FERES (Ancient city) RIGAS FERAIOS
The tyrants of Pherae, Lycophron and Peitholaus, who were destitute of allies after the death of Onomarchus, gave Pherae over to Philip, while they themselves, being protected by terms of truce, brought together their mercenaries to the number of two thousand, and, having fled with these to Phayllus, joined the Phocians as allies. (Diod.+16.37, fr.12-16)
In 403 B.C.
The 1453 B.C.
IOLKOS (Ancient city) VOLOS
Iolcos. City of southern Thessalia. Iolcos was famous for being the birthplace of Jason, the leader of the Argonauts in their quest for the Golden Fleece.
Iolcos was founded by Cretheus, a son of Aeolus. Cretheus married his niece Tyro, whom he had raised in his house. Aeson is the son of Cretheus who succeeded his father on the throne of Iolcos. He married Polymede, the daughter of Autolycus and, from her, had a son named Jason. But Pelias and Neleus both wanted Aeson's throne. In their fight for the throne, Pelias won and became king of Iolcos. Pelias married Anaxibia, daughter of his nephew Bias, and had a son named Acastus.
Meanwhile, Jason was being raised in Mount Pelion (a mountain near Iolcos) by Chiron the wise Centaur until he was old enough to go back to Iolcos claim the kingdom of his father. But when he did come, dressed with a panther's hide, and with a bare left foot, Pelias, reminded of an oracle that had told him to be wary of the man wearing one single shoe, sent him in an expedition to bring him the Golden Fleece back from Colchis, hoping that he would die along the way.
Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1999), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.
ALONISSOS (Island) NORTH SPORADES
Tradition holds that the Cretans,with the mythical hero Staphylos as their leader, established colonies on Peparithos and on Ikos, in the 16th century B.C.during the Minoan domination of the Aegean Sea.
The Minoan colony later acquired a Mycenean character. The Mycenean city stood on the site today known as Kokkinokastro, on the easter side of the island. However, it is historically ascertained that the Geometric period finds Ikos under the domination of the Dolopes. In time the Dolopes turned in to dangerous pirates and became the scourge of the Aegean. The Athenian navy later on set out to confront them, under the leadership of Cimon, who routed them and annexed all the islands to Athens. Thus, in 476 B.C. the island joins the first Athenian Alliance.
During the classical period Ikos must have contained two cities. one of them was probably located at Kokkinokastro, where ruins of the wall remain till today and the other one on the site where the Village of Horio or Old Alonissos stands today. During this period the island was renowned for its vineyards and its exceptional wine.
In 190 B.C. the island was taken by the Roman navy. After this point there is no further information on the history of Ikos until the occupation of Constantinople by the Franks in 1204 A.D. when both Constantinople and the other neighbouring islands pass in to the hands of the Venetian.
Togethet with Skopelos, Alonissos is occupied by successive conquerors. After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, in 1453, the islands are turned over to the Venetians. They remained Venetian until 1538, when the Turkish navy, under the leadership of Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa, imposed Turkish authority.
During the Greek revolution of 1821 and the first years of independence of Greek Nation, Greeks from different parts of Greece took refuge on Alonissos. These people, along with the natives of the island compose the present population of Alonissos.
This text is cited Mar 2003 from the Municipality of Alonissos URL below, which contains image.
MAKRINITSA (Village) VOLOS
At the slopes of Pelion, this devine shadowy mountain, Makrinitsa is resting sluggishly. It's a major village well known for its panoramic view to Pagasitikos Gulf and Volos, its unique architectural features, its magnificent mansions and houses, its churches, water fountains and paths. Makrinitsa was built between 1204 and 1215 by the Byzantine family of Malliasinon.
This small settlement, that appeared in the first centuries of Turkish ryle, developed economic activities in both the Balkans and Europe by cultivating silkworms and working out leather. In 1878, Makrinitsa plays a leading role in the Revolution against the Turks. At the same time, Margarita Basdeki - chief of troops - excels for her courage in fight. After the liberation from the Turks, Makrinitsa turns to be the largest municipality in the area in extent, population and activities. By the end of the 2nd World war Makrinitsa's rural character changes thanks to tourism that opened new horizons for its inhabitants.
