (Arabs) in 824 AD, the basilica was demolished and since
then it remains in ruins. The saint's skull was salvaged by devout Christians.
Following the recovery of Crete by the Byzantine general Nicephoros Phokas in
961 AD., a stately Metropolitan church was erected in the town of Heraklion (Chandax)
where all holy relics were kept. When the town of Heraklion fell to the Turks
in 1669, the saint's skull was transported to Venice and deposited in the Basilica
of St. Mark. The skull of the saint was returned to Crete following a series of
negotiations with the representatives of the western church which lasted from
1957 to 19G6. On the morning of May 15, 1966 hundreds of devout Christians gathered
at the port of Heraklion to honour the arrival of the holy relics. It was an extraordinary
experience for all Christians. The Church celebrated the event with a stately
joint liturgy at the Cathedral. The memorable Archbishop of Crete, Eugenios, eulogised
the saint's skull as "to dokimwvtero upevr crusivon kai timiwvteron livqwn polutelwvn
qhsaurwvn". Since then the relics have been a blessing for the Church of Crete.
In conclusion, Apostle Titus invites us all to become the disciples
of true teachers and with the grace of God turn fervent missionaries in our land.
In this day and age thrive heresies and false religions. Their teachings have
a charming effect on Cretans, particularly on the young. We only need assimilate
the teachings of Apostle Titus and follow his example in order to avert the danger
The text is cited November 2003 from the follow URL of The Greek Orthodox
Archdiocese of Australia
St. Andrew of Crete
, 660 - 740
Theologian, homilist, hymnographer, b. at Damascus
about the middle of the seventh century; d. 4 July, 740 (or 720), on which day
his feast is celebrated in the Greek Church.
At the age of fifteen he repaired to Jerusalem,
entered a monastery, was enrolled amongst the clerics of Theodore, Bishop of Jerusalem,
rose to some distinction, and was finally sent by Theodore in 685 to felicitate
the Emperor, Constantine Pogonatus, on the holding of the Sixth General Council.
His embassy fulfilled, he remained at Constantinople,
received deaconship, again distinguished himself, and was finally appointed to
the metropolitan see of Gortyna, in Crete.
As a preacher, his twenty-two published and twenty-one unpublished
discourses, replete with doctrine, history, unction, Scriptural quotation, poetic
imagination, dignified and harmonious phraseology, and rhetorically divided in
clear and precise fashion, justify his assignment to the front rank of ecclesiastical
orators of the Byzantine epoch. He is principally interesting to us, however,
as for the reason that he is credited with the invention (or at least the introduction
into Greek liturgical services) of the canon, a new form of hymnody of which we
have no intimation before his time. His “Greek Canon”, whose immense
length of 250 strophes has passed into a proverb with the Greeks, has been criticized
for its length, its subtilties, its forced comparisons, it still receives the
tribute of recitation entire on the Thursday of the fifth week of Lent, and the
four parts into which it is divided are also severally assigned to the first four
days of the first week. His hymnographic labours were indeed immense, if we may
credit absolutely all the attributions made to him.
H.T. Henry, ed.
Transcribed by: Mark A. Banach
This extract is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.
- The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908)
St. Cyril of Crete
St. Cyril led an ascetic life by the end of the third and beginning of the fourth century AD. As Archbishop of Crete, he administered the Church for 25 years. During the Diocletian and Maximian persecutions he suffered torture and was finally executed by sword. Our Church celebrates his memory on July 14 each year.
St. Philip of Gortyna
Bishop of Gortyna, Crete (c 180). Little is known about him except for his authorship of a now lost treatise against the Gnostics.
Feastday 11 April