Homeric world DARDANOS (Ancient city) TURKEY - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

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Homeric world (23)

Trojan leaders in the War

Aeneas

He was the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, leader along with the sons of Antenor, Archelachus and Acamas, of the Dardanians (Il. 2.820, 20.240), and was honoured as Hector (Il. 5.467, 11.58). He did not like Priam, perhaps, because Aeneas would succeed him to the throne of Troy and continue the royal generation of Dardanus, after the race of Priam would be lost (Il. 13.460, 20.307).

Aeneas, (Aineias). A Trojan hero, the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and born on Mount Ida. He was brought up at Dardania, in the house of Alcathous, the husband of his sister. At first he took no part in the Trojan war; and it was not till Achilles attacked him on Mount Ida, and drove away his flocks, that he led his Dardanians against the Greeks. Henceforth Aeneas and Hector appear as the great bulwarks of the Trojans against the Greeks. On more than one occasion Aeneas was saved in battle by the gods; Aphrodite carried him off when he was wounded by Diomedes, and Poseidon saved him when he was on the point of perishing by the hands of Achilles. Homer makes no allusion to the emigration of Aeneas after the capture of Troy, but, on the contrary, he evidently conceives Aeneas and his descendants as reigning at Troy after the extinction of the house of Priam; but later narratives relate that after the capture of Troy Aeneas withdrew to Mount Ida with his friends and the images of the gods, especially that of Pallas (Palladium); and that from thence he crossed over to Europe, and finally settled at Latium in Italy where he became the ancestral hero of the Romans. A description of the wanderings of Aeneas before he reached Latium is given by Vergil in his Aeneid. After visiting Epirus and Sicily, he was driven by a storm on the coast of Africa, where he met with Dido. He then sailed to Latium, where he was hospitably received by Latinus, king of the Aborigines. Here Aeneas founded the town of Lavinium, called after Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, whom he married. Turnus, to whom Lavinia had been betrothed, made war against Latinus and Aeneas. Latinus fell in the first battle, and Turnus was subsequently slain by Aeneas; whereupon, after the death of Latinus, Aeneas became sole ruler of the Aborigines and Trojans, and both nations were united into one. Soon after this Aeneas fell in battle against the Rutulians, who were assisted by Mezentius, king of the Etruscans. As his body was not found after the battle, it was believed that it had been carried up to heaven, or that he had perished in the river Numicius. The Latins erected a monument to him, with the inscription To the Father and Native God. Vergil represents Aeneas as landing in Italy seven years after the fall of Troy, and compresses all the events in Italy, from the landing to the death of Turnus, within the space of twenty days. The story of the descent of the Romans from the Trojans through Aeneas was believed at an early period, but rests on no historical foundation.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Dec 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aeneas (Aineias).
Homeric Story. Aeneas was the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and born on mount Ida. On his father's side he was a great-grandson of Tros, and thus nearly related to the royal house of Troy, as Priam himself was a grandson of Tros (Hom. Il. xx. 215, &c., ii. 820, v. 247, &c.; Hes. Theog. 1007, &c.). He was educated from his infancy at Dardanus, in the house of Alcathous, the husband of his sister (Il. [p. 31] xiii. 463, &c.). At the beginning of the war of the Greeks against Troy he did not take any part in it, and the poet intimates that there existed an ill feeling between him and Priam, who did not pay sufficient honour to Aeneas (Il. xiii. 460, &c., xx. 181). This probably arose from a decree of destiny, according to which Aeneas and his descendants were to rule over Troy, since the house of Priam had drawn upon itself the hatred of Cronion (Il. xx. 307). One day when Aeneas was tending his flocks on mount Ida, he was attacked by Achilles, who took his cattle and put him to flight. But he was rescued by the gods. This event, however, and the admonition of Apollo, roused his spirit, and he led his Dardanians against the Greeks (Il. xx. 89, &c., 190, &c., ii. 819, &c.). Henceforth he and Hector are the great bulwarks of the Trojans against the Greeks, and Aeneas appears beloved and honoured by gods and men (Il. xi. 58, xvi. 619, v. 180, 467, vi. 77, &c.). He is among the Trojans what Achilles is among the Greeks. Both are sons of immortal mothers, both are at feud with the kings, and both possess horses of divine origin (Il. v. 265, &c.). Achilles himself, to whom Hector owns his inferiority, thinks Aeneas a worthy competitor (Il. xx. 175). The place which Aeneas occupies among the Trojans is well expressed in Philostratus (Her. 13), who says that the Greeks called Hector the hand, and Aeneas the soul of the Trojans. Respecting the brave and noble manner in which he protects the body of his friend Pandarus, see Il. v. 299. On one occasion he was engaged in a contest with Diomedes, who hurled a mighty stone at him and broke his hip. Aeneas fell to the ground, and Aphrodite hastened to his assistance (Il. v. 305), and when she too was wounded, Apollo carried him from the field of battle to his temple, where he was cured by Leto and Artemis (Il. v. 345, &c.). In the attack of the Trojans upon the wall of the Greeks, Aeneas commanded the fourth host of the Trojans (Il. xii. 98). He avenged the death of Alcathous by slaying Oenomaus and Aphareus, and hastened to the assistance of Hector, who was thrown on the ground by Ajax. The last feat Homer mentions is his fight with Achilles. On this as on all other occasions, a god interposed and saved him, and this time it was by Poseidon, who although in general hostile towards the Trojans, yet rescued Aeneas, that the decrees of destiny might be fulfilled, and Aeneas and his offspring night one day rule over Troy (Il. xx. 178, &c., 305, &c.). Thus far only is the story of Aeneas to be gathered from the Homeric poems, and far from alluding to Aeneas having emigrated after the capture of Troy, and having founded a new kingdom in a foreign land, the poet distinctly intimates that he conceives Aeneas and his descendants as reigning at Troy after the extinction of the house of Priam (Comp. Strab. xiii. p. 608).
Later Stories. According to the Homeric hymn on Aphrodite (257, &c.), Aeneas was brought up by the nymphs of mount Ida, and was not taken to his father Anchises, until he had reached his fifth year, and then he was, according to the wish of the goddess, given out as the son of a nymph Xenophon (De Venat. 1.15) says, that he was instructed by Cheiron, the usual teacher of the heroes. According to the " Cypria," he even took part in carrying off Helen. His bravery in the war against the Greeks is mentioned in the later traditions as well as in the earlier ones (Hygin. Fab. 115; Philostr. l. c.). According to some accounts Aeneas was not present when Troy was taken, as he had been sent by Priam on an expedition to Phrygia, while according to others he was requested by Aphrodite, just before the fall of the city, to leave it, and accordingly went to mount Ida, carrying his father on his shoulders (Dion. Hal. i. 48). A third account makes him hold out at Troy to the last, and when all hopes disappeared, Aeneas with his Dardanians and the warriors of Ophrynium withdrew to the citadel of Pergamus, where the most costly treasures of the Trojans were kept. Here he repelled the enemy and received the fugitive Trojans, until he could hold out no longer. He then sent the people ahead to mount Ida, and followed them with his warriors, the images of the gods, his father, his wife, and his children, hoping that he would be able to maintain himself on the heights of mount Ida. But being threatened with an attack by the Greeks, he entered into negotiations with them, in consequence of which he surrendered his position and was allowed to depart in safety with his friends and treasures (Dionys. i. 46, &c.; Aelian, V. H. iii. 22; Hygin. Fab. 254). Others again related that he was led by his hatred of Paris to betray Ilion to the Greeks, and was allowed to depart free and safe in consequence (Dionys. l.c.). Livy (i. 1) states, that Aeneas and Antenor were the only Trojans against whom the Greeks did not make use of their right of conquest, on account of an ancient connexion of hospitality existing between them, or because Aeneas had always advised his countrymen to restore Helen to Menelaus (Comp. Strab. l. c.).