This text is cited September 2004 from the Community of Makrinitsa URL below, which contains images
SKIATHOS (Island) NORTH SPORADES
Prehistoric times (-1100 B.C.)
Our earliest information about the history of Skiathos comes from the "Travels"of an anonymous writer, previously thought to have been the geographer Skymnos of Chios. According to the writer of "Travels" then, the island was inhabited in prehistoric times by the Pelasgians, a pre-hellenic tribe which came down from Thrace. It is possible, though, that before the Pelasgian settlement in Skiathos, the island may have been inhabited by Careans who, as the historian Thucydides tells us, settled in many Greek islands during those times. However, it is likely that the island was inhabited by other peoples, too, after the Pelasgian settlement. Amongst these, for instance, there may have been Cretans who, we know, had occupied neighbouring Peparithos (or Skopelos, as it is called today). This hypothesis is supported by the fact that one of the names by which the god Dionysos was called in the islands occupied by the Cretans was "Skiathos" - an adjective which bears a very close resemblance to the name of the island. Finally, it is also probable that Thessalians, of the Mycenean age, had settled on Skiathos.
Early and Classical times (1100-338 B.C.)
After these ancient settlers, the islands were inhabited by the Chalcedeans. These were Ionians who came to Skiathos during the period of their colonizing activities from the 8th century on. They seem to have arrived on the island during the 7th or 6th century, on their way to found colonies in Chalcidice (Macedonia). They built their town on the southeastern side of the harbour, on a height, where it could command a view and control the large bay and the inner double harbour. The town was encircled by a wall of square marble blocks, large and rough-hewn, and two gates assured communication with the hinterl and and the harbour. This town survived all through the Classical, Hellenistic and Byzantine periods, until the time when the medieval town, the Kastro (fortress) was built on the northern side of the island.
Skiathos reappears on the historical scene during the Persian wars. As the historian Herodotus tells us, in 480 B.C.,when the Persian fleet was sailing down from Thessaloniki, the Greeks awaiting it at Artemision in Euboea, were warned by lighted torches on Skiathos. It seems that, during this period, Skiathos helped the Greeks and was perhaps one of the few cities which did not go over to the Medes. When the 1st Athenian Alliance -known as the Delian Alliance was founded in 478/7, Skiathos took the side of the Athenians. Allied towns were divided into regions for tax-collecting purposes and from the "taxation lists", still pre-served in attic inscriptions, we can see that Skiathos was included in the Thracian region and paid 1.000 drachmae a year - a very small sum, which indicates that Skiathos was poor at the time. During the period of the Athenian Alliance, Skiathos had its own democratic and autonomous administration, as did the other allied cities. That is, it had its own Boule (administrative/legislative council, its citizens' assembly ("ecclesia"), and an eponymous archon (member of the executive in office for a year,and whose name was used to designate that year). In the end, however, the alliance developed into an hegemony with the Athenians exercising dominance over their allies and an authoritarian form of goverment.
At the end of the Peloponnesian war in 404 B.C., when the Athenians were defeated by the Spartans, Skiathos came under the rule of Sparta and her system of goverment became that of an oligarchy. In 386 B.C. during the Antalcidean or Basilean peace, in accordance with which all the islands with the exception of Limnos, Imbros and Skyros where the Athenians allotted holdings to settlers - were granted their autonomy,Skiathos, too, was officially declared independent. The Spartans, however, violated the peace treaty and soon seized Skiathos again, together with other islands,where they left a garrison and imposed heavy taxes.
In 378/7 B.C., Athens established the 2nd Athenian Alliance, a genuinely defensive alliance this time, with the aim of opposing the expansionist intentions of the Spartans. Skiathos once again ranged itself with Athens, following the campaign of general Chabrias in Euboea and the Northern Sporades in 377 B.C. Skiathos remained in the 2nd Athenian Alliance with its autonomy and democratic institutions, approximately 40 years. And it seems that during this period, the island's financial situation improved so much that it was able, towards the middle of the 4th century B.C., to mint bronze coins with the head of Hermes on one side and his caduceus (staff) with the word CKIAΘI in the other. Later, the island was used by the Athenians as a naval port and a base for its expeditions against Philip II of Macedonia.
