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Listed 100 (total found 165) sub titles with search on: Mythology for wider area of: "ARCADIA Prefecture PELOPONNISOS" .


Mythology (165)

Aboriginals

ARKADIA (Ancient area) PELOPONNISOS

Pelasgus & Cellene

The Arcadians say that Pelasgus was the first inhabitant of this land. It is natural to suppose that others accompanied Pelasgus, and that he was not by himself; for otherwise he would have been a king without any subjects to rule over. However, in stature and in prowess, in beauty and in wisdom, Pelasgus excelled his fellows, and for this reason, I think, he was chosen to be king by them. Asius the poet says of him: "The godlike Pelasgus on the wooded mountains Black earth gave up, that the race of mortals might exist".
Pelasgus on becoming king invented huts that humans should not shiver, or be soaked by rain, or oppressed by heat. Moreover; he it was who first thought of coats of sheep-skins, such as poor folk still wear in Euboea and Phocis. He too it was who checked the habit of eating green leaves, grasses, and roots always inedible and sometimes poisonous. But he introduced as food the nuts of trees, not those of all trees but only the acorns of the edible oak. Some people have followed this diet so closely since the time of Pelasgus that even the Pythian priestess, when she forbade the Lacedaemonians to touch the land of the Arcadians, uttered the following verses: "In Arcadia are many men who eat acorns, Who will prevent you; though I do not grudge it you".
It is said that it was in the reign of Pelasgus that the land was called Pelasgia. (Paus. 8.1.4)

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited April 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


   Pelasgus, (Pelasgos). The mythical ancestor of the Pelasgi, by some regarded as sprung from the earth, but by others described as the son of Zeus; or of Phoroneus, or of Poseidon and Larissa.


Cyllene (Kullene), a nymph, who became the mother of Lycaon by Pelasgus. (Apollod. iii. 8.1). According to others, she was the wife of Lycaon. (Dionys. Hal. A. R. i. 13.)



Ancient myths

LADON (River) ARCADIA

Apollo and Daphne

Once upon a time Apollo questioned the power of Eros, who decided to show him exactly what it was that he could do. To do that, he made two arrows, one of gold and one of lead. The first, that he stuck into Apollo’s heart, had the ability to make people love madly whereas the other, that he sent to the nymph Daphne, made her abhor any idea of loving. The combination led to a continuous chase of Daphne by Apollo, which ended in an unexpected way; Daphne was the daughter of Ladon or of Peneus, who, as river-gods, had the ability of transformation. So when, finally, Apollo caught her, she had nothing else to do than ask her father to transform her. Her request was taken into account and suddenly she started to change into a laurel tree. Since then, Apollo has the laurel tree as his sacred plant.


Daphne and Leucippus

The Ladon is the most lovely river in Greece, and is also famous for the legend of Daphne that the poets tell. Oenomaus, prince of Pisa, had a son Leucippus. Leucippus fell in love with Daphne, but despaired of winning her to be his wife by an open courtship, as she avoided all the male sex. The following trick occurred to him by which to get her. Leucippus was growing his hair long for the river Alpheius. Braiding his hair as though he were a maiden, and putting on woman's clothes, he came to Daphne and said that he was a daughter of Oenomaus, and would like to share her hunting. As he was thought to be a maiden, surpassed the other maidens in nobility of birth and skill in hunting, and was besides most assiduous in his attentions, he drew Daphne into a deep friendship. Forthwith Daphne and the other maidens conceived a longing to swim in the Ladon, and stripped Leucippus in spite of his reluctance. Then, seeing that he was no maid, they killed him with their javelins and daggers.


There are many references of mythology to the river Ladonas. This is where the myth of Levkippos who dressed up as a woman in order to be close to his beloved nymph Daphne (an action which he paid with his life when he was revealed) took place. Here is also the place where Dimitra used to wash her hair, Artemis , the goddess of hunting used to hunt, the goatfooted god Pan used to roam. The latter, when going after the beautiful nymph Syringe approached her and transformed her to a reed of which he made his well-known pipe, which was named syringe. Here after a successful chase, Hercules caught the deer. In this place, in the beautiful mountains of Soronas, previously referred to as Aphrodisio Mountain, Aphrodite used to meet her Lover, god Mars (today there are ruins of an ancient temple and the baths of Eurikine Aphrodite).


MAINALON (Ski centre) ARCADIA

Phialo and Heracles, the jay's cry

This man's daughter, Phialo, had connection, say the Phigalians, with Heracles. When Alcimedon realized that she had a child, he exposed her to perish on the mountain, and with her the baby boy she had borne, whom the Arcadians call Aechmagoras. On being exposed the baby began to cry, and a jay heard him wailing and began to imitate his cries. It happened that Heracles, passing along that road, heard the jay, and, thinking that the crying was that of a baby and not of a bird, turned straight to the voice. Recognizing Phialo he loosed her from her bonds and saved the baby.


MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Pelias' daughters

When Medea reached Iolcus, she immediately began to plot against Pelias. She promised the daughters of Pelias that, if they wished, she would restore his youth to their father, now a very old man. Having butchered in some way a ram, she boiled his flesh with drugs in a pot, by the aid of which she took out of the pot a live lamb. So she took Pelias and cut him up to boil him, but what the daughters received was not enough to bury. This result forced the women to change their home to Arcadia, and after their death mounds were made there for their tombs. No poet, so far as I have read, has given them names, but the painter Micon inscribed on their portraits Asteropeia and Antinoe.