  The farther part of the story of Aeneas, after leaving mount Ida with his friends and the images of the gods, especially that of Pallas (Palladium, Paus. ii. 23.5) presents as many variations as that relating to the taking of Troy. All accounts, however, agree in stating that he left the coasts of Asia and crossed over into Europe. According to some he went across the Hellespont to the peninsula of Pallene and died there; according to others he proceeded front Thrace to the Arcadian Orchomenos and settled there (Strab. l. c.; Paus. viii. 12.5; Dionys. Hal. i. 49). By far the greater number of later writers, however, anxious to put him in connexion with the history of Latium and to make him the ancestorial hero of the Romans, state that he went to Italy, though some assert that the Aeneas who came to Italy was not the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, and others that after his arrival in Italy he returned to Troy, leaving his son Ascanius behind him (Lycophr. 1226, &c.; Dionys. i. 53; Liv. i. 1). A description of the wanderings of Aeneas before he reached the coast of Latium, and of the various towns and temples he was believed to have founded during his wanderings, is given by Dionysius (i. 50, &c.), whose account is on the whole the same as that followed by Virgil in his Aeneid, although the latter makes various embellishments and additions, some of which, as his landing at Carthage and meeting with Dido, are irreconcilable with chronology. From Pallene (Thrace), where Aeneas stayed the winter after the taking of Troy, and founded the town of Aeneia on the Thermaic gulf (Liv. xl. 4), he sailed with his companions to Delos, Cythera (where he founded a temple of Aphrodite), Boiae in Laconia (where be built Etis and Aphrodisias, Paus. iii. 22.9), Zacynthus (temple of Aphrodite), Leucas, Actiam, Ambracia, and to Dodona, where he met the Trojan Helenus. From Epirus he sailed across the Ionian sea to Italy, where he landed at the Iapygian promontory. Hence he crossed over to Sicily, where he met the Trojans, Elymus and Aegestus (Acestes), and built the towns of Elyme and Aegesta. From Sicily he sailed back to Italy, landed in the port of Palinurus, came to the island of Leucasia, and at last to the coast of Latium. Various signs pointed out this place as the end of his wanderings, and he and his Trojans accordingly settled in Latium. The place where they had landed was called Troy. Latinus, king of the Aborigines, when informed of the arrival of the strangers, prepared for war, but afterwards concluded an alliance with them, gave up to them a part of his dominions, and with their assistance conquered the Rutulians, with whom he was then at war. Aeneas founded the town of Lavinium, called after Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, whom he married. A new war then followed between Latinus and Turnus, in which both chiefs fell, whereupon Aeneas became sole ruler of the Aborigines and Trojans, and both nations united into one. Soon after this, however, Aeneas fell in a battle with the Rutulians, who were assisted by Mezentius, king of the Etruscans. As his body was not found after the battle, it was believed that it had been carried up to heaven, or that he had perished in the river Numicius. The Latins erected a monument to him, with the inscription To the father and native god (Jovi Indigeti, Liv. i. 2; Dionys. i. 64; Strab. v. p. 229, xiii. p. 595; Ov. Met. xiii. 623, &c., xiv. 75, &c., xv. 438, &c.; Conon, Narrat. 46; Plut. Rom. 3). Two other accounts somewhat different from those mentioned above are preserved in Servius (ad Aen. ix. 264, from the work of Abas on Troy), and in Tzetzes (ad Lycophr. 1252). Dionysius places the landing of Aeneas in Italy and the building of Lavinium about the end of the second year after the taking of Troy, and the death of Aeneas in the seventh year. Virgil on the other hand represents Aeneas landing in Italy seven years after the fall of Troy, and comprises all the events in Italy from the landing to the death of Turnus within the space of twenty days.
  The story about the descent of the Romans from the Trojans through Aeneas was generally received and believed at Rome at an early period, and probably arose from the fact, that the inhabitants of Latium and all the places which Aeneas was said to have founded, lay in countries inhabited by people who were all of the same stock -Pelasgians: hence also the worship of the Idaean Aphrodite in all places the foundation of which is ascribed to Aeneas. Aeneas himself, therefore, such as he appears in his wanderings and final settlement in Latium, is nothing else but the personified idea of one common origin. In this character he was worshipped in the various places which traced their origin to him (Liv. xl. 4). Aeneas was frequently represented in statues and paintings by ancient artists (Paus. ii. 21.2, v. 22.2; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10.36). On gems and coins he is usually represented as carrying his father on his shoulder, and leading his son Ascanius by the hand.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Sep 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Kings