In 338 B.C., after the battle of Chaeronea, which virtually brought to an end the independence of the southern Greekstates and marked the beginning ofMacedonian domination, Skiathos came under Macedonian rule .
Hellenistic and Roman times (338 B.C. - 330 A.D.)
The Macedonians established an oligarchic system of government in Skiathos and the island remained undisturbed for , many years. Historically, it emerges again from the time of Philip V (238-279 B.C.), the Macedonian king who was, at that time, at war with the Romans. This was a troubled period for the island, as the surrounding areas became scenes of battle. When the 2nd Macedonian war began, in 200/199 B.C., Philip ordered Skiathos and Skopelos to be destroyed to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy fleet and being used against him. And indeed, in the same year, the Roman fleet, together with that of Attalus I of Pergamum,who was an ally of Rome, arrived on the island, and plundered whatever was left after Philip's raid. Despite the great extent of the destruction, the town quickly recovered and, following Philip's defeat at Kynos Kephales in 197 B.C., democracy was again restored. When the Macedonian Kingdom was overthrown in 168 B.C., the Romans granted a degree of freedom to the Greek cities and states.
Finally, however in 146 B.C., the whole of Greece was subjugated by the Romans and Skiathos followed the fate of the rest of the country. In 42 B.C., after the battle of Philippi the victor, Antony, handed over Skiathos along with some other islands to the Athenians, as a token of gratitude for their friendly attitude towards him. Skiathos thus re-established its democratic regime, along with the Athenians, and retained it well into the years following the birth of Christ.
The Byzantine period and Venetian rule (330-1538 A.D.)
The information we have on Shiathos during the first years of the Byzantine period is extremely scanty. All we know is that, administratively, it belonged to the province of Thessaly, which constituted part of a Macedonian "theme" (military district) and that, with the propagation of Christianity on the island, an episcopate ( bishopric ) was created under the Metropolitan Bishop of Larissa. In 758 A.d., during the reign of Constantine Copronymus, the Byzantine fleet anchored in Skiathos harbour, whence it sped to the rescue of Thessalonica, where a Bulgarian and Slav attack was imminent . During the 7th century A.D., Skiathos suffered much from Saracen pirate raids in the Aegean.
Following the overthrow of the Byzantine Empire by the Franks, in 1204, and concession of the Aegean islands to the Venetians, Skiathos, Skopelos and islands of the Cyclades were taken over by the brothers Andrea and Jeremia Ghisi, Venetian merchants. The Ghisi brothers granted Skiathos self-deterrnination, and several privileges, which are listed in the well-known "Capitula Sciati et Scopuli", and which were still in effect during the 2nd period of Venetian rule. However, they abolished the Orthodox episcopate. They built a new fortress called Bourtzi in the great harbour for their residence and for the security of the town.
The Ghisi brothers ruled the islands until 1259, their successors continuing for a further 17 years, until 1276, when the Byzantine fleet drove them out of the N. Sporades. Skiathos remained within the Byzantine state until 1453. Byzantine rule, however, was rather nominal, as the pirate raids that plagued the Aegean at that time did not allow Constantinople to make its presence effectively felt on the islands which it had reclaimed. It thus appears that around the middle of the 14th century, the people of Skiathos, desperate following the continous raids on the island, both of pirates and of Turks, abandoned their coastal town and built a new, safer one - the Kastro ("fortress',) on the northern side of the island, on a steep rock which constituted a naturat fortress.
When Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, the people of Skiathos chose Venetian rule, realising that Venice would from then on be their only possible protection against the Turks. They therefore asked the Venetians to take over the island on the condition, however, that they would confirm the privileges that the Ghisi brothers had give the island, and that the see of the Orthodox bishop would remain there, reguests which were granted. Thus began the second period of Venetian rule in Skiathos, which lasted until 1538. The life of the island, however, did not seem to improuve.