MENALON (Mountain) LEVIDI

Maenads or Maenalidae or Bacchae

   Bacchae, (Bakchai).
    (1) The female followers of Bacchus or Dionysus in his wanderings through the East, and represented as crowned with vine-leaves, wearing fawn-skins, and carrying the thyrsus in their hands. They are also known as Maenades (from mainomai, to rave) and Thyiades (from thuo, to sacrifice).
    (2) Priestesses of Bacchus or Dionysus.
    Maenades (Mainades). A name of the Bacchantes, from mainomai, "to rave," because they were frenzied in the worship of Dionysus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


OGION (Ancient city) TROPEA

Arion

A horse, offspring of Poseidon and Demeter, or of Earth, ridden by Herakles, and given by him to Adrastus.


Arion, a fabulous horse, which Poseidon begot by Demeter; for in order to escape from the pursuit of Poseidon, the goddess had metamorphosed herself into a mare, and Poseidon deceived her by assuming the figure of a horse. Demeter afterwards gave birth to the horse Arion, and a daughter whose name remained unknown to the uninitiated (Paus. viii. 25.4) According to the poet Antimachus this horse and Caerus were the offspring of Gaea; whereas, according to other traditions, Poseidon or Zephyrus begot the horse by a Harpy (Eustath. ad Hom; Quint. Smyrn. iv. 570). Another story related, that Poseidon created Arion in his contest with Athena (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 12). From Poseidon the horse passed through the hands of Copreus, Oncus, and Heracles, from whom it was received by Adrastus (Paus.; Hesiod. Scut. Here. 120).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Demeter and Poseidon

When Demeter was wandering in search of her daughter, she was followed, it is said, by Poseidon, who lusted after her. So she turned, the story runs, into a mare, and grazed with the mares of Oncius; realizing that he was outwitted, Poseidon too changed into a stallion and enjoyed Demeter. At first, they say, Demeter was angry at what had happened, but later on she laid aside her wrath and wished to bathe in the Ladon. So the goddess has obtained two surnames, Fury because of her avenging anger, because the Arcadians call being wrathful "being furious," and Bather (Lusia) because she bathed in the Ladon.


PRASSIES (Ancient city) LEONIDION

Semele and Dionysus

The inhabitants have a story, found nowhere else in Greece, that Semele, after giving birth to her son by Zeus, was discovered by Cadmus and put with Dionysus into a chest, which was washed up by the waves in their country. Semele, who was no longer alive when found, received a splendid funeral, but they brought up Dionysus. For this reason the name of their city, hitherto called Oreiatae, was changed to Brasiae after the washing up of the chest to land.


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Auge & Heracles


Passing by Tegea, Hercules debauched Auge, not knowing her to be a daughter of Aleus.1 And she [p. 255] brought forth her babe secretly and deposited it in the precinct of Athena. But the country being wasted by a pestilence, Aleus entered the precinct and on investigation discovered his daughter's motherhood. So he exposed the babe on Mount Parthenius, and by the providence of the gods it was preserved: for a doe that had just cast her fawn [p. 257] gave it suck, and shepherds took up the babe and called it Telephus.2 And her father gave Auge to Nauplius, son of Poseidon, to sell far away in a foreign land; and Nauplius gave her to Teuthras, the prince of Teuthrania, who made her his wife.
Commentary
  As to the story of Herakles, Auge, and Telephus, see Apollod. 3.9.1; Diod. 4.33.7-12; Strab. 13.1.69; Paus. 8.4.9, Paus. 8.47.4, Paus. 8.48.7, Paus. 8.54.6, Paus. 10.28.8; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 206; Hyginus, Fab. 99ff. The tale was told by Hecataeus (Paus. 8.4.9, Paus. 8.47.4), and was the theme of tragedies by Sophocles and Euripides. Different versions of the story were current among ancient writers and illustrated by ancient artists. One of these versions, which I omitted to notice in that place, ran as follows. On a visit to Delphi, king Aleus of Tegea was warned by the oracle that his daughter would bear a son who would kill his maternal uncles, the sons of Aleus. To guard against this catastrophe, Aleus hurried home and appointed his daughter priestess of Athena, declaring that, should she prove unchaste, he would put her to death. As chance would have it, Herakles arrived at Tegea on his way to Elis, where he purposed to make war on Augeas. The king entertained him hospitably in the sanctuary of Athena, and there the hero, flushed with wine, violated the maiden priestess. Learning that she was with child, her father Aleus sent for the experienced ferryman Nauplius, father of Palamedes, and entrusted his daughter to him to take and drown her. On their way to the sea the girl (Auge) gave birth to Telephus on Mount Parthenius, and instead of drowning her and the infant the ferryman sold them both to king Teuthras in Mysia, who, being childless, married Auge and adopted Telephus. See Alcidamas, Od. 14-16, pp. 179ff., ed. Blass (appended to his edition of Antiphon). This version, which represents mother and child as sold together to Teuthras, differs from the version adopted by Apollodorus, according to whom Auge alone was sold to Teuthras in Mysia, while her infant son Telephus was left behind in Arcadia and reared by herdsmen (Apollod. 3.9.1). The sons of Aleus and maternal uncles of Telephus were Cepheus and Lycurgus (Apollod. 3.9.1). Ancient writers do not tell us how Telephus fulfilled the oracle by killing them, though the murder is mentioned by Hyginus, Fab. 244 and a Greek proverb-writer (Paroemiographi Graeci, ed. Leutsch and Schneidewin, i. p. 212). Sophocles appears to have told the story in his lost play, The Mysians; for in it he described how Telephus came, silent and speechless, from Tegea to Mysia (Aristot. Poet. 1460a 32">P">Aristot. Poet. 1460a 32), and this silence of Telephus seems to have been proverbial. For the comic poet Alexis, speaking of a greedy parasite who used to gobble up his dinner without exchanging a word with anybody, says that, "he dines like speechless Telephus, answering all questions put to him only with nods" (Athenaeus x.18, p. 421 D). And another comic poet, Amphis, describing the high and mighty airs with which fish-mongers treated their customers in the market, says that it was a thousand times easier to get speech of a general than of a fish-monger; for if you addressed one of these gentry and, pointing to a fish, asked "How much?" he would not at first deign to look at you, much less speak to you, but would stoop down, silent as Telephus, over his wares; though in time, his desire of lucre overcoming his contempt of you, he would slap a bloated octopus and mutter meditatively, as if soliloquizing, "Sixpence for him, and a bob for the hammerfish." This latter poet explains incidentally why Telephus was silent; he says it was very natural that fish-mongers should hold their tongue, "for all homicides are in the same case," thus at once informing us of a curious point in Greek law or custom and gratifying his spite at the "cursed fish-mongers," whom he compares to the worst class of criminals. See Athenaeus vi.5, p. 224 DE. As Greek homicides were supposed to be haunted by the ghosts of their victims until a ceremony of purification was performed which rid them of their invisible, but dangerous, pursuers, we may conjecture that the rule of silence had to be observed by them until the accomplishment of the purificatory rite released them from the restrictions under which they laboured during their uncleanness, and permitted them once more to associate freely with their fellows. As to the restrictions imposed on homicides in ancient Greece, see Psyche's Task, 2nd ed. pp. 113ff.; Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, i.80, 83ff. The motive of the homicide's silence may have been a fear lest by speaking he should attract the attention, and draw down on himself the vengeance, of his victim's ghost. Similarly, among certain peoples, a widow is bound to observe silence for some time after her husband's death, and the rule appears to be based on a like dread of exciting the angry or amorous passions of her departed spouse by the sound of the familiar voice.