Dardanus & Bateia or Arisbe

He was the son of Zeus and Electra, who came from Arcadia but went to Asia Minor, where he founded the city of Dardania (Il. 20.215 & 304).

Dardanus, (Dardanos). The son of Zeus and Electra, the mythical ancestor of the Trojans, and through them of the Romans. The Greek traditions usually made him a king in Arcadia, from whence he emigrated first to Samothrace, and afterwards to Asia, where he received a tract of land from King Teucer, on which he built the town of Dardania. His grandson Tros removed to Troy the Palladium, which had belonged to his grandfather. According to the Italian traditions, Dardanus was the son of Corythus, an Etruscan prince of Corythus (Cortona); and, as in the Greek tradition, he afterwards emigrated to Phrygia.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Dardanus, (Dardanos), a son of Zeus and Electra, the daughter of Atlas. He was the brother of Jasus, Jasius, Jason, or Jasion, Aetion and Harmonia, and his native place in the various traditions is Arcadia, Crete, Troas, or Italy (Serv. ad Virg. Aen. iii. 167). Dardanus is the mythical ancestor of the Trojans, and through them of the Romans. It is necessary to distinguish between the earlier Greek legends and the later ones which we meet with in the poetry of Italy. According to the former, he was married to Chryse,the daughter of Palas, in Arcadia, who bore him two sons, Idaeus and Deimas. These sons ruled for a time over the kingdom of Atlas in Arcadia, but then they separated on account of a great flood, and the calamities resulting from it. Deimas remained in Arcadia, while Idaeus emigrated with his father, Dardanus. They first arrived in Samothrace, which was henceforth called Dardania, and after having established a colony there, they went to Phrygia. Here Dardanus received a tract of land from king Teucrus, on which he built the town of Dardanus. At his marriage with Chryse, she had brought him as a dowry the palladia and sacra of the great gods, whose worship she had learned, and which worship Dardanusintroducedinto Samothrace, though without making the people acquainted with the names of the gods. Servius (ad Aen. viii. 285) states, that he also instituted the Salii in Samothrace. When he went to Phrygia he took the images of the gods with him; and when, after forming the plan of founding a town, he consulted the oracle, he was told, among other things, that the town should remain invincible as long as the sacred dowry of his wife should be preserved in the country under the protection of Athena. After the death of Dardanus those palladia (others mention only one palladium) were carried to Troy by his descendants. When Chryse died, Dardanus married Bateia, the daughter of Teucrus, or Arisbe of Crete, by whom he became the father of Erichthonius and Idaea. (Hom. Il. xx. 215, &c.; Apollod. iii. 12.1, &c., 15.3; Dionys. i. 61, &c.; Lycophr. 1302; Eustath. ad Il.; Conon. Narr. 21; Strab. vii.; Paus. vii. 4.3, 19.3; Diod. iv. 49; Serv. ad Aen. i. 32.)
  According to the Italian traditions, Dardanus was the son of Corythus, an Etruscan prince of Corythus (Cortona), or of Zeus by the wife of Corythus. (Serv. ad Aen. ix. 10, vii. 207.) In a battle with the Aborigines, Dardanus lost his helmet (korus); and although he was already beaten, he led his troops to a fresh attack, in order to recover his helmet. He gained the victory, and called the place where this happened Corythus. He afterwards emigrated with his brother Jasius from Etruria. Dardanus went to Phrygia, where he founded the Dardanian kingdom, and Jasius went to Samothrace, after they had previously divided the Penates between themselves. (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 15, 167, 170, vii. 207, 210.) There are four other mythical personages of the name of Dardanus. (Hom. Il. xx. 459; Eustath. ad Il, 1697; Paus. viii. 24.2.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Arisbe, a daughter of Teucer and wife of Dardanus. She was a native of Crete, and some traditions stated that it was this Arisbe who gave the name to the town of Arisbe (Steph. Byz. s. v.; Lycophr. 1308). According to others, Bateia was the wife of Dardanus (Apollod. iii. 12.1; comp. Eustath. ad Hom.).

Bateia, a daughter of Teucer or of Tros (Steph. Byz. s. v. Dardanos), the wife of Dardanus, and mother of Ilus and Erichthonius. The town of Bateia in Troas was believed to have derived its name from her (Arrian, ap. Eustath. ad Horn.). Tzetzes (ad Lycoph. 29) calls her a sister cf Scamander, the father of Teucer by the nymph Idaea; and in another passage (ad Lycoph. 1298) he calls the daughter of Teucer, who married Dardanus, by the name of Arisbe, and describes Erichthonius as her son, and Ilus as her grandson. A Naiad of the name of Bateia occurs in Apollodorus (iii. 10.4).

Deimas, a son of Dardanus and Chryse, who when his family and a part of the Arcadian population emigrated, remained behind in Arcadia. (Dion. Hal. i.61.)

Erichthonius & Astyoche

Erichthonius was the son of Dardanus and Bateia and father of Tros (Il. 20.220 etc.). Astyoche, the daughter of Simoeis, was his wife.

Erichthonius, son of Dardanus and Bateia. He was the husband of Astyoche or Callirrhoe, and father of Tros or Assaracus, and the wealthiest of all mortals, for 3000 mares grazed in his fields, which were so beautiful, that Boreas fell in love with them. He is mentioned also among the kings of Crete. (Hom. Il. xx. 220, &c.; Apollod. iii. 12.2; Dionys. i. 62; Ov. Fast. iv. 33; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 130 Strab. xiii.)