The pirate raids continued and Venetian rules were so harsh, that when, in 1538, the fortress was besieged by Barbarossa, some of the inhabitants, in order to rid themeselves of the tyranny of the Venetians, did not hesitate to surrender it to him. The period of Turkish domination (1538-1821) The Turkish domination of Skiathos began in 1538 officially in 1540 - when the Turco-Venetian peace treaty was signed. During this period the island was ruled by a Turkish governor the voivode, who was assisted by the elders of the town one or two initially, but later more - who were elected each year. Skiathos along with the other islands of the Aegean, belonged to the Kapudan Pacha that is to the admiral of the Turkish fleet. Each year, the inhabitants paid a certain amount of money as "harach" or tax. There was also a cadi (jude) for legal affairs, an «agha» for administrative affairs and "zambites" who collected the taxes. There were also quite a few Turks living on the island at that time. The inhabitants of Skiathos, as was the case with all the other islanders generally, were requisitioned to serve for a period in the Turkish navy. Later this compulsory service was converted into a contribution in money, the "melachica" . However, in the years before the Greek War of Independence, impressment was again brought into effect.
In the mid-17th century, in the year 1660, the Venetian admiral, Francesco Morosini, seized the Kastro and Venetian rule was re-established for the third time. Not for long, however, as the Turks soon took the Kastro again. Thus their domination continued until the beginning of the Greek War of Independence. The Turkish population of Skiathos gradually dwindled. The office of voivode was bought by the locals and there were often no other Turkish officials on the island. Their functions were thus performed by the elders, who gradually acquired more rights. The inhabitants, however continued to suffer pirate raids which still harried them relentlessly. In spite of their trials, the islanders did not lose their interest in navigation.
From the beginning of the 18th century,the people of Skiathos began to build small ships and carry on transportation and commerce with the surrounding areas. Later, on larger ships, they sailed as far as Egypt and the Black Sea. The longing for freedom, however, was still alive in the hearts of the islanders. Thus, in 1770, they took part in the victo- rious sea battle of Chesme,alongside the Russian admiral Alexis Orlov, and soon afterwards they contributed men and ships to the legendary sea-captain, Lambros Katsonis, who was active against the Turks at the time. In later years (1805-1816) Skiathos effectively helped the chieftains of Mt. Olympus, Giannis Stathas and Nikotsaras, who, after Orlov's revolt had been quashed, continued the fight against the Turks with raids on Turkish shores and attacks on Turkish ships.
An act of great importance both for the island and the whole of Greece was the creation and raising of the first official Greek flag in September 1807, at the holy convent of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary, in Skiathos.
The Greek War of Independence (1821)
In spite of the fact that it was far from the entre of military operations and thus an easy prey for the Turkish fleet, Skiathos soon joined the ranks of those fighting for Idependence. At that time, it possessed a good number of fully equipped ships, with trained and experienced crews, from the previous sea battles in which they had taken part up until 1816 with the Olympus chieftains. The ships from Skiathos contributed greatly to the War of Independence. At that time many people who had to flee from their homelands when the revoluonary efforts failed, found refuge in Skiathos. An estimated 30,000 refugees from the Pelion villages, from Mt. Olympus, Euboea and Epirus arrived on the island. This influx of population in a restricted space caused problems, as shelter and food became scarce. Many of the people were armed, and it was not long before fighting broke out and anarchy began to reign. The island was plagued for years by violence and looting, the main offenders being men of Albanian descent ("Liapides") who remained on Skiathos even when most of the refugees had returned to their homelands or settled in safer areas. In 1823 the Turks tried to take the island again but were utterly defeated. In 1829, after the signing of the Protocol of London, on which was based the founding of the Greek state - which, however, remained tributary to the Sultan the inhabitants of Skiathos abandoned the Kastro and resettled along the harbour, where the ancient town had stood.
This text is cited Sep 2002 from the Municipality of Skiathos URL below, which contains images.
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