This extract is from: Apollodorus, Library and Epitome (ed. Sir James George Frazer, 1921). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Auge or Augeia, a daughter of Aleus and Neaera, was a priestess of Athena, and having become by Heracles the mother of a son, she concealed him in the temple of the goddess. In consequence of this profanation of the sanctuary, the country was visited by a scarcity; and when Aleus was informed by an oracle that the temple of Athena was profaned by something unholy, he searched and found the child in it, and ordered him to be exposed on mount Parthenion, where he was suckled by a stag (elaphos), whence the boy derived the name of Telephus. Auge was surrendered to Nauplius, who was to kill her, but he gave her to Teuthras, king of the Mysians, who made her his wife (Apollod. ii. 7.4, iii. 9.1). The same story is related with some modifications by Pausanias (viii. 4.6, 48.5), Diodorus (iv. 33), Hyginus (Fab. 99), and Tzetzes (ad Lycoph. 206;). Respecting her subsequent meeting with her son Telephus, see Telephus. Her tomb was shewn in the time of Pausanias (viii. 4.6) at Pergamus in Mysia. Auge was represented by Polygnotus in the Lesche of Delphi. (x. 28.4). Another mythical personage of this name, one of the Horae, occurs in Hyginus (Fab. 183).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The myth of Scephrus and Limon

Apollo and Artemis, they say, throughout every land visited with punishment all the men of that time who, when Leto was with child and in the course of her wanderings, took no heed of her when she came to their land. So when the divinities came to the land of Tegea, Scephrus, they say, the son of Tegeates, came to Apollo and had a private conversation with him. And Leimon, who also was a son of Tegeates, suspecting that the conversation of Scephrus contained a charge against him, rushed on his brother and killed him. Immediate punishment for the murder overtook Leimon, for he was shot by Artemis. At the time Tegeates and Maera sacrificed to Apollo and Artemis, but afterwards a severe famine fell on the land, and an oracle of Delphi ordered a mourning for Scephrus. At the feast of the Lord of Streets rites are performed in honor of Scephrus, and in particular the priestess of Artemis pursues a man, pretending she is Artemis herself pursuing Leimon.


Colonizations by the inhabitants

AZANIA (Ancient area) ARKADIA

Aezani (Cavdarhisar) Phrygia, Turkey.

When his sons grew up, Arcas divided the land between them into three parts, and one district was named Azania after Azan; from Azania, it is said, settled the colonists who dwell about the cave in Phrygia called Steunos and the river Pencalas. ( Paus. 8.4.3)
The Phrygians on the river Pencelas, and those who came to this land originally from the Azanians in Arcadia, show visitors a cave called Steunos, which is round, and handsome in its loftiness. It is sacred to the Mother, and there is an image of her. (Paus. 10.32.3)


Eponymous founders or settlers

AKONTION (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLIS

Acontes

Acontes or Acontius (Akontes or Akontios), a son of Lycaon, from whom the town of Acontium in Arcadia derived its name. (Apollod. iii. 8.1; Steph. Byz. s. v. Akontion.)


ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI

Aseatas

Son of Lycaon.


CHARISSIES (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Charisius

Charisius (Charisios), a son of Lycaon, to whom tradition ascribed the foundation of Charisiae in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 3.1; Steph. Byz. s. v.)