Tros & Callirrhoe

He was the son of Erichthonius by Astyoche, grandson of Dardanus and husband of Callirrhoe, who bore to him Ilus, Assaracus and Ganymedes (Il. 20.230). Troas was named after him.

Tros. The son of Erichthonius and Astyoche, and grandson of Dardanus. He was married to Callirrhoe, by whom he became the father of Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes, and was king of Phrygia. The country and people of Troy derived their name from him. He gave up his son Ganymedes to Zeus for a present of horses.

Capys

He was the son of Assaracus and father of Anchises (Il. 20.239).

Capys (Kapus), a son of Assaracus and Hieromnemone, and father of Anchises. (Apollod. iii. 12.2; Hom. Il. xx. 239; Virg. Aen. vi. 768; Diod. iv. 75.)

Anchises

He was the king of Dardania, son of Capys and nymph Themis, father of Aeneas by Aphrodite and of Hippodameia (Il. 2.819, 13.429. 20.329).

Anchises. The son of Capys, of the royal house of Troy by both parents, ruler of Dardanus, on Mount Ida. Aphrodite loved him for his beauty, and bore him a son, Aeneas; but having, in spite of her warnings, boasted of her favour, he was (according to various versions of the story) paralyzed, killed, or struck blind by the lightning of Zeus. Vergil represents the disabled chief as borne out of burning Troy on his son's shoulders, and as sharing his wanderings over the sea, and aiding him with his counsel, till they reach Drepanum, in Sicily, where he dies, and is buried on Mount Eryx.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Anchises, a son of Capys and Themis, the daughter of Ilus. His descent is traced by Aeneas, his son (Hom. Il. xx. 208,&c.), from Zeus himself (Comp. Apollod. iii. 12.2 ; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 1232) .Hyginus (Fab. 94) makes him a son of Assaracus and grandson of Capys. Anchises was related to the royal house of Troy and king of Dardanus on mount Ida. In beauty he equalled the immortal gods, and was beloved by Aphrodite, by whom he became the father of Aeneas (Hom. Il. ii. 820; Hes. Theog. 1008; Apollod. Hygin. ll. cc). According to the Homeric hymn on Aphrodite (45, &c.), the goddess had visited him in the disguise of a daughter of the Phrygian king Otreus. On parting from him, she made herself known, and announced to him that he would be the father of a son, Aeneas, but she commanded him to give out that the child was a son of a nymph, and added the threat that Zeus would destroy him with a flash of lightning if he should ever betray the real mother. When, therefore, on one occasion Anchises lost control over his tongue and boasted of his intercourse with the goddess, he was struck by a flash of lightning, which according to some traditions killed, but according to others only blinded or lamed him (Hygin. l. c.; Serv. ad Aen. ii. 648). Virgil in his Aeneid makes Anchises survive the capture of Troy, and Aeneas carries his father oil his shoulders from the burning city, that he might be assisted by his wise counsel during the voyage, for Virgil, after the example of Ennius, attributes prophetic powers to Anchises (Aen. ii. 687). According to Virgil, Anchises died soon after the first arrival of Aeneas in Sicily, and was buried on mount Eryx (Aen. iii. 710, v. 759, &c.). This tradition seems to have been firmly believed in Sicily, and not to have been merely an invention of the poet, for Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 53) states, that Anchises had a sanctuary at Egesta, and the funeral games celebrated in Sicily in honour of Anchises seem to have continued down to a late period (Ov. Fast. iii. 543). According to other traditions Anchises died and was buried in Italy (Dionys. i. 64 ; Strab. v.; Aurel. Vict. De Orig. Gent. Rom. 10, &c.). A tradition preserved in Pausanias (viii. 12.5) states, that Anchises died in Arcadia, and was buried there by his son at the foot of a hill, which received from him the name of Anchisia. There were, however, some other places besides which boasted of possessing the tomb of Anchises; for some said, that he was buried on mount Ida, in accordance with the tradition that he was killed there by Zeus (Eustath. ad Hom.), and others, that he was interred in a place on the gulf of Thermus near the Hellespont (Conon, 46). According to Apollodorus (iii. 12.2), Anchises had by Aphrodite a second son, Lyrus or Lyrnus, and Homer (Il. xiii. 429) calls Hippodameia the eldest of the daughters of Anchises, but does not mention her mother's name. An Anchises of Sicyon occurs in Il. xxiii. 296.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Anchisiades, a patronymic from Anchises, used to designate his son Aeneas (Hom. Il. xvii. 754; Virg. Aen. vi. 348), and, Echepolus, the son of Anchises of Sicyon. (Hom. Il. xxiii. 296.)

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