EMONIE (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Haemon

A son of Lycaon, and the reputed founder of Haemonia in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 44. 2; Apollod. iii. 8.1)


GORTYS (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Gortys

Gortys the son of Stymphalus founded the city Gortys on a river which is also called after him


IREA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Heraeeus

Son of Lycaon, founds Heraea.


KROMI (Ancient city) FALESSIA

Cromus

Son of Lycaon.


LYKOA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Lyceus

Son of Lycaon.


LYKOSSOURA (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Lycaon


Lycaon (Lukaon). A son of Pelasgus by Meliboea, the daughter of Oceanus, and king of Arcadia (Apollod. iii. 8.1). Others call him a son of Pelasgus by Cyllene (Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 1642), and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 11, 13) distinguishes between an elder and a younger Lycaon, the former of whom is called a son of Aezeus and father of Deianeira, by whom Pelasgus became the father of the younger Lycaon. The traditions about him place Lycaon in very different lights, for according to some, he was a barbarian who even defied the gods (Ov. Met. i. 198), while others describe him as the first civiliser of Arcadia, who built the town of Lycosura, and introduced the worship of Zeus Lycaeus. It is added that he sacrificed a child on the altar of Zeus, and that during the sacrifice he was changed by Zeus into a wolf (Paus. viii. 2.1; comp. Ov. Met. i. 237). By several wives Lycaon became the father of a large number of sons, some say fifty, and others only twenty-two; but neither their number nor their names are the same in all accounts (Apollod., Dionys. ll. cc.; Paus. viii. 3.1; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 313). The sons of Lycaon are said to have been notorious for their insolence and impiety, and Zeus visited them in the disguise of a poor man, with a view to punish them. They invited him to a repast, and on the suggestion of one of them, Maenalus, they mixed in one of the dishes set before him the entrails of a boy whom they had murdered. According to Ovid Zeus was recognised and worshipped by the Arcadian people, but Lycaon, after a vain attempt to kill the god, resolved to try him with the dish of human flesh (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 481; Eratosth. Catest. 8). However, Zeus pushed away the table which bore the horrible food, and the place where this happened was afterwards called Trapezus. Lycaon and all his sons, with the exception of the youngest (or eldest), Nyctimus, were killed by Zeus with a flash of lightning, or according to others, were changed into wolves (Ov., Tzetz. ll. cc.; Paus. viii. 3.1). Some say that the flood of Deucalion occurred in the reign of Nyctimus, as a punishment of the crimes of the Lycaonids (Apollod. l. c.).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Lycaon. A mythical king of Arcadia, son of Pelasgus and Meliboea (daughter of Oceanus) or Cyllene, and father of Callisto. He is said to have founded on Mount Lycaeum the town Lycosura, the oldest that the sun looked upon, and to have sacrificed a child to Zeus on the altar he had raised on the highest peak of the mountain, on account of which he was changed into a wolf. Another legend relates that he had fifty impious sons. When Zeus came to them in the guise of a beggar, in order to put their contempt of the gods to the test, they followed the advice of Maenalus, the eldest, and set before him the entrails of a boy which had been mixed with the sacrifice. The god, however, threw the table over and killed Lycaon and his sons with lightning, with the exception of Nyctimus, the youngest, whom Gaea saved by firmly holding the right hand of Zeus. During the reign of Nyctimus the deluge connected with the name of Deucalion covered the land as a punishment for the impiety of Lycaon and his sons.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks




MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Mantineus

Mantineus, a son of Lycaon, and the reputed founder of Mantineia. (Apollod. iii. 8. l; Paus. viii. 8. 4.)


MELENEES (Ancient city) IREA

Melaeneus

Son of Lycaon.


MENALOS (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Maenalus

Son of Lycaon, instigates his brothers to offer to Zeus human bowels mixed with the sacrifices.


ORCHOMENOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI

Orchomenos

Son of Lycaon.


PARORIA (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Paroreus

Son of Tricolonus.


PERETHEI (Ancient small town) VALTETSI

Peraethus

Son of Lycaon.


SOUMITIA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Sumateus

Son of Lycaon.


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Tegeates and Maera

Tegeates: Son of Lycaon, husband of Maera, his sons, his tomb. Maera: Daughter of Atlas, wife of Tegeates, her grave, her Dancing-ground.


Maera

Maera, a daughter of Atlas, was married to Tegeates, the son of Lycaon. Her tomb was shown both at Tegea and Mantineia in Arcadia. and Pausanias thinks that she was the same as the Maera whom Odysseus saw in Hades. (Paus. viii. 12. 4, 48. 4, 53. 1)


THYREON (Ancient city) TRIKOLONES

Thyraeus

Son of Lycaon.


TRIKOLONI (Ancient city) TRIKOLONES

Tricolonus

Son of Lycaon, father of Zoeteus and Paroreus.


YPSOUS (Ancient city) TRIKOLONES

Hypsus

Hypsus (Hupsos), a son of Lycaon. believed to have been the founder of Hypsus. (Paus. viii. 3.1, 35. 6)


ZITIA (Ancient city) GORTYS

Zoeteus

Son of Tricolonus.


Gods & demigods

ARKADIA (Ancient area) PELOPONNISOS

Pholos

Pholos was a Kentauros from whom Mt Pholoe in Arkadia received its name. He once entertained Herakles in his cave, but when the other Kentauroi attacked, he accidentally dropped one of Herakles poisonous arrows on his foot and died.


Rhoecus

Rhoecus (Rhoikos). A Centaur, who, in conjunction with Hylaeus, pursued Atalanta in Arcadia, but was killed by her with an arrow. The Roman poets call him Rhoetus, and relate that he was wounded at the nuptials of Pirithous.


Zeus Agathodaemon

Agathodaemon (Agathodaimon or Agathos Deos), the "Good God," a divinity in honour of whom the Greeks drank a cup of unmixed wine at the end of every repast. A temple dedicated to him was situated on the road from Megalopolis to Maenalus in Arcadia. Pausanias (viii. 36.3) conjectures that the name is a mere epithet of Zeus.


Hylaeus

Hylaeus, (Hulaios), that is, the woodman, the name of an Arcadian centaur, who was slain by Atalante, when, in conjunction with Rhoetus, he pursued her. (Apollod. iii. 9.2; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 221; Aelian, V. H. xiii. 1.) According to Propertius (i. 1, 13) Hylaeus had also attacked and severely wounded Meilanion, the lover of Atalante. (Comp. Ov. Ars Am. ii. 191.) According to some legends, Hylaeus fell in the fight against the Lapithae, and others again said that he was one of the centaurs slain by Heracles. (Virg. Geory. ii. 457; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 294; comp. Horat. Carm. ii. 12, 5.) One of the dogs of Actaeon likewise bore the name of Hylaeus. (Ov. Met. iii. 213.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KAOS (Ancient city) KONTOVAZENA

Zeus Causius

Causius (Kaousios), a surname of Asclepius, derived from Caus in Arcadia, where he was worshipped. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Kaous; comp. Paus. viii. 25.1)


KONDYLEA (Ancient location) LEVIDI

Artemis Apanchomene

Apanchomene, the strangled (goddess), a surname of Artemis, the origin of which is thus related by Pausanias (viii. 23.5). In the neighbourhood of the town of Caphyae in Areadia, in a place called Condylea, there was a sacred grove of Artemis Condyleatis. On one occasion when some boys were playing in this grove, they put a string round the goddess' statue, and said in their jokes they would strangle Artemis. Some of the inhabitants of Caphyae who found the boys thus engaged in their sport, stoned them to death. After this occurrence, all the women of Caphyae had premature births, and all the children were brought dead into the world. This calamity did not cease until the boys were honourably buried, and an annual sacrifice to their manes was instituted in accordance with the command of an oracle of Apollo. The surname of Condyleatis was then changed into Apanchomene.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LEVIDI (Small town) MANTINIA

Hymnia

Hymnia, (Humnia), a surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped throughout Arcadia. She had a temple between Orchomnenus and Mantineia, and her priestess was at first always a virgin, till after the time of Aristocrates it was decreed that she should be a married woman. (Paus. viii. 5.8, 12.3, 13.1, 4.)


LYKEON (Mountain) ARCADIA

Holy mountain, the place where Zeus was born

They (the Methydrians) allow that she (Rhea) gave birth to her son (Zeus) on some part of Mount Lycaeus.


Zeus

As the supreme lord of heaven, he was worshipped under the name of Olympian Zeus in many parts of Greece, but especially in Olympia, where the Olympian Games were celebrated in his honour. The cult of Zeus at the ancient seat of the oracle at Dodona recognized his character as dispenser of the fertilizing dew. Among the numerous mountaincults in the Peloponnesus, the oldest and most original was that of the Lycaean Zeus, on Mount Lycaeus in Arcadia, where human beings were actually sacrificed to him in propitiation.

This extract is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited April 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Zeus Lycaeus (Lukaios) or Lyceus

Lycaeus (Lukaios), sometimes also Lyceus, a surname of certain divinities worshipped on mount Lycaeum in Arcadia, as for instance Zeus, who had a sanctuary on it, in which the festival of the Lycaea was celebrated. No one was allowed to enter the temple, and if any one forced his way in, he was believed to stay within one year, and to lose his shadow (Paus. viii. 2. 1, 38. 4, &c.; Pind. Ol. xiii. 154). According to others those who entered it were stoned to death by the Arcadians, or were called stags, and obliged to take to flight to save their lives (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 39). Pan also was called the Lycaean, because he was born and had a sanctuary on mount Lycaeon (Paus. viii. 38. 4; Strab. viii.; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 16; Virg. Aen. viii. 344). Lycaeus also occurs as a surname of Apollo.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LYKOA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Artemis Lycoatis

Lycoatis (Lukoatis), a surname of Artemis, who had a temple at Lycoa, in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 36. 5.)


LYKOSSOURA (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Anytus

Anytus (Anutos), a Titan who was believed to have brought up the goddess Despoena. In an Arcadian temple his statue stood by the side of Despoena's. (Paus. viii. 37.3)


MEGALOPOLIS (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Zeus Agetor

Agetor, a surname given to several gods, for instance:
to Zeus at Lacedaemon (Stob. Serm. 42). The name seems to describe Zeus as the leader and ruler of men; but others think, that it is synonymous with Agamemnon,
to Apollo (Eurip. Med. 426) where however Elmsley and others prefer haletor,
to Hermes, who conducts the souls of men to the lower world. Under this name Hermes had a statue at Megalopolis (Paus. viii. 34).


Zeus Epopsius

Epopsius (Epopsios), that is, the superintendent, occurs as a surname of several gods, such as Zeus (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1124), Apollo (Hesych. s. v. ; comp. Soph. Philoct. 1040), and of Poseidon at Megalopolis. (Paus. viii. 30.1)


Maniae

Maniae (Maniai), certain mysterious divinities, who had a sanctuary in the neighbourhood of Megalopolis, in Arcadia, and whom Pausanias (viii. 34. 1) considered to be the same as the Eumenides.


MENALON (Mountain) LEVIDI

Pan Maenalius

Maenalius or Maenalides (Mainalios), a surname of Pan, derived from mount Maenalus in Arcadia, which was sacred to the god. (Paus. viii. 26. 2, 36. 5; Ov. Fast. iv. 650.)


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Apollo Agyieus

Agyieus, a surname of Apollo describing him as the protector of the streets and public places. As such he was worshipped at Acharnae (Paus. i. 31.3), Mycenae (ii. 19.7), and at Tegea (viii. 53.1). The origin of the worship of Apollo Agyieus in the last of these places is related by Pausanias.


Artemis Calliste

Calliste (Kalliste), a surname of Artemis, by which she was worshipped at Athens and Tegea. (Paus. i. 29.2, viii. 35.7.)


Ares Aphneius

Aphneius (Aphneios), the giver of food or plenty, a surname of Ares, under which he had a temple on mount Cnesius, near Tegea in Arcadia. Aereope, the daughter of Cepheus, became by Ares the mother of a son (Aerropus), but she died at the moment she gave birth to the child, and Ares, wishing to save it, caused the child to derive food from the breast of its dead mother. This wonder gave rise to the surname Aphneios. (Paus. viii. 44.6)


Ares Gynaecothoenas

Gynaecothoenas, (Gunaikothoinas), that is, " the god feasted by women," a surname of Ares at Tegea. In a war of the Tegeatans against the Lacedaemonian king Charillus, the women of Tegea made an attack upon the enemy from an ambuscade. This decided the victory. The women therefore celebrated the victory alone, and excluded the men from the sacrificial feast. This, it is said, gave rise to the surname of Apollo. (Paus. viii. 48.3)


Demeter & Cora Carpophori

Carpophori (Karpophoroi), the fruitbearers, a surname of Demeter and Cora, under which they were worshipped at Tegea (Paus. viii. 53.3). Demeter Carpophoros appears to have been worshipped in Paros also.


Heroes

ARKADIA (Ancient area) PELOPONNISOS

Aristaeus


Aristaeus

   Aristaeus, (Aristaios). A son of Apollo and Cyrene, was born in Libya. He afterwards went to Thrace, where he fell in love with Eurydice, the wife of Orpheus. The latter, while fleeing from him, perished by the bite of a serpent; whereupon the Nymphs, in anger, destroyed the bees of Aristaeus. The way in which he recovered his bees is related in the Fourth Georgic of Vergil. After his death he was worshipped as a god, on account of the benefits he had conferred upon mankind. He was regarded as the protector of flocks and shepherds, of vine and olive plantations; he taught men to keep bees, and averted from the fields the burning heat of the sun and other causes of destruction. He is said to have had the care of Dionysus when young.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Adristas

Teaches Arcas to spin wool.


MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Aechmagoras

Son of Herakles and Phialo.


Alcimedon

Alcimedon. An Arcadian hero, from whom the Arcadian plain Aleimedon derived its name. He was the father of Phillo, by whom Heracles begot a son, Aechmagoras, whom Alcimedon exposed, but Heracles saved. (Paus. viii. 12.2)


PALLANTION (Ancient city) TRIPOLI

Evander


   Evander (Euandros, "the good man"). A figure in Latin mythology. He was said to be the son of Hermes and an Arcadian nymph. Sixty years before the Trojan War he led a Pelasgian colony to Latium from Pallantium in Arcadia, and founded a city, Pallantium, near the Tiber, on the hill which was afterwards named after it the Palatine. Further it was said that he taught the rude inhabitants of the country writing, music, and other arts; and introduced from Arcadia the worship of certain gods, in particular of Pan, whom the Italians called Faunus, with the festival of the Lupercalia, which was held in his honour. Evander was worshipped at Rome among the heroes of the country, and had an altar on the Aventine Hill. But the whole story is evidently an invention of Greek scholars, who derived the Lupercalia from the Arcadian Lycaea. The name Euandros is perhaps a translation of the Italian Faunus, while Carmenta, his mother, is an ancient Italian goddess; but on this, see Nettleship, Lectures and Essays, pp. 50 foll.
    Pallas, the son of Evander, is in like manner a creation of the poets. In Vergil he marches, at the command of his father, to assist Aeneas, and falls in single combat with Turnus. Evander had also two daughters, Rome and Dyna.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Evander, (Euandros). A son of Hermes by an Arcadian nymph, a daughter of Ladon, who is called Themis or Nicostrata, and in Roman traditions Cannenta or Tiburtis. (Paus. viii. 43.2; Plnt. Quaest. Rom. 53; Dionys. A. R. i. 31; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 336.) Evander is also called a son of Echemus and Timandra. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 130.) About sixty years previous to the Trojan war, Evander is said to have led a Pelasgian colony from Pallantium in Arcadia into Italy. The cause of this emigration was, according to Dionysius, a civil feud among the people, in which the party of Evander was defeated, and therefore left their country of their own accord. Servius, on the other hand, relates that Evander had killed his father at the instigation of his mother, and that he was obliged to quit Arcadia on that account. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 51; comp. Ov. Fast. i. 480.) He landed in Italy on the banks of the Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, and was hospitably received by king Turnus. According to Servius (ad Aen. viii. 562), however, Evander took possession of the country by force of arms, and slew Herilus, king of Praeneste, who had attempted to expel him. He built a town Pallantium, which was subsequently incorporated with Rome, and from which the names of Palatium and Palatinus were believed to have arisen. (Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 53.) Evander is said to have taught his neighbours milder laws and the arts of peace and social life, and especially the art of writing, with which he himself had been made acquainted by Heracles (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 56), and music; he also introduced among them the worship of the Lycaean Pan, of Demeter, Poseidon, Heracles, and Nice. (Liv. i. 5; Dionys. i. 31, &c.; Ov. Fast. i. 471, v. 91; Paus. l. c.) Virgil (Aen. viii. 51) represents Evander as still alive at the time when Aeneias arrived in Italy, and as forming an alliance with him against the Latins. (Comp. Serv. ad Aen. viii. 157.) Evander had a son Pallas, and two daughters, Rome and Dyna. (Virg. Aen. viii. 574; Serv. ad Aen. i. 277; Dionys. i. 32.) He was worshipped at Pallantium in Arcadia, as a hero, and that town was subsequently honoured by the emperor Antoninus with several privileges. Evander's statue at Pallantium stood by the side of that of his son Pallas. At Rome he had an altar at the foot of the Aventine. (Paus. viii. 44.5; Dionys. l. c.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Apis

Son of Jason or of Phoroneus, accidentally killed by Aetolus, tyrant of Peloponnese, his sons drive Aetolus from Peloponnese, deemed a god, identified with Sarapis, his murder avenged by Argus.


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Telephos

Perseus Encyclopedia


   Telephus, Telephos. The son of Heracles and Auge, the daughter of King Aleus of Tegea, and priestess of Athene. As soon as he was born he was exposed by his grandfather, who was angry because his daughter had broken the vows of her office. In some accounts she was set adrift, like Danae, with her child and cast on the Mysian coast. In other versions of the story Telephus was reared by a hind (elaphos), and educated by King Corythus in Arcadia. On reaching manhood, he consulted the Delphic Oracle to learn his parentage, and was ordered to go to King Teuthras in Mysia. He there found his mother, and succeeded Teuthras on the throne of Mysia. He married Laodice or Astyoche, a daughter of Priam; and he attempted to prevent the Greeks from landing on the coast of Mysia. Dionysus, however, caused him to stumble over a vine, whereupon he was wounded by Achilles. Being informed by an oracle that the wound could only be cured by "the wounder," Telephus repaired to the Grecian camp; and as the Greeks had likewise learned from an oracle that without the aid of Telephus they could not reach Troy, Achilles cured Telephus by means of the rust of the spear by which he had been wounded. Telephus, in return, pointed out to the Greeks the road which they ought to take. According to one story, Telephus, in order to induce the Greeks to help him, went to Argos, and suatching Orestes from his cradle threatened to kill him unless Agamemnon would persuade Achilles to heal the wound.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Amphidamas

Amphidamas. A son of Lycurgus and Cleophile, and father of Antimache, who married Eurystheus (Apollod. iii. 9.2). According to Pausanias (viii. 4.6) and Apollonius Rhodius (i. 163) he was a son of Aleus, and consequently a brother of Lycurgus, Cepheus, and Auge, and took part in the expedition of the Argonauts. (Hygin. Fab. 14.)


Scephrus and Limon

Scephrus: Son of Tegeates, slain by his brother Limon, ceremonies performed in his honour. Limon: Son of Tegeates, slays his brother Scephrus, shot by Artemis.


Epochus

Son of Lycurgus, represented in gable of Athena Alea at Tegea.


THELPOUSSA (Ancient city) TROPEA

Autolaus

Bastard son of Arcas, finds and rears Aesculapius.


Heroines

MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Antinoe

Daughter of Cepheus, shifts site of Mantinea, her tomb.


Antinoe, a daughter of Cepheus. At the command of an oracle she led the inhabitants of Mantineia from the spot where the old town stood, to a place where the new town was to be founded. She was guided on her way by a serpent. She had a monument at Mantineia commemorating this event (Paus. viii. 8.3, 9.2). In the latter of these passages she is called Antonoe. Two other mythical personages of this name occur in Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 164 ; Paus. viii. 11.2.


Deomenia

Deomeneia, a daughter of Arcas, a bronze statue of whom was erected at Mantineia. (Paus. viii. 9.5)


Phialo

Daughter of Alcimedon, has child Aechmagoras by Herakles.


MENALOS (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Atalanta

Hesiod and some others have said that Atalanta was not a daughter of Iasus, but of Schoeneus; and Euripides says that she was a daughter of Maenalus, and that her husband was not Melanion but Hippomenes. And by Melanion, or Ares, Atalanta had a son Parthenopaeus, who went to the war against Thebes. (Apollodorus 3.9.2)


PARTHENION (Mountain) KORYTHIO

Atalante. In ancient mythology there occur two personages of this name, who have been regarded by some writers as identical, while others distinguish between them. Among the latter we may mention the Scholiast on Theocritus (iii. 40), Burmann (ad Ov. Met. x. 565), Spanheim (ad Callimach.), and Muncker (ad. Hygin. Fab. 99, 173, 185). K. O. Muller, on the other hand, who maintains the identity of the two Atalantes, has endeavoured to shew that the distinction cannot be carried out satisfactorily. But the difficulties are equally great in either case. The common accounts distinguish between the Arcadian and the Boeotian Atalante.
The Arcadian Atalante is described as the daughter of Jasus (Jasion or Jasius) and Clymene (Aelian, V. H. xiii. 1; Hygin. Fab. 99; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 216). Her father, who had wished for a son, was disappointed at her birth, and exposed her on the Parthenian (virgin) hill, by the side of a well and at the entrance of a cave. Pausanias (iii. 24.2) speaks of a spring near the ruins of Cyphanta, which gushed forth from a rock, and which Atalante was believed to have called forth by striking the rock with her spear. In her infancy, Atalante was suckled in the wilderness by a she-bear, the symbol of Artemis, and after she had grown up, she lived in pure maidenhood, slew the centaurs who pursued her, took part in the Calydonian hunt, and in the games which were celebrated in honour of Pelias. Afterwards, her father recognized her as his daughter; and when he desired her to marry, she made it the condition that every suitor who wanted to win her, should first of all contend with her in the foot-race. If he conquered her, he was to be rewarded with her hand, if not, he was to be put to death by her. This she did because she was the most swift-footed among all mortals, and because the Delphic oracle had cautioned her against marriage. Meilanion, one of her suitors, conquered her in this manner. Aphrodite had given him three golden apples, and during the race he dropped them one after the other. Their beauty charmed Atalante so much, that she could not abstain from gathering them. Thus she was conquered, and became the wife of Meilanion. Once when the two, by their embraces in the sacred grove of Zeus, profaned the sanctity of the place, they were both metamorphosed into lions. Hyginus adds, that Atalante was by Ares the mother of Parthenopaeus, though, according to others, Parthenopaeus was her son by Meilanion (Apollod. iii. 9.2; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 313; Athen. iii.).
For Boeotian Atalante see at Ancient Schoenus

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


SCHINOUS (Ancient city) VYTINA

Atalanta

Daughter of Iasus and Clymene or daughter of Schoeneus, exposed by her father, suckled by a shebear, a virgin huntress, kills two centaurs, hunts the Calydonian boar, wrestles with Peleus, races with her suitors, won by Melanion with golden apples, changed into a lion, mother of Parthenopaeus, shoots Calydonian boar, creates spring by striking rock with spear, A. with fawn, her race-course, in the Argo.


Atalanta: The Arcadian Version. Atalanta, daughter of Zeus and Clymene, was exposed by her father, who had desired male offspring only. She was suckled by a bear, until she was found and brought up by a party of hunters. Under their care she grew up to be a huntress--keen, swift, and beautiful. She took part in the Calydonian boarhunt, was the first who struck the boar, and received from Meleager the head and skin of the beast as the prize of victory. She is also associated with the voyage of the Argonauts. She turned a deaf ear to the entreaties of her numerous suitors; but at last she propitiated the wrath of Aphrodite by returning the faithful love of the beautiful Milanion, who had followed her persistently, and suffered and struggled for her. Their son was Parthenopaeus, one of the Seven against Thebes. Swinburne's poem, Atalanta in Calydon, gives a magnificent setting to the story. (more about Atalanta see Schinos, ancient city, Boeotia )

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Jan 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The Story of Atalanta

From the book:
Old Greek Stories by James Baldwin
Bringing Yesterday's Classics to Today's Children


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Marpessa

Surnamed Choera, woman of Tegea, fights bravely against Lacedaemonians.


Historic figures

AFIDANTES (Ancient city) TEGEA

Aphidas

Son of Arcas, joint ruler of Arcadia, king of Tegea, ‘lot of A.', his image at Delphi, his time.


AKAKISSION (Ancient city) MEGALOPOLI

Acacus

Acacus (Akakos), a son of Lycaon and king of Acacesium in Arcadia, of which he was believed to be the founder. (Paus. viii. 3.1; Steph. Byz. s. v. Akakesion.)


ARKADIA (Ancient area) PELOPONNISOS

Arcas (Arkas)

Son of Zeus by Callisto, his inventions, given by Zeus to Maia to bring up, Arcadia called after him, his sons, his grave, his bones fetched from Maenalus to Mantinea , image at Delphi.


Arcas (Arkas). The ancestor and eponymic hero of the Arcadians, from whom the country and its inhabitants derived their name. He was a son of Zeus by Callisto, a companion of Artemis. After the death or the metamorphosis of his mother (see Lycosura), Zeus gave the child to Maia, and called him Arcas. (Apollod. iii. 8.2) Arcas became afterwards by Leaneira or Meganeira the father of Elatus and Apheidas. (Apollod. iii. 9. Β§ 1.) According to Hyginus (Fab. 176, Poet. Astr. ii. 4) Arcas was the son of Lycaon, whose flesh the father set before Zeus, to try his divine character. Zeus upset the table (trapeza) which bore the dish, and destroyed the house of Lycaon by lightning, but restored Arcas to life. When Areas had grown up, he built on the site of his father's house the town of Trapezus. When Arcas once during the chase pursued his mother, who was metamorphosed into a she-bear, as far as the sanctuary of the Lycaean Zeus, which no mortal was allowed to enter, Zeus placed both of them among the stars, (Ov. Met. ii. 410) According to Pausanias (viii. 4.1), Arcas succeeded Nyctimus in the government of Arcadia, and gave to the country which until then had been called Pelasgia the name of Arcadia. He taught his subjects the arts of making bread and of weaving. He was married to the nymph Erato, by whom he had three sons, Elatus, Apheidas, and Azan, among whom he divided his kingdom. He had one illegitimate son, Autolaus, whose mother is not mentioned. The tomb of Arcas was shown at Mantineia, whither his remains had been carried from mount Maenalus at the command of the Delphic oracle. (Paus. viii. 9.2) Statues of Arcas and his family were dedicated at Delphi by the inhabitants of Tegea. (x. 9.3)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